Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Guideline for the Prevention and Control of Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Healthcare Settings

  • Taranisia MacCannell (a1), Craig A. Umscheid (a2), Rajender K. Agarwal (a2), Ingi Lee (a2), Gretchen Kuntz (a2), Kurt B. Stevenson (a3) and Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)...
Copyright
References
Hide All
1. Green, KY, Ando, T, Balayan, , et al. Taxonomy of the caliciviruses. J Infect Dis 2000;181(suppl 2):S322S330.
2. Atmar, RL, Estes, MK. The epidemiologic and clinical importance of neurovirus infection. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2006;35(2):275290.
3. Kaplan, JE, Schonberger, LB, Varano, G, Jackman, N, Bied, J, Gary, GW. An outbreak of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in a nursing home: demonstration of person-to-person transmission by temporal clustering of cases. Am J Epidemiol 1982;116(6):940948.
4. Mead, PS, Slutsker, L, Dietz, V, et al. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 1999;5(5):607625.
5. Widdowson, MA, Meltzer, MI, Zhang, X, Bresee, JS, Parashar, UD, Glass, RI. Cost-effectiveness and potential impact of rotavirus vaccination in the United States. Pediatrics. 2007;119(4):684697.
6. Patel, MM, Widdowson, MA, Glass, RI, Akazawa, K, Vinje, J, Parashar, UD. Systematic literature review of role of noroviruses in sporadic gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis 2008;14(8):12241231.
7. Fankhauser, RL, Monroe, SS, Noel, JS, et al. Epidemiologic and molecular trends of “Norwalk-like viruses” associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States. J Infect Dis 2002;186(1):17.
8. Widdowson, MA, Cramer, EH, Hadley, L, et al. Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis on cruise ships and on land: identification of a predominant circulating strain of norovirus, United States, 2002. J Infect Dis 2004;190(1):2736.
9. Siebenga, JJ, Vennema, H, Zheng, DP, et al. Norovirus illness is a global problem: emergence and spread of norovirus GII.4 variants, 2001-2007. J Infect Dis 2009;200(5):802812.
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Norovirus activity: United States, 2006-2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2007;56(33):842846.
11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks: United States, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2009;58(22):609615.
12. Caul, EO. Small round structured viruses: airborne transmission and hospital control. Lancet 1994;343(8908):12401242.
13. Hutson, AM, Atmar, RL, Estes, MK. Norovirus disease: changing epidemiology and host susceptibility factors. Trends Microbiol 2004;12(6):279287.
14. Donaldson, EF, Lindesmith, LC, Lobue, AD, Baric, RS. Norovirus pathogenesis: mechanisms of persistence and immune evasion in human populations. Immunol Rev 2008;225:190211.
15. Widerlite, L, Trier, JS, Blacklow, NR, Schreiber, DS. Structure of the gastric mucosa in acute infectious bacterial gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology 1975;68(3):425430.
16. Kaplan, JE, Feldman, R, Campbell, DS, Lookabaugh, C, Gary, GW. The frequency of a Norwalk-like pattern of illness in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. Am J Public Health 1982;72(12):13291332.
17. Rabenau, HF, Sturmer, M, Buxbaum, S, Walczok, A, Preiser, W, Doerr, HW. Laboratory diagnosis of norovirus: which method is the best? Intervirology 2003;46(4):232238.
18. Trujillo, A, McCaustland, K, Zheng, D, et al. Use of TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR for rapid detection, quantification, and typing of norovirus. American Society for Microbiology. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44(4):14051412. doi:10.1128/JCM.44.4.1405-1412.2006.
19. Said, MA, Perl, TM, Sears, CL. Healthcare epidemiology: gastrointestinal flu: norovirus in health care and long-term care facilities. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47(9):12021208.
20. Cannon, JL, Papafragkou, E, Park, GW, Osborne, J, Jaykus, LA, Vinje, J. Surrogates for the study of norovirus stability and inactivation in the environment: a comparison of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus. J Food Prot 2006;69(11):27612765.
21. Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Vist, GE, et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008;336(7650):924926.
22. Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Kunz, R, et al. What is “quality of evidence” and why is it important to clinicians? BMJ 2008;336(7651):995998.
23. Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Kunz, R, et al. Going from evidence to recommendations. BMJ 2008;336(7652):10491051.
24. Schunemann, HJ, Oxman, AD, Brozek, J, et al. Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations for diagnostic tests and strategies. BMJ 2008;336(7653):11061110.
25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vessel sanitation program construction guideline. http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/vsp/ConstructionGuidelines/ConstructionGuidelines2005.pdf. Published July 2005. Accessed 24 September 2007.
26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vessel sanitation program operations manual. http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/vsp/operationsmanual/OPSManual2005.pdf. Published August 2005. Accessed 24 September 2007.
27. Guidance for the management of norovirus infection in cruise ships. Health Protection Agency Web site. http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1206520183347. Published July 2007. Accessed 24 September 2007.
28. Viral gastroenteritis: Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust infection control policies. http://www.leedsteachinghospitals.com/sites/infection_control/documents/VGrevisedJan08.pdf. Published 2008. Accessed 24 September 2007.
29. National guidelines on the management of outbreaks of norovirus infection in healthcare settings. http://www.hpsc.ie/hpsc/A-Z/Gastroenteric/ViralGastroenteritis/Publications/File,1194,en.pdf. Published 2003. Accessed 24 September 2007.
