1.Haley, RW. Cost-benefit analysis of infection control activities. In: Brachman, P, Bennett, J, eds. Hospital Infections. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven; 1998:249–267.
2.Scheckler, WE. Hospital costs of nosocomial infections: a prospective three month study in a community hospital. Infect Control 1980;1:150–152.
3.Plowman, RP, Graves, N, Griffin, MAS, et al. The rate and cost of hospital-acquired infections occurring in patients admitted to selected specialties of a district general hospital in England and the national burden imposed. J Hosp Infect 2001;47:198–209.
4.Delgado-Rodriguez, M, Bueno-Cavanillas, A, Lopez-Gigosos, R, et al. Hospital stay length as an effect modifier of other risk factors for nosocomial infection. Eur J Epidemiol 1990;6:34–39.
5.Glynn, A, Ward, V, Wilson, Iet al. Hospital Acquired Infection: Surveillance Policies and Practice. London: Public Health Laboratory Service; 1997.
6.Harbarth, S, Sax, H, Gastmeier, P. The preventable proportion of nosocomial infections: an overview of published reports. J Hosp Infect 2003;54:258–266.
7.Cohen, DR. Economic issues in infection control. J Hosp Infect 1984;5(suppl A):17–25.
8.Drummond, MF, Davies, LF. Evaluation of the costs and benefits of reducing hospital infection. J Hosp Infect 1991;18(suppl A):85–93.
9.Graves, N. Economics and preventing hospital-acquired infection. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:561–566.
10.Graves, N, Halton, K, Lairson, D. Economics and preventing hospital-acquired infection: broadening the perspective. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:178–184.
11.Stone, PW, Braccia, D, Larson, E. Systematic review of economic analyses of health care-associated infections. Am J Infect Control 2005;33:501–509.
12.Graves, N, Weinhold, D. Complexity and the attribution of cost to hospital acquired infection. In: Roberts, JA, ed. Economics and Infectious Diseases. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006.
13.McGowan, JE Jr. Cost and benefit in control of nosocomial infection: methods for analysis. Rev Infect Dis 1981;3:790–797.
14.Katz, MH. Multivariable analysis: a primer for readers of medical research. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:644–650.
15.Haley, RW. Measuring the costs of nosocomial infections: methods for estimating economic burden on the hospital. Am J Med 1991;91(suppl 3B):32s–38s.
16.Freeman, J, McGowan, JE. Risk factors for nosocomial infection. J Infect Dis 1978;138:811–819.
17.Ramanathan, R. Introductory Econometrics. 4th ed. San Diego: Dryden Press, 1998.
18.Cooper, BS, Stone, SP, Kibbler, CC, et al. Systematic review of isolation policies in the hospital management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a review of the literature with epidemiological and economic modelling. Health Technol Assess 2003;7:1–194.
19.Graves, N, Weinhold, D, Roberts, JAR. Correcting for bias when estimating the cost of hospital acquired infection: an analysis of lower respiratory tract infections in non-surgical patients. Health Econ 2005;14:755–761.
20.Clarke, SKR. Sepsis in surgical wounds, with particular reference to Staphlyococcus aureus. Br J Surg 1957;44:592–596.
21.Tambyah, PA, Knasinski, V, Maki, DG. The direct costs of nosocomial catheter-associated urinary tract infection in the era of managed care. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23:27–31.
22.Aggarwal, R, Ghoshal, UC, Naik, SR. Assessment of cost-effectiveness of universal hepatitis B immunization in a low-income country with intermediate endemicity using a Markov model. J Hepatol 2003;38:215–222.
23.Freeman, J, Rosner, BA, McGowan, JE. Adverse effects of nosocomial infection. J Infect Dis 1979;140:732–740.
24.Haley, RW, Schaberg, D, Crossley, K, Von Allmen, S, McGowan, J. Extra charges and prolongation of stay attributable to nosocomial infections: a prospective inter-hospital comparison. Am J Med 1981;70:51–58.
25.Pena, C, Pujol, M, Pallares, R, et al. Estimation of costs attributable to nosocomial infection: prolongation of hospitalization and calculation of alternative costs. Medicina Clinica 1996;106:441–444.
26.Zhou, Q, Chu, D, Gao, X. A matched case-control study on direct economic costs of four kinds of nosocomial infections [in Chinese]. Zhon-ghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2001;22:133–136.
