1.McLaughlin W, Shillington A, Rich S. Survival in primary pulmonary hypertension: the impact of epoprostenol therapy. Circulation 2002;106:1477–1482.
2.Sitbon O, Humbert M, Nunes H, et al.Long-term intravenous epoprostenol infusion in primary pulmonary hypertension: prognostic factors and survival. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:780–788.
3.Tapson VF, Gomberg-Maitland M, McLaughlin W, et al.Safety and efficacy of IV treprostinil for pulmonary arterial hypertension: a prospective, multicenter, open-label, 12-week trial. Chest 2006;129:683–688.
4.Kallen AJ, Lederman E, Balaji A, et al.Bloodstream infections in patients given treatment with intravenous prostanoids. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:342–349.
5.McGee DC, Gould MK. Current concepts: preventing complications of central venous catheterization. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1123–1133.
6.Oudiz RJ, Widlitz A, Beckmann XJ, et al.Micrococcus-associated central venous catheter infection in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Chest 2004;126:90–94.
7.Edwards JR, Peterson KD, Andrus ML, et al.National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Report, data summary for 2006, issued June 2007. Am J Infect Control 2007;35:290–301.
8.Decker MD, Edwards KM. Central venous catheter infections. Pediatr Clin North Am 1988;35:579–612.
9.Mpureau N, Poole S, Murdock MA, Gray SM, Semba CP. Central venous catheters in home infusion care: outcomes analysis in 50,470 patients. J Vase Interv Radiol 2002;13:1009–1016.
10.van Hoff J, Berg AT, Seashore JH. The effect of right atrial catheters on infectious complications of chemotherapy in children. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:1255–1262.
11.Akagi S, Matsubara H, Ogawa A, et al.Prevention of catheter-related infections using a closed hub system in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Circ J 2007;71:559–564.
12.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Bloodstream infections among patients treated with intravenous epoprostenol or intravenous treprostinil for pulmonary arterial hypertension—seven sites, United States, 2003-2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2007;56:170–172.
13.Crnich CJ, Maki DG. The promise of novel technology for the prevention of intravascular device-related bloodstream infection. II. Long-term devices. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:1362–1368.
14.Salzman MB, Rubin LG. Relevance of the catheter hub as a portal for microorganisms causing catheter-related bloodstream infections. Nutrition 1997;13(Suppl 4):15S–17S.
15.Martin GS, Mannino DM, Eaton S, Moss M. The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1546–1554.
16.O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, et al; Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23:759–769.
17. Remodulin (treprostinil sodium) injection [package insert]. Research Triangle Park, NC: United Therapeutics Corp; 2008.
18. Flolan (epoprostenol sodium) for injection [package insert]. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmifhKline; 2008.
19. Technical Test Protocol: TTP-LLR-MO305 (Zaccardelli, Cardinal Labs); data on file, United Therapeutics Corporation, Silver Spring, MD; 2007.
20.Phares K, Weiser WE, Miller SP, Myers MA, Wade M. Stability and preservative effectiveness of treprostinil sodium after dilution in common intravenous diluents. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2003;60:916–922.
21.Doran AK, Ivy DD, Barst RJ, Hill N, Murali S, Benza RL; the Scientific Leadership Council of the Pulmonary Hypertension Association. Guidelines for the prevention of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections with prostanoid therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Int J Clin Pract Suppl 2008;160:5–9.
22.Rupp ME, Sholtz LA, Jourdan DR, et al.Outbreak of bloodstream infection temporally associated with the use of an intravascular needleless valve. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:1408–1414.