30. Netherlands: Norovirus Guidelines for Cruiseships and Hotels. Published 2007. Accessed 24 September 2007.
31. Gastroenteritis in an institution: response protocol for New South Wales public health units. NSW Health Web site. http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets/guideline/gastro.html. Published 2005 (updated 2010). Accessed 24 September 2007.
32. Guidelines for the management of norovirus outbreaks in hospitals and elderly care institutions. Auckland Regional Public Health Service Web site. http://www.arphs.govt.nz/notifiable/downloads/Norovirus_Guidelines_2008.pdf. Published July 2007 (updated 2008). Accessed 24 September 2007.
33. Viral gastroenteritis outbreaks: information for supervisors in the child care and hospitality industries. Queensland Health Web site. http://www.health.qld.gov.au/ph/documents/cdb/26888.pdf. Updated 2010. Accessed 24 September 2007.
34. Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health. Aidememoire for managing norovirus outbreaks in healthcare settings. National Services Scotland Web site. . Published 2004. Accessed 24 September 2007.
35. The identification and management of outbreaks of norovirus infection in tourists and leisure industry settings. . Published 2005. Accessed 24 September 2007.
36. Guidelines for the management of infectious gastroenteritis in aged care facilities in South Australia. . Published 2005. Accessed 24 September 2007.
37. Gloucestershire Primary Care Trust. General guidelines for the management of viral gastroenteritis. Community Infection Prevention and Control Policy and Procedure Web site. http://www.glospct.nhs.uk/pdf/policies/infectioncontrol/gpct%20viral%20gastroenteritis.pdf. Updated 2008. Accessed 24 September 2007.
38. California Department of Health Services. Recommendations for the prevention and control of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in California long-term care facilities. http://www.cdph.ca.gov/pubsforms/Guidelines/Documents/PCofViralGastroenteritis-Outbreaks.pdf. Published 2006. Accessed 24 September 2007.
39. Illinois Department of Public Health. Control of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Illinois long-term care facilities. http://www.co.mchenry.il.us/departments/health/pdfDocs/PHS/CD/NoroLongFacGuide.pdf. Published 2006. Accessed 24 September 2007.
40. Virginia Department of Health. Norovirus prevention guidance for institutions/facilities. http://www.flpic.com/Norovirus_Prev_Guidance_Institutions_2007.pdf. Published January 2007. Accessed 24 September 2007.
41. Washoe County District Health Department. Viral gastroenteritis outbreak guidelines for child care facilities. http://www.co.washoe.nv.us/repository/files//4/Childcare_guidelines_for_norovirus.pdf. Accessed 24 September 2007.
42. Washoe County District Health Department. Viral gastroenteritis outbreak guidelines for community living facilities. http://www.co.washoe.nv.us/repository/files/4/Guidelines%20for%20Norovims%20in%20ECFs.pdf. Published 2005. Accessed 24 September 2007.
43. Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Guidelines for the epidemiological investigation of gastroenteritis out-breaks in long term care facilities. http://ideha.dhmh.maryland.gov/pdf/guidelines/gastroenteritis.aspx. Revised 2001. Accessed 24 September 2007.
44. Georgia Department of Community Health. Recommendations for the control of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in long-term care facilities and viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in nursing homes or long-term care facilities guidelines for environmental decontamination. http://health.state.ga.us/pdfs/epi/notifiable/outbreaks/Norovirus%20cleaning%20guidelines_LTC.pdf. Accessed 24 September 2007.
45. Wisconsin Division of Public Health. Recommendations for the prevention and control of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Wisconsin long-term care facilities. http://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/rl_dsl/Providers/norovirusRecoLTCF09.pdf. Updated 2009. Accessed 24 September 2007.
46. Los Angeles County Public Health. Norovirus (viral gastroenteritis) control measures for skilled nursing facilities. http://www.publichealth.lacounty.gov/acd/docs/Norovirus/NorovirusControlMeasures_12_l_06.pdf. Published 2006. Accessed 24 September 2007.
47. Washington State Department of Health. Norovirus (viral gastroenteritis): information packet for nursing facilities. http://www.co.thurston.wa.us/health/personalhealth/communicabledisease/DrYuUpdates/PDF/2011 noropacket.pdf. May 2005. Accessed 24 September 2007.
48. National Health Service. Viral gastroenteritis guidance. Royal Devon and Exeter. http://www.rdehospital.nhs.uk/docs/patients/services/infection_control/Viral%20gastroenteritis-Aug2009.pdf. Published August 2007 (revised July 2009). Accessed 24 September 2007.
49. Department of Public Health. Norovirus infections: public health importance and outbreak management. Department of Public Health, Seattle and King County. http://www.kingcounty.gov/healthservices/health/communicable/diseases/Norovirus-Control.aspx. Updated March 2010. Accessed 24 September 2007.
50. von Elm, E, Altman, DG, Egger, M, et al. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Ann Intern Med 2007;147(8):573577.
51. Shea, BJ, Grimshaw, JM, Wells, GA, et al. Development of AMSTAR: a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol 2007;7:10.