27.Dietrich, ES, Demmler, M, Schulgen, G, et al. Nosocomial pneumonia: a cost-of-illness analysis. Infection 2002;30:61–67.
28.Askarian, M, Gooran, NR. National nosocomial infection surveillance system-based study in Iran: additional hospital stay attributable to nosocomial infections. Am J Infect Control 2003;31:465–468.
29.Kappstein, I, Daschner, F. Potential inroads to reducing hospital acquired staphylococcal infection and its cost. J Hosp Infect 1991;19(suppl B):31–34.
30.Kappstein, I, Schulgen, G, Beyer, U, Geiger, K, Schumacher, M, Daschner, FD. Prolongation of stay and extra cost due to ventilator-associated pneumonia in an intensive care unit. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1992;11:504–508.
31.Rubinstein, E, Green, M, Modan, M, Amit, P, Bernstein, L, Rubenstein, A. The effect of nosocomial infections on the length and costs of hospital stay. J Antimicrob Chemother 1982;9(suppl A):93–100.
32.Givens, CD, Wenzel, RP. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in surgical patients: a controlled study of the excess morbidity and costs. J Urol 1980;124:646–648.
33.Green, M, Rubenstein, E, Amit, P. Estimating the effects of nosocomial infections on the length of hospitalization. J Infect Dis 1982;145:667–672.
34.Coello, R, Glenister, H, Fereres, J, et al. The cost of infection in surgical patients: a case control study. J Hosp Infect 1993;25:239–250.
35.Medina, M, Martinez-Gallego, G, Sillero-Arenas, M, Delgado-Rodriguez, M. Risk factors and length of stay attributable to hospital infections of the urinary tract in general surgery patients [in Spanish]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 1997;15:310–314.
36.Moris de la Tassa, J, Fernandez Munoz, P, Antuna Egocheaga, A, Gutierrez del Rio, MC, Carton Sanchez, IA. Estimating the costs associated with nosocomial urinary tract infection: a case-control study [in Spanish]. Rev Clin Esp 2003;203:119–124.
37.Plowman, R, Graves, N, Griffin, MA, et al. The rate and cost of hospital-acquired infections occurring in patients admitted to selected specialties of a district general hospital in England and the national burden imposed. J Hosp Infect 2001;47:198–209.
38.Warren, DK, Shukla, SJ, Olsen, MA, et al. Outcome and attributable cost of ventilator-associated pneumonia among intensive care unit patients in a suburban medical center. Crit Care Med 2003;31:1312–1317.
39.Auslab [computer program]. Melbourne, Australia: PJA Computer Consultants; 1999.
40.Jones, FL, McMillan, J. Scoring occupational categories for social research: a review of current practice with Australian examples. Work Employ Soc 2001;15:539–563.
41.National Centre for Classification in Health [NCCH]. International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-W-AM). 3rd ed. Sydney, Australia: NCCH; 2002.
42.Aurich, E, Borgert, J, Butler, M, et al. Introduction to Australian surveillance definitions: surgical site infections and bloodstream infections. Aust Infect Control 2000;5:25–31.
43.Manning, WG, Mullahy, I. Estimating log models: to transform or not to transform? J Health Econ 2001;20:461–494.
45.McCullagh, P, Neider, IA. Generalized Linear Models. London: Chapman & Hall; 1989.
46.Manning, WG. The logged dependent variable, heteroscedasticity, and the retransformation problem. J Health Econ 1998;17:283–295.
47.Basu, A, Manning, WG, Mullahy, J. Comparing alternative models: log vs Cox proportional hazard? Health Econ 2004;13:749–765.
48.White, H. A heteroscedasticity-consistent covariance matrix estimator and a direct test for heteroscedasticity. Econometrica 1980;48:817–838.
49.Roberts, RR, Frutos, PW, Ciavarella, GC, et al. Distribution of fixed vs variable costs of hospital care. JAMA 1999;281:644–649.
50.Plowman, RP, Graves, N, Griffin, M, et al. The Socioeconomic Burden of Hospital Acquired Infection. London: Public Health Laboratory Service; 1999.
51.Dawson, D. Costs and Prices in the Internal Market: Markets vs the NHS Management Executive Guidelines. 1st ed. York: University of York; 1994.
52.Dawson, D, Goddard, M. Longer term agreements for health care services: what will they achieve?Discussion paper 157, Centre for Health Economics. York: University of York; 1998.
53.Harris, J. The internal organisation of hospitals: some economic implications. Bell J Econ 1977;8:467–482.