52. Sanderson, S, Tatt, ID, Higgins, JP. Tools for assessing quality and susceptibility to bias in observational studies in epidemiology: a systematic review and annotated bibliography. Int J Epidemiol 2007;36(3):666676.
53. Moher, D, Schulz, KF, Altman, D, CONSORT Group (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials). The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. JAMA 2001;285(15):19871991.
54. Jadad, AR, Moore, RA, Carroll, D, et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996;17(1):112.
55. Yale Center for Medical Informatics Web site. http://ycmi.med.yale.edu/. Published 2009. Accessed 27 April 2011.
56. Mattner, F, Mattner, L, Borck, HU, Gastmeier, P. Evaluation of the impact of the source (patient versus staff) on nosocomial norovirus outbreak severity. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26(3):268272.
57. Mattner, F, Sohr, D, Heim, A, Gastmeier, P, Vennema, H, Koopmans, M. Risk groups for clinical complications of norovirus infections: an outbreak investigation. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006; 12(1):6974.
58. Lopman, BA, Reacher, MH, Vipond, IB, Sarangi, J, Brown, DW. Clinical manifestation of norovirus gastroenteritis in health care settings. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39(3):318324.
59. Lee, N, Chan, MCW, Wong, B, et al. Fecal viral concentration and diarrhea in norovirus gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis 2007;13(9):13991401. http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/13/9/pdfs/1399.pdf.
60. Rodriguez-Guillen, L, Vizzi, E, Alcala, AC, Pujol, FH, Liprandi, F, Ludert, JE. Calicivirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive children and adults. J Clin Virol 2005;33(2):104109.
61. de Wit, MA, Koopmans, MP, van Duynhoven, YT. Risk factors for norovirus, Sapporo-like virus, and group A rotavirus gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9(12):15631570.
62. Gotz, H, Ekdahl, K, Lindback, J, de Jong, B, Hedlund, KO, Giesecke, J. Clinical spectrum and transmission characteristics of infection with Norwalk-like virus: findings from a large community outbreak in Sweden. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33(5):622628.
63. Oppermann, H, Mueller, B, Takkinen, J, Klauditz, W, Schreier, E, Ammon, A. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis in a mother-and-child health clinic. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2001;203(4):369373.
64. Sharp, TW, Hyams, KC, Watts, D, et al. Epidemiology of Norwalk virus during an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis aboard a US aircraft carrier. J Med Virol 1995;45(1):6167.
65. Thea, DM, Glass, R, Grohmann, GS, et al. Prevalence of enteric viruses among hospital patients with AIDS in Kinshasa, Zaire. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1993;87(3):263266.
66. Marx, A, Shay, DK, Noel, JS, et al. An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in a geriatric long-term-care facility: combined application of epidemiological and molecular diagnostic methods. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20(5):306311.
67. Caceres, VM, Kim, DK, Bresee, JS, et al. A viral gastroenteritis outbreak associated with person-to-person spread among hospital staff. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19(3):162167.
68. Cegielski, JP, Msengi, AE, Miller, SE. Enteric viruses associated with HIV infection in Tanzanian children with chronic diarrhea. Pediatr AIDS HIV Infect 1994;5(5):296299.
69. Halperin, T, Vennema, H, Koopmans, M, et al. No association between histo-blood group antigens and susceptibility to clinical infections with genogroup II norovirus. J Infect Dis 2008;197(1):6365.
70. Hutson, AM, Airaud, F, LePendu, J, Estes, MK, Atmar, RL. Norwalk virus infection associates with secretor status genotyped from sera. J Med Virol 2005;77(1):116120.
71. Thorven, M, Grahn, A, Hedlund, KO, et al. A homozygous non-sense mutation (428G––>A) in the human secretor (FUT2) gene provides resistance to symptomatic norovirus (GGII) infections. J Virol 2005;79(24):1535115355.
72. Lindesmith, L, Moe, C, Marionneau, S, et al. Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection. Nat Med 2003;9(5):548553.
73. Hutson, AM, Atmar, RL, Graham, DY, Estes, MK. Norwalk virus infection and disease is associated with ABO histo-blood group type. J Infect Dis 2002;185(9):13351337.
74. Graham, DY, Jiang, X, Tanaka, T, Opekun, AR, Madore, HP, Estes, MK. Norwalk virus infection of volunteers: new insights based on improved assays. J Infect Dis 1994;170(1):3443.
75. Nakata, S, Chiba, S, Terashima, H, Yokoyama, T, Nakao, T. Humoral immunity in infants with gastroenteritis caused by human calicivirus. J Infect Dis 1985;152(2):274279.
76. Parrino, TA, Schreiber, DS, Trier, JS, Kapikian, AZ, Blacklow, NR. Clinical immunity in acute gastroenteritis caused by Norwalk agent. N Engl J Med 1977;297(2):8689.
77. Fretz, R, Svoboda, P, Schorr, D, Tanner, M, Baumgartner, A. Risk factors for infections with Norovirus gastrointestinal illness in Switzerland. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2005;24(4):256261.
78. Meyer, E, Ebner, W, Scholz, R, Dettenkofer, M, Daschner, FD. Nosocomial outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis and investigation of ABO histo-blood group type in infected staff and patients. J Hosp Infect 2004;56(1):6466.
79. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Norovirus outbreak in an elementary school: District of Columbia, February 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008;56(51-52):13401343.
80. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Multistate outbreak on norovirus gastroenteritis among attendees at a family reunion: Grant County, West Virginia, October 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2007;56(27):673678.
81. Costas, L, Vilella, A, Llupia, A, Bosch, J, Jimenez de Anta, MT, Trilla, A. Outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis among staff at a hospital in Barcelona, Spain, September 2007. Euro Surveill 2007;12(11):E071122.5.
82. Lopman, BA, Andrews, N, Sarangi, J, Vipond, IB, Brown, DW, Reacher, MH. Institutional risk factors for outbreaks of nosocomial gastroenteritis: survival analysis of a cohort of hospital units in south-west England, 2002-2003. J Hosp Infect 2005;60(2):135143.
83. Evans, MR, Meldrum, R, Lane, W, et al. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis following environmental contamination at a concert hall. Epidemiol Infect 2002;129(2):355360.
84. Lachlan, M, Licence, K, Oates, K, Vaughan, S, Hill, R. Practical lessons from the management of an outbreak of small round structured virus (Norwalk-like virus) gastroenteritis. Commun Dis Public Health 2002;5(1):4347.
85. Love, SS, Jiang, X, Barrett, E, Farkas, T, Kelly, S. A large hotel outbreak of Norwalk-like virus gastroenteritis among three groups of guests and hotel employees in Virginia. Epidemiol Infect 2002;129(1):127132.
86. Anderson, AD, Garrett, VD, Sobel, J, et al. Multistate outbreak of Norwalk-like virus gastroenteritis associated with a common caterer. Am J Epidemiol 2001;154(11):10131019.
87. Cunney, RJ, Costigan, P, McNamara, EB, et al. Investigation of an outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Norwalk-like virus, using solid phase immune electron microscopy. J Hosp Infect 2000;44(2):113118.
88. Marks, PJ, Vipond, IB, Carlisle, D, Deakin, D, Fey, RE, Caul, EO. Evidence for airborne transmission of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) in a hotel restaurant. Epidemiol Infect 2000;124(3):481487.
89. Lo, SV, Connolly, AM, Palmer, SR, Wright, D, Thomas, PD, Joynson, D. The role of the pre-symptomatic food handler in a common source outbreak of food-borne SRSV gastroenteritis in a group of hospitals. Epidemiol Infect 1994;113(3):513521.
90. Patterson, T, Hutchings, P, Palmer, S. Outbreak of SRSV gastroenteritis at an international conference traced to food handled by a post-symptomatic caterer. Epidemiol Infect 1993;111(1):157162.
91. Alexander, WJ, Holmes, JR, Shaw, JF, Riley, WE, Roper, WL. Norwalk vims outbreak at a college campus. South Med J 1986;79(1):3336.
92. Wit, MA, Widdowson, V, H., Bruin, Ed, Fernandes, T, Koopmans, M. Large outbreak of norovirus: the baker who should have known better. J Infect 2007;55(2):188193.
93. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Norovirus outbreak associated with ill food-service workers: Michigan, January-February 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2007;56(46):12121216.
94. Rizzo, C, Di Bartolo, I, Santantonio, M, et al. Epidemiological and virological investigation of a Norovirus outbreak in a resort in Puglia, Italy. BMC Infect Dis 2007;7:135.
95. Schmid, D, Stuger, HP, Lederer, I, et al. A foodborne norovirus outbreak due to manually prepared salad, Austria 2006. Infection 2007;35(4):232239.
96. Payne, J, Hall, M, Lutzke, M, Armstrong, C, King, J. Multisite outbreak of norovirus associated with a franchise restaurant: Kent County, Michigan, May 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006;55(14):395397.
97. Grotto, I, Huerta, M, Balicer, RD, et al. An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis on an Israeli military base. Infection 2004;32(6):339343.
98. Marks, PJ, Vipond, IB, Regan, FM, Wedgwood, K, Fey, RE, Caul, EO. A school outbreak of Norwalk-like virus: evidence for airborne transmission. Epidemiol Infect 2003;131(1):727736.
99. Stegenga, J, Bell, E, Matlow, A. The role of nurse understaffing in nosocomial viral gastrointestinal infections on a general pediatrics ward. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23(3):133136.
100. Becker, KM, Moe, CL, Southwick, KL, MacCormack, JN. Transmission of Norwalk virus during football game. N Engl J Med 2000;343(17):12231227.
101. Parashar, UD, Dow, L, Fankhauser, RL, et al. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis associated with consumption of sandwiches: implications for the control of transmission by food handlers. Epidemiol Infect 1998;121(3):615621.
102. McEvoy, M, Blake, W, Brown, D, Green, J, Cartwright, R. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis on a cruise ship. Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev 1996;6(13):R188R192.
103. Chadwick, PR, McCann, R. Transmission of a small round structured virus by vomiting during a hospital outbreak of gastroenteritis. J Hosp Infect 1994;26(4):251259.
104. Reid, JA, Caul, EO, White, DG, Palmer, SR. Role of infected food handler in hotel outbreak of Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritis: implications for control. Lancet 1988;2(8606):321323.
105. Iversen, AM, Gill, M, Bartlett, CL, Cubitt, WD, McSwiggan, DA. Two outbreaks of foodborne gastroenteritis caused by a small round structured virus: evidence of prolonged infectivity in a food handler. Lancet 1987;2(8558):556558.
106. White, KE, Osterholm, MT, Mariotti, JA, et al. A foodborne outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis: evidence for post-recovery transmission. Am J Epidemiol 1986;124(1):120126.
107. Kaplan, JE, Gary, GW, Baron, RC, et al. Epidemiology of Norwalk gastroenteritis and the role of Norwalk virus in outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Ann Intern Med 1982;96(6 Pt 1):756761.
108. Tu, ETV, Bull, RA, Greening, GE, et al. Epidemics of gastroenteritis during 2006 were associated with the spread of norovirus GII.4 variants 2006a and 2006b. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46(3):413420.
109. Adamson, WE, Gunson, RN, Maclean, A, Carman, WF. Emergence of a new norovirus variant in Scotland in 2006. J Clin Microbiol 2007;45(12):40584060.
110. Gallimore, CI, Cubitt, D, du Plessis, N, Gray, JJ. Asymptomatic and symptomatic excretion of noroviruses during a hospital outbreak of gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42(5):22712274.
111. Blanton, LH, Adams, SM, Beard, RS, et al. Molecular and epidemiologic trends of caliciviruses associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in the United States, 2000-2004. J Infect Dis 2006;193(3):413421.
112. Mattison, K, Karthikeyan, K, Abebe, M, et al. Survival of calicivirus in foods and on surfaces: experiments with feline calicivirus as a surrogate for norovirus. J Food Prot 2007;70(2):500503.
113. Lindesmith, L, Moe, C, Lependu, J, Frelinger, JA, Treanor, J, Baric, RS. Cellular and humoral immunity following Snow Mountain virus challenge. J Virol 2005;79(5):29002909.
114. Fretz, R, Herrmann, L, Christen, A, et al. Frequency of Norovirus in stool samples from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms in Switzerland. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2005;24(3):214216.
115. Fretz, R, Svoboda, P, Luthi, TM, Tanner, M, Baumgartner, A. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to infections with Norovirus in Switzerland, 2001-2003. Epidemiol Infect 2005;133(3):429437.
116. Turcios, RM, Widdowson, MA, Sulka, AC, Mead, PS, Glass, RI. Reevaluation of epidemiological criteria for identifying out-breaks of acute gastroenteritis due to norovirus: United States, 1998-2000. Clin Infect Dis 2006;42(7):964969.
117. Duizer, E, Pielaat, A, Vennema, H, Kroneman, A, Koopmans, M. Probabilities in norovirus outbreak diagnosis. J Clin Virol 2007;40(1):3842.
118. Gray, JJ, Kohli, E, Ruggeri, FM, et al. European multicenter evaluation of commercial enzyme immunoassays for detecting norovirus antigen in fecal samples. Clin Vaccin Immunol 2007;14(10):13491355.
119. Richards, AF, Lopman, B, Gunn, A, et al. Evaluation of a commercial ELISA for detecting Norwalk-like virus antigen in faeces. J Clin Virol 2003;26(1):109115.
120. Khamrin, P, Nguyen, TA, Phan, TG, et al. Evaluation of immunochromatography and commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid detection of norovirus antigen in stool samples. J Virol Methods 2008;147(2):360363.
121. Wiechers, C, Bissinger, AL, Hamprecht, K, Kimmig, P, Jahn, G, Poets, CF. Apparently non-specific results found using a norovirus antigen immunoassay for fecal specimens from neonates. J Perinatol 2008;28(1):7981.
122. Castriciano, S, Luinstra, K, Petrich, A, et al. Comparison of the RIDASCREEN norovirus enzyme immunoassay to IDELA NLV GI/GII by testing stools also assayed by RT-PCR and electron microscopy. J Virol Methods 2007;141(2):216219.
123. Wilhelmi de Cal, I, Revilla, A, del Alamo, JM, Roman, E, Moreno, S, Sanchez-Fauquier, A. Evaluation of two commercial enzyme immunoassays for the detection of norovirus in faecal samples from hospitalised children with sporadic acute gastroenteritis. Clin Microbiol Infect 2007;13(3):341343.
124. de Bruin, E, Duizer, E, Vennema, H, Koopmans, MP. Diagnosis of Norovirus outbreaks by commercial ELISA or RT-PCR. J Virol Methods 2006;137(2):259264.
125. Okitsu-Negishi, S, Okame, M, Shimizu, Y, et al. Detection of norovirus antigens from recombinant virus-like particles and stool samples by a commercial norovirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44(10):37843786.
126. Burton-MacLeod, JA, Kane, EM, Beard, RS, Hadley, LA, Glass, RI, Ando, T. Evaluation and comparison of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for detection of antigenically diverse human noroviruses in stool samples. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42(6):25872595.
127. Christen, A, Fretz, R, Tanner, M, Svoboda, P. Evaluation of a commercial ELISA kit for the detection of Norovirus antigens in human stool specimens. Mitt Lebensm Hyg Bundesamt Gesundh 2003;94(6):594602.
128. Gunson, RN, Miller, J, Carman, WF. Comparison of real-time PCR and EIA for the detection of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis caused by norovirus. Commun Dis Public Health 2003; 6(4):297299.
129. Nordgren, J, Bucardo, F, Dienus, O, Svensson, L, Lindgren, PE. Novel light-upon-extension real-time PCR assays for detection and quantification of genogroup I and II noroviruses in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol 2008;46(1):164170.
130. De Medici, D, Suffredini, E, Crudeli, S, Ruggeri, FM. Effectiveness of an RT-booster-PCR method for detection of noroviruses in stools collected after an outbreak of gastroenteritis. J Virol Methods 2007;144(1-2):161164.
131. Hymas, W, Atkinson, A, Stevenson, J, Hillyard, D. Use of modified oligonucleotides to compensate for sequence polymorphisms in the real-time detection of norovirus. J Virol Methods 2007;142(1-2):1014.
132. Logan, C, O'Leary, JJ, O'Sullivan, N. Real-time reverse transcription PCR detection of norovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus as causative agents of acute viral gastroenteritis. J Virol Methods 2007;146(l-2):3644.
133. Menton, JF, Kearney, K, Morgan, JG. Development of a real-time RT-PCR and reverse line probe hybridisation assay for the routine detection and genotyping of noroviruses in Ireland. Virol J 2007;4:86.
134. Wolf, S, Williamson, WM, Hewitt, J, et al. Sensitive multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay for the detection of human and animal noroviruses in clinical and environmental samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007;73(17):54645470.
135. Yoda, T, Suzuki, Y, Yamazaki, K, et al. Evaluation and application of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of noroviruses. J Med Virol 2007;79(3):326334.
136. Antonishyn, NA, Crozier, NA, McDonald, RR, Levett, PN, Horsman, GB. Rapid detection of Norovirus based on an automated extraction protocol and a real-time multiplexed single-step RT-PCR. J Clin Virol 2006;37(3):156161.
137. Hohne, M, Schreier, E. Detection and characterization of norovirus outbreaks in Germany: application of a one-tube RT-PCR using a fluorogenic real-time detection system. J Med Virol 2004;72(2):312319.
138. Rohayem, J, Berger, S, Juretzek, T, et al. A simple and rapid single-step multiplex RT-PCR to detect norovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus in clinical stool samples. J Virol Methods 2004;118(1):4959.
139. Schmid, M, Oehme, R, Schalasta, G, Brockmann, S, Kimmig, P, Enders, G. Fast detection of Noroviruses using a real-time PCR assay and automated sample preparation. BMC Infect Dis 2004;4:15.
140. Vinje, J, Vennema, H, Maunula, L, et al. International collaborative study to compare reverse transcriptase PCR assays for detection and genotyping of noroviruses. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41(4):14231433.
141. Tatsumi, M, Nakata, S, Sakai, Y, Honma, S, Numata-Kinoshita, K, Chiba, S. Detection and differentiation of Norwalk virus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Med Virol 2002;68(2):285290.
142. O'NeiU, HJ, McCaughey, C, Wyatt, DE, Mitchell, F, Coyle, PV. Gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with Norwalk-like viruses and their investigation by nested RT-PCR. BMC Microbiol 2001;1:14.
143. Jean, J, D'Souza, D, Jaykus, LA. Transcriptional enhancement of RT-PCR for rapid and sensitive detection of noroviruses. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2003;226(2):339345.
144. Greene, SR, Moe, CL, Jaykus, LA, Cronin, M, Grosso, L, Aarle, P. Evaluation of the NucliSens Basic Kit assay for detection of Norwalk virus RNA in stool specimens. J Virol Methods 2003;108(1):123131.
145. Tian, P, Mandrell, R. Detection of norovirus capsid proteins in faecal and food samples by a real time immuno-PCR method. J Appl Microbiol 2006;100(3):564574.
146. Beuret, C. A simple method for isolation of enteric viruses (noroviruses and enteroviruses) in water. J Virol Methods 2003;107(1):18.
147. Vinje, J, Hamidjaja, RA, Sobsey, MD. Development and application of a capsid VP1 (region D) based reverse transcription PCR assay for genotyping of genogroup I and II noroviruses. J Virol Methods 2004;116(2):109117.
148. Murata, T, Katsushima, N, Mizuta, K, Muraki, Y, Hongo, S, Matsuzaki, Y. Prolonged norovirus shedding in infants <or6 months of age with gastroenteritis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007;26(1):4649.
149. Rockx, B, De Wit, M, Vennema, H, et al. Natural history of human calicivirus infection: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35(3):246253.
150. Marshall, JA, Salamone, S, Yuen, L, Catton, MG, Wright, JP. High level excretion of Norwalk-like virus following resolution of clinical illness. Pathology 2001;33(1):5052.
151. Hedlund, K, Bennet, R, Eriksson, M, Ehrnst, A. Norwalk-like virus as a cause of diarrhea in a pediatric hospital. Clin Microbiol Infect 1998;4(8):417421.
152. Chiba, S, Sakuma, Y, Kogasaka, R, et al. Fecal shedding of virus in relation to the days of illness in infantile gastroenteritis due to calicivirus. J Infect Dis 1980;142(2):247249.
153. Dalling, J. A review of environmental contamination during outbreaks of Norwalk-like virus. Br J Infect Control 2004;5(2):913.
154. Wu, HM, Fornek, M, Schwab, KJ, et al. A norovirus outbreak at a long-term-care facility: the role of environmental surface contamination. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26(10):802810.
155. Jones, EL, Kramer, A, Gaither, M, Gerba, CP. Role of fomite contamination during an outbreak of norovirus on houseboats. Int J Environ Health Res 2007;17(2):123131.
156. Clay, S, Maherchandani, S, Malik, YS, Goyal, SM. Survival on uncommon fomites of feline calicivirus, a surrogate of noro-viruses. Am J Infect Control 2006;34(1):4143.
157. Gallimore, CI, Taylor, C, Gennery, AR, et al. Environmental monitoring for gastroenteric viruses in a pediatric primary immunodeficiency unit. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44(2):395399.
158. Kuusi, M, Nuorti, JP, Maunula, L, et al. A prolonged outbreak of Norwalk-like calicivirus (NLV) gastroenteritis in a rehabilitation centre due to environmental contamination. Epidemiol Infect 2002;129(1):133138.
159. Cheesbrough, JS, Green, J, Gallimore, CI, Wright, PA, Brown, DW. Widespread environmental contamination with Norwalk-like viruses (NLV) detected in a prolonged hotel outbreak of gastroenteritis. Epidemiol Infect 2000;125(1):9398.
160. Schvoerer, E, Bonnet, F, Dubois, V, et al. A hospital outbreak of gastroenteritis possibly related to the contamination of tap water by a small round structured virus. J Hosp Infect 1999;43(2):149154.
161. Green, J, Wright, PA, Gallimore, CI, Mitchell, O, Morgan-Capner, P, Brown, DW. The role of environmental contamination with small round structured viruses in a hospital outbreak investigated by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. J Hosp Infect 1998;39(1):3945.
162. D'Souza, DH, Sair, A, Williams, K, et al. Persistence of caliciviruses on environmental surfaces and their transfer to food. Int J Food Microbiol 2006;108(1):8491.
163. Paulson, DS. The transmission of surrogate Norwalk virus: from inanimate surfaces to gloved hands: is it a threat? Food Protect Trends 2005;25(6):450454.
164. Lopman, BA, Reacher, MH, Vipond, IB, et al. Epidemiology and cost of nosocomial gastroenteritis, Avon, England, 2002-2003. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10(10):18271834.
165. Billgren, M, Christenson, B, Hedlund, KO, Vinje, J. Epidemiology of Norwalk-like human caliciviruses in hospital outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in the Stockholm area in 1996. J Infect 2002;44(1):2632.
166. Hansen, S, Stamm-Balderjahn, S, Zuschneid, I, et al. Closure of medical departments during nosocomial outbreaks: data from a systematic analysis of the literature. J Hosp Infect 2007;65(4):348353.
167. Zingg, W, Colombo, C, Jucker, T, Bossart, W, Ruef, C. Impact of an outbreak of norovirus infection on hospital resources. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26(3):263267.
168. Johnston, CP, Qiu, H, Ticehurst, JR, et al. Outbreak management and implications of a nosocomial norovirus outbreak. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45(5):534540.
169. Leuenberger, S, Widdowson, MA, Feilchenfeldt, J, Egger, R, Streuli, RA. Norovirus outbreak in a district general hospital: new strain identified. Swiss Med Wkly 2007;137(3-4):5781.
170. Cheng, FW, Leung, TF, Lai, RW, Chan, PK, Hon, EK, Ng, PC. Rapid control of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak in an acute paediatric ward. Acta Paediatr 2006;95(5):581586.
171. Simon, A, Schildgen, O, Maria Eis-Hubinger, A, et al. Norovirus outbreak in a pediatric oncology unit. Scand J Gastroenterol 2006;41(6):693699.
172. Conway, R, Bunt, S, Mathias, E, Said, H. The norovirus experience: an exercise in outbreak management at a tertiary referral hospital. Aust Infect Control 2005;10(3):95,97102.
173. Cooper, E, Blarney, S. A norovirus gastroenteritis epidemic in a long-term-care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26(3):256258.
174. Navarro, G, Sala, RM, Segura, F, et al. An outbreak of norovirus infection in a long-term-care unit in Spain. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26(3):259262.
175. Schmid, D, Lederer, I, Pichler, AM, Berghold, C, Schreier, E, Allerberger, F. An outbreak of norovirus infection affecting an Austrian nursing home and a hospital. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2005;117(23-24):802808.
176. Weber, DJ, Sickbert-Bennett, EE, Vinje, J, et al. Lessons learned from a norovirus outbreak in a locked pediatric inpatient psychiatric unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26(10):841843.
177. Lynn, S, Toop, J, Hanger, C, Millar, N. Norovirus outbreaks in a hospital setting: the role of infection control. N Z Med J 2004;117(1189):U771.
178. Khanna, N, Goldenberger, D, Graber, P, Battegay, M, Widmer, AF. Gastroenteritis outbreak with norovirus in a Swiss university hospital with a newly identified virus strain. J Hosp Infect 2003;55(2):131136.
179. McCall, J, Smithson, R. Rapid response and strict control measures can contain a hospital outbreak of Norwalk-like virus. Commun Dis Public Health 2002;5(3):243246.
180. Milazzo, A, Tribe, IG, Ratcliff, R, Doherty, C, Higgins, G, Givney, R. A large, prolonged outbreak of human calicivirus infection linked to an aged-care facility. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26(2):261264.
181. Miller, M, Carter, L, Scott, K, Millard, G, Lynch, B, Guest, C. Norwalk-like virus outbreak in Canberra: implications for infection control in aged care facilities. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26(4):555561.
182. Hoyle, J. Managing the challenge of an acute gastroenteritis outbreak caused by a Norwalk-like virus in a 239 bed long-term care facility. Aust Infect Control 2001;6(4):128133.
183. Russo, PL, Spelman, DW, Harrington, GA, et al. Hospital out-break of Norwalk-like virus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18(8):576579.
184. Stevenson, P, McCann, R, Duthie, R, Glew, E, Ganguli, L. A hospital outbreak due to Norwalk virus. J Hosp Infect 1994;26(4):261272.
185. Hudson, JB, Sharma, M, Petric, M. Inactivation of Norovirus by ozone gas in conditions relevant to healthcare. J Hosp Infect 2007;66(1):4045.
186. Park, GW, Boston, DM, Kase, JA, Sampson, MN, Sobsey, MD. Evaluation of liquid- and fog-based application of Sterilox hypochlorous acid solution for surface inactivation of human norovirus. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007;73(14):44634468.
187. Poschetto, LF, Ike, A, Papp, T, Mohn, U, Bohm, R, Marschang, RE. Comparison of the sensitivities of noroviruses and feline calicivirus to chemical disinfection under field-like conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007;73(17):54945500.
188. Jimenez, L, Chiang, M. Virucidal activity of a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against feline calicivirus: a surrogate for norovirus. Am J Infect Control 2006;34(5):269273.
189. Kramer, A, Galabov, AS, Sattar, SA, et al. Virucidal activity of a new hand disinfectant with reduced ethanol content: comparison with other alcohol-based formulations. J Hosp Infect 2006;62(1):98106.
190. Malik, YS, Allwood, PB, Hedberg, CW, Goyal, SM. Disinfection of fabrics and carpets artificially contaminated with calicivirus: relevance in institutional and healthcare centres. J Hosp Infect 2006;63(2):205210.
191. Malik, YS, Maherchandani, S, Goyal, SM. Comparative efficacy of ethanol and isopropanol against feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate. Am J Infect Control 2006;34(1):3135.
192. Malik, YS, Goyal, SM. Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate. Int J Food Microbiol 2006;109(1/2):160163.
193. Kampf, G, Grotheer, D, Steinmann, J. Efficacy of three ethanol-based hand rubs against feline calicivirus, a surrogate virus for norovirus. J Hosp Infect 2005;60(2):144149.
194. Barker, J, Vipond, IB, Bloomfield, SF. Effects of cleaning and disinfection in reducing the spread of norovirus contamination via environmental surfaces. J Hosp Infect 2004;58(1):4249.
195. Duizer, E, Bijkerk, P, Rockx, B, De Groot, A, Twisk, F, Koopmans, M. Inactivation of caliciviruses. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004;70(8):45384543.
196. Gehrke, C, Steinmann, J, Goroncy-Bermes, P. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate of norovirus (formerly Norwalk-like viruses), by different types of alcohol in vitro and in vivo. J Hosp Infect 2004;56(1):4955.
197. Lin, CM, Wu, FM, Kim, HK, Doyle, MP, Michael, BS, Williams, LK. A comparison of hand washing techniques to remove Escherichia coli and caliciviruses under natural or artificial fingernails. J Food Prot 2003;66(12):22962301.
198. Nuanualsuwan, S, Mariam, T, Himathongkham, S, Cliver, DO. Ultraviolet inactivation of feline calicivirus, human enteric viruses and coliphages. Photochem Photobiol 2002;76(4):406410.
199. Gulati, BR, Allwood, PB, Hedberg, CW, Goyal, SM. Efficacy of commonly used disinfectants for the inactivation of calicivirus on strawberry, lettuce, and a food-contact surface. J Food Prot 2001;64(9):14301434.
200. Doultree, JC, Druce, JD, Birch, CJ, Bowden, DS, Marshall, JA. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a Norwalk virus surrogate. J Hosp Infect 1999;41(1):5157.
201. Shin, GA, Sobsey, MD. Reduction of norwalk virus, poliovirus 1 and coliphage MS2 by monochloramine disinfection of water. Water Sci Technol 1998;38(12):151154.
202. Rossignol, JF, El-Gohary, YM. Nitazoxanide in the treatment of viral gastroenteritis: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006;24(10):14231430.
203. Gustafson, TL, Kobylik, B, Hutcheson, RH, Schaffner, W. Protective effect of anticholinergic drugs and psyllium in a nosocomial outbreak of Norwalk gastroenteritis. J Hosp Infect 1983;4(4):367374.
204. Yoder, J, Roberts, V, Craun, GF, et al. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking: United States, 2005-2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008;57(9):3962.
205. Cooper, E, Blarney, S. A norovirus gastroenteritis epidemic in a long-term-care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005;26(3):256258.
206. Russo, PL, Spelman, DW, Harrington, GA, et al. Hospital out-break of Norwalk-like virus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18(8):576579.
207. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Multisite outbreak of norovirus associated with a franchise restaurant: Kent County, Michigan, May 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006;55(14):395397.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed