Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Guidelines for the Management of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections

  • Leonard A. Mermel (a1), Barry M. Farr (a2), Robert J. Sherertz (a3), Issam I. Raad (a4), Naomi O'Grady (a5), JoAnn S. Harris (a6) and Donald E. Craven (a7) (a8)...
Extract

These guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American College of Critical Care Medicine (for the Society of Critical Care Medicine), and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America contain recommendations for the management of adults and children with, and diagnosis of infections related to, peripheral and nontunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), pulmonary artery catheters, tunneled central catheters, and implantable devices. The guidelines, written for clinicians, contain IDSA evidence-based recommendations for assessment of the quality and strength of the data. Recommendations are presented according to the type of catheter, the infecting organism, and the associated complications.

Intravascular catheter-related infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, aerobic gram-negative bacilli, and Candida albicans most commonly cause catheter-related bloodstream infection. Management of catheter-related infection varies according to the type of catheter involved. After appropriate cultures of blood and catheter samples are done, empirical iv antimicrobial therapy should be initiated on the basis of clinical clues, the severity of the patient's acute illness, underlying disease, and the potential pathogen (s) involved. In most cases of nontunneled CVC-related bacteremia and fungemia, the CVC should be removed.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Lahey Clinic Medical Center, Burlington, MA 01806 (Donald.E.Craven@Lahey.org)
References
Hide All
1. Gross, PA, Barrett, TL, Dellinger, P, et al. Purpose of quality standards for infectious diseases. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 1994;18:421.
2. Maki, DG, Mermel, LA. Infections due to infusion therapy. In: Bennett, JV, Brachman, PS, eds. Hospital Infections. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1998:689724.
3. Pearson, ML, Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). Guideline for prevention of intravascular-device-related infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:438–73
4. Jarvis, WR, Edwards, JE, Culver, DH, et al. Nosocomial infection rates in adult and pediatric intensive care units in the United States. Am J Med 1991;91(Suppl 3B):185S–91S.
5. Mayhall, CG. Diagnosis and management of infections of implantable devices used for prolonged venous access. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis 1992;12:83110.
6. Sherertz, RJ, Heard, SO, Raad, II. Diagnosis of triple-lumen catheter infection: comparison of roll plate, sonification, and flushing methodologies. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35:641–6.
7. American Academy of Pediatrics. Red Book 2000: Report of a Committee on Infectious Diseases. 25th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2000.
8. Nelson, JD. 2000 Pocket Book of Pediatric Antimicrobial Therapy. 14th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2000.
9. Pittet, D, Tamara, D, Wenzel, RP. Nosocomial bloodstream infection in critically ill patients: excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality. JAMA 1994;271:1598–601.
10. Byers, K, Adal, K, Anglim, A, et al. Case fatality rate for catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRSBI): a meta-analysis [abstract 43]. In: Proceedings of the 5th Annual Meeting of the Society for Hospital Epidemiology of America, 1995.
11. Kiehn, TE, Armstrong, D. Changes in the spectrum of organisms causing bacteremia and fungemia in immunocompromised patients due to venous access devices. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1990;9:869–72.
12. Siegman-Igra, Y, Anglim, AM, Shapiro, DE, et al. Diagnosis of vascular catheter-related bloodstream infection: a meta-analysis. J Clin Microbial 1997;35:928–36.
13. Brun-Buisson, C, Abrouk, F, Legrand, P, et al. Diagnosis of central venous catheter-related sepsis: critical level of quantitative tip cultures. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:873–7.
14. Maki, DG, Weise, CE, Sarafin, HW. A semiquantitative culture method for identifying intravenous catheter-related infections. N Engl J Med 1977;296:1305–9.
15. Mermel, LA, Maki, DG. Infectious complications of Swan-Ganz pulmonary artery catheters and peripheral arterial catheters. In: Seifert, H, Jansen, B, Farr, BM, eds. Catheter-Related Infections. New York: Marce Dekker, 1997:259305.
16. Kite, P, Dobbins, BM, Wilcox, MH, et al. Rapid diagnosis of central-venous-catheter-related bloodstream infection without catheter removal. Lancet 1999;354:1504–7.
17. DesJardin, J. Clinical utility of blood cultures drawn from indwelling central venous catheters in hospitalized patients with cancer. Ann Intern Med 1999;131:641–7.
18. Dunne, WM Jr Nolte, FS, Wilson, ML. Blood cultures III. In: Hindler, JA, ed. Cumitech IB. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1997:121.
19. Fan, ST, Teoh-Chan, CH, Lau, KF. Evaluation of central venous catheter sepsis by differential quantitative blood culture. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1989;8:142–4.
20. Blot, F, Schmidt, E, Nitenberg, G, et al. Earlier positivity of central venous versus peripheral blood cultures is highly predictive of catheter related sepsis. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:105–9.
21. Blot, F, Nitenberg, G, Chachaty, E, et al. Diagnosis of catheter-related bacteremia: a prospective comparison of the time to positivity of hub-blood versus peripheral-blood cultures. Lancet 1999;354:1071–7.
22. Rello, J, Coll, P, Prats, G. Evaluation of culture techniques for diagnosis of catheter-related sepsis in critically ill patients [letter]. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1992;11:1192–3.
23. Kristinsson, KG. Diagnosis of catheter-related infections. In: Seifert, H, Jansen, B, Farr, BM, eds. Catheter-Related Infections. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997:3157.
24. Pettigrew, RA, Lang, SDR, Haydock, DA, et al. Catheter-related sepsis in patients on intravenous nutrition: a prospective study of quantitative catheter cultures and guidewire changes for suspected sepsis. Br J Surg 1985;72:52–5.
25. Armstrong, CW, Mayhall, CG, Miller, KB, et al. Prospective study of catheter replacement and other risk factors for infection of hyperalimentation catheters. J Infect Dis 1986;154:808–16.
26. Raad, I, Davis, S, Khan, A, et al. Impact of central venous catheter removal on the recurrence of catheter-related coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteremia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:215–21.
27. Li, JS, Sexton, DJ, Mick, N, et al. Proposed modifications to the Duke Criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis 2000;30:633–8.
28. Hartstein, AI, Mulligan, ME, Morthland, VH. Recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. J Clin Microbiol 1992;30:670–4.
29. Rosen, AB, Fowler, VG, Corey, GR, et al. Cost-effectiveness of transesophageal echocardiography to determine the duration of therapy for intravascular catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:810–20.
30. Fowler, VG, Li, J, Corey, GR, et al. Role of echocardiography in evaluation of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: experience in 103 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30:1072–3.
31. Raad, I. Optimal duration of therapy for catheter-related Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a study of 55 cases and review. Clin Infect Dis 1992;14:7582.
32. Peacock, SJ, Eddleston, M, Emptage, A, et al. Positive intravenous line tip cultures as predictors of bacteremia. J Hosp Infect 1998;40:35–8.
33. Arnow, PM, Quimosing, EM, Beach, M. Consequences of intravascular catheter sepsis. Clin Infect Dis 1993;16:778–84.
34. Raad, I. Intravascular-catheter-related infections. Lancet 1998;351:893–8.
35. Velez, LA, Mermel, LA, Zilz, MA, et al. Epidemiologic and microbiologic features of nosocomial bloodstream infection (NBSI) implicating a vascular catheter source: a case-control study of 85 vascular catheter-related and 101 secondary NBSIs [abstract]. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:562.
36. Dugdale, DC, Ramsey, P. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with Hickman catheters. Am J Med 1990;89:137–41.
37. Gaillard, JL, Merlino, R, Pajot, N, et al. Conventional and nonconventional modes of vancomycin administration to decontaminate the internal surface of catheters colonized with coagulase-negative staphylococci. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1990;14:593–7.
38. Rao, JS, O'Meara, A, Harvey, T, et al. A new approach to the management of Broviac catheter infection. J Hosp Infect 1992;22:109–16.
39. Messing, B, Man, F, Colimon, R, et al. Antibiotic lock technique is an effective treatment of bacterial catheter related sepsis during parenteral nutrition. Clin Nutr 1990;9:220–7.
40. Capdevila, JA, Segarra, A, Planes, A, et al. Long term follow-up of patients with catheter related sepsis (CRS) treated without catheter removal [abstract J3]. In: Program and Abstracts of the 35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (San Francisco). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1995.
41. Capdevila, JA, Segarra, A, Planes, AM, et al. Successful treatment of haemodialysis catheter-related sepsis without catheter removal. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1993;8:231–4.
42. Capdevila, JA, Barbera, J, Gavalda, J, et al. Diagnosis and conservative management (CM) of infection related to long term venous catheterization (CI) in AIDS patients [abstract J55]. In: Program and Abstracts of the 34th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Orlando, FL). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1994:69.
43. Krzywda, EA, Andris, DA, Edmiston, CE, et al. Treatment of Hickman catheter sepsis using antibiotic lock technique. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:596–8.
44. Andris, DA, Krzywda, EA, Edmiston, CE, et al. Elimination of intraluminal colonization by antibiotic lock in silicone vascular catheters. Nutrition 1998;14:427–32.
45. Domingo, P, Fontanet, A, Sanchez, F, et al. Morbidity associated with long-term use of totally implantable ports in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:346–51.
46. Gibson, SP, Mosquera, D. Five years' experience with the Quinton Permcath for vascular access. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1991;6:269–74.
47. Rello, J, Gatell, JM, Almirall, J, et al. Evaluation of culture techniques for identification of catheter-related infection in hemodialysis patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1989;8:620–2.
48. Saltissi, D, Macfarlane, DJ. Successful treatment of Pseudomonas paucimobilis haemodialysis catheter-related sepsis without catheter removal. Postgrad Med 1994;70:47–8.
49. Carlisle, EJ, Blake, P, McCarthy, F, et al. Septicemia in long-term jugular hemodialysis catheters: eradicating infection by changing the catheter over a guide wire. Int J Artif Organs 1991;14:150–3.
50. Kairraitis, LK, Gottlieb, T. Outcome and complications of temporary haemodialysis catheters. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999;14:1710–4.
51. Boelaert, JR, Van Landyt, HW, Godard, CA, et al. Nasal mupirocin ointment decreases the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in hemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1993;8:235–9.
52. Holton, DL, Nicolle, LE, Diley, D, et al. Efficacy of mupirocin nasal ointment in eradicating Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in chronic hemodialysis patients. J Hosp Infect 1991;17:133–7.
53. Watanakunakorn, C, Brandt, J, Durkin, P, et al. The efficacy of mupirocin ointment and chlorhexidine body scrubs in the eradication of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Am J Infect Control 1992;20:138–41.
54. Reagan, DR, Doebbeling, BD, Pfaller, MA, et al. Elimination of coincident Staphylococcus aureus nasal and hand carriage with intranasal application of mupirocin calcium ointment. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:101–6.
55. Cooper, GL, Hopkins, CC. Rapid diagnosis of intravascular catheter-associated infection by direct gram staining of catheter segments. N Engl J Med 1985;312:1142–7.
56. Raad, I, Costerton, W, Sabharwal, U, et al. Ultrastructural analysis of indwelling vascular catheters: a quantitative relationship between luminal colonization and duration of placement. J Infect Dis 1993;168:400–7.
57. Schmitt, SK, Knapp, C, Hall, GS, Longworth, DL, McMahon, JT, Washington, JA. Impact of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated central venous catheters on in vitro quantitation of catheter-associated bacteria. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34:508–11.
58. Maki, DG, Stolz, SM, Wheeler, S, et al. Prevention of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection by use of an antiseptic-impregnated catheter: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1997;127:257–66.
59. Cleri, DJ, Corrado, ML, Seligman, SJ. Quantitative culture of intravenous catheters and other intravascular inserts. J Infect Dis 1980;141:781–6.
60. Sherertz, RJ, Raad, II, Belani, A, et al. Three-year experience with sonicated vascular catheter cultures in a clinical microbiology laboratory. J Clin Microbiol 1990;28:7682.
61. Irwig, L, Tosteson, ANA, Gatsonis, C, et al. Guidelines for meta-analyses evaluating diagnostic tests. Ann Intern Med 1994;120:667–76.
62. Capdevilla, JA, Planes, AM, Polomar, M, et al. Value of differential quantitative blood cultures in the diagnosis of catheter-related sepsis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1992;11:403–7.
63. La Quaglia, MP, Caldwell, C, Lucas, A, et al. A prospective randomized double-blind trial of bolus urokinase in the treatment of established Hickman catheter sepsis in children. J Pediatr Surg 1994;29:742–5.
64. Atkinson, JB, Chamberlin, K, Boody, BA. A prospective randomized trial of urokinase as an adjuvant in the treatment of proven Hickman catheter-sepsis. J Pediatr Surg 1998;33:714–6.
65. Raad, II, Sabbagh, MF. Optimal duration of therapy for catheter-related Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a study of 55 cases and review. Clin Infect Dis 1992;14:7582.
66. Garrison, PK, Freedman, LR. Experimental endocarditis I. Staphylococcal endocarditis in rabbits resulting from placement of a polyethylene catheter in the right side of the heart. Yale J Biol Med 1970;42:394410.
67. Widmer, AF, Nettleman, M, Flint, K, et al. The clinical impact of culturing central venous catheters. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:1299–302.
68. Herwaldt, LA, Geiss, M, Kao, C, et al. The positive predictive value of isolating coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood cultures. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:1420.
69. Chambers, H, Miller, R, Newman, M. Right-sided Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers: two-week combination therapy. Ann Intern Med 1988;109:619–24.
70. Archer, GL. Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase negative staphylococci. In: Mandell, GL, Bennett, JE, Dolin, R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 5th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 2000:2092–100.
71. Massanari, RM, Donta, ST. The efficacy of rifampin as adjunctive therapy in selected cases of staphylococcal endocarditis. Chest 1978;73:371–5.
72. Vasquez, GJ, Archer, GL. Antibiotic therapy of experimental Staphylococcus epidermidis endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1980;17:280–5.
73. Karchmer, AW, Archer, GL, Dismukes, WE. Staphylococcus epidermidis prosthetic valve endocarditis: microbiological and clinical observations as guide to therapy. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:447–55.
74. Kobasa, WD, Kaye, KL, Shapiro, T, et al. Therapy for experimental endocarditis due to Staphylococcus epidermidis . Rev Infect Dis 1983;5:S533–7.
75. Herrmann, M, Peters, G. Catheter-associated infections caused by coagulase negative staphylococci: clinical and biological aspects. In: Seifert, H, Jansen, B, Farr, BM, eds. Catheter-Related Infections. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997:79109.
76. Benoit, JL, Carandang, G, Sitrin, M, et al. Intraluminal antibiotic treatment of central venous catheter infections in patients receiving parenteral nutrition at home. Clin Infect Dis 1995;21:1286–8.
77. Malanoski, G, Samore, M, Pefanis, A, et al. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: minimal effective therapy and unusual infectious complications associated with arterial sheath catheters. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:1161–6.
78. Fowler, VG, Sanders, LL, Sexton, DJ, et al. Outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia according to compliance with recommendations of infectious diseases specialists: experience with 244 patients. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:478–86.
79. Nguyen, MH, Peacock, JE Jr Tanner, DC, et al. Therapeutic approaches in patients with candidemia: evaluation in a multicenter prospective observational study. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:2429–35.
80. Hospital Infection Control Practices and Advisory Committee (HICPAC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for preventing the spread of vancomycin resistance. HICPAC. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:105–13.
81. Small, P, Chambers, HF. Vancomycin for Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990;34:1227–31.
82. Levine, DP, Fromm, B, Reddy, B. Slow response to vancomycin or vancomycin plus rifampin therapy among patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . Ann Intern Med 1991;115:674–80.
83. Libman, H, Arbeit, RD. Complications associated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:541–5.
84. Benezra, D, Kiehn, TE, Gold, JWM, et al. Prospective study of infections in indwelling central venous catheters using quantitative blood cultures. Am J Med 1988;85:495–8.
85. Williams, N, Carlson, GL, Scott, NA, et al. Incidence and management of catheter-related sepsis in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition. Br J Surg 1994;81:392–4.
86. Rubin, LG, Shih, S, Shende, A, et al. Cure of implantable venous port-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric hematology-oncology patients without catheter removal. Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:102–5.
87. Elting, LS, Bodey, GP. Septicemia due to Xanthomonas species and non-aeruginosa Pseudomonas species: increasing incidence of catheter-related infections. Medicine (Baltimore) 1990;69:296306.
88. Seifert, H, Strate, A, Pulverer, G. Nosocomial bacteremia due to Acinetobacter baumannii: clinical features, epidemiology, and predictors of mortality. Medicine 1995;74:340–9.
89. Widmer, AF, Wiestner, A, Frei, R, et al. Killing of non-growing and adherent Escherichia coli determines drug efficacy in device-related infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1991;35:741–6.
90. Ishida, H, Ishida, Y, Kurosaka, Y, et al. In vitro and in vivo activities of levofloxacin against biofilm-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998;42:1641–5.
91. Ashby, MJ, Neale, SJ, Knott, SJ, et al. Effect of antibiotics on non-growing planktonic cells and biofilms of Escherichia coli . J Antimicrob Chemother 1994;33:443–52.
92. Voss, A. Miscellaneous organisms. In: Seifert, H, Jansen, B, Farr, BM, eds. Catheter-Related Infections. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997:157–82.
93. Seifert, H. Catheter-related infections due to gram-negative bacilli. In: Seifert, H, Jansen, B, Farr, BM, eds. Catheter-Related Infections. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997:111–38.
94. Gill, MV, Klein, NC, Cuhna, BA. Unusual organisms causing intravenous line infections in compromised hosts. I. Bacterial and algal infections. Infect Dis Clin Pract 1996;5:244–55.
95. Rex, JH, Bennett, JE, Sugar, AM, et al. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with amphotericin B for the treatment of candidemia in patients without neutropenia. N Engl J Med 1994;331:1325–30.
96. Rex, JH, Walsh, TJ, Sobel, JD, et al. Practice guidelines for the treatment of candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis 2000;30:662–78.
97. Rex, JH, Bennett, JE, Sugar, AM, et al. Intravascular catheter exchange and duration of candidemia. Clin Infect Dis 1995;21:994–6.
98. Pittet, D, Hulliger, S, Auckenthaler, R. Intravascular device-related infections in critically ill patients. J Chemother 1995;7:5566.
99. Edwards, JE, Bodey, GP, Bowden, RA, et al. International conference for the development of a consensus on the management and prevention of severe candidal infections. Clin Infect Dis 1997;25:4359.
100. Johnson, DC, Johnson, FL, Goldman, S. Preliminary results treating persistent central venous catheter infections with the antibiotic lock technique in pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994;13:930–1.
101. Arnow, P, Kushner, R. Malassezia furfur catheter infection cured with antibiotic lock therapy [letter]. Am J Med 1991;90:128–30.
102. Marcon, MJ, Powell, DA. Human infections due to Malassezia spp. Clin Microbiol Rev 1992;5:101–19.
103. Barber, GR, Brown, AE, Kiehn, TE, et al. Catheter-related Malassezia furfur fungemia in immunocompromised patients. Am J Med 1993;95:365–70.
104. Verghese, A, Widrich, WC, Arbeit, RD. Central venous septic thrombophlebitis: the role of medical therapy. Medicine (Baltimore) 1985;64:394400.
105. Strinden, WD, Helgerson, RB, Maki, DG. Candida septic thrombosis of the great central veins associated with central catheters. Ann Surg 1985;202:653–8.
106. Topiel, MS, Bryan, RT, Kessler, CM, et al. Case report: treatment of Silastic catheter-induced central vein septic thrombophlebitis. Am J Med Sci 1986;291:425–8.
107. Kaufman, J, Demas, C, Stark, K, et al. Catheter-related septic central venous thrombosis: current therapeutic options. West J Med 1986;145:200–3.
108. Fry, DE, Fry, RV, Borzotta, AP. Nosocomial blood-borne infection secondary to intravascular devices. Am J Surg 1994;167:268–72.
109. Andes, DR, Urban, AW, Archer, CW, et al. Septic thrombosis of the maxillary and subclavian veins caused by a peripherally inserted central venous catheter. Am J Med 1998;105:446–50.
110. Maki, DG, McCormick, RD, Uman, SJ, et al. Septic endarteritis due to intra-arterial catheters for cancer chemotherapy. I. Evaluation of an outbreak. II. Risk factors, clinical features and management. III. Guidelines for prevention. Cancer 1979;44:1228–40.
111. Falk, PS, Scuderi, PE, Sherertz, RJ, et al. Infected radial artery pseudoaneurysms occurring after percutaneous cannulation. Chest 1992;101:490–5.
112. Torres-Rojas, JR, Stratton, CW, Sanders, CV, et al. Candidal suppurative peripheral thrombophlebitis. Ann Intern Med 1982;96:431–5.
113. Walsh, TJ, Bustamente, CI, Vlahov, D, et al. Candidal suppurative peripheral thrombophlebitis: recognition, prevention, and management. Infect Control 1986;7:1622.
114. Garrison, RN, Richardson, JD, Fry, DE. Catheter-associated septic thrombophlebitis. South Med J 1982;75:917–9.
115. Wilson, WR, Karchmer, AW, Dajani, AS, et al. Antibiotic treatment of adults with infective endocarditis due to streptococci, enterococci, staphylococci, and HACEK microorganisms. JAMA 1995;274:1706–13.
116. Fang, G, Keys, TF, Gentry, LO, et al. Prosthetic valve endocarditis resulting from nosocomial bacteremia: a prospective, multicenter study. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:560–7.
117. Lamas, CC, Evkyn, SJ. Hospital acquired native valve endocarditis: analysis of 22 cases presenting over 11 years. Heart 1998;79:442–7.
118. Fernandez-Guerrero, ML, Verdejo, C, Azofra, J, et al. Hospital-acquired infectious endocarditis not associated with cardiac surgery: an emerging problem. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:1623.
119. Terpenning, MS, Buggy, BP, Kaufman, CA. Hospital-acquired infective endocarditis. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:1601–3.
120. Torres-Tortosa, M, de Cueto, M, Vergara, A, et al. Prospective evaluation of a two-week course of intravenous antibiotics in intravenous drug addicts with infective endocarditis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1994;13:559–64.
121. Ribera, E, Gomez-Jimenez, J, Cortes, E, et al. Effectiveness of cloxacillin with and without gentamicin in short-term therapy for right-sided Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:969–73.
122. Hogevik, H, Alestig, K. Fungal endocarditis: a report on seven cases and a brief review. Infection 1996;24:1721.
123. Dahlberg, PJ, Yutuc, WR, Newcomer, KL. Subclavian hemodialysis catheter infections. Am J Kidney Dis 1986;7:421–7.
124. Almirall, J, Gonzalez, J, Rello, J, et al. Infection of hemodialysis catheters: incidence and mechanisms. Am J Nephrol 1989;9:454–9.
125. Cheeseborough, JS, Finch, RG, Burden, RP. A prospective study of the mechanism of infection associated with hemodialysis catheters. J Infect Dis 1986;154:579–89.
126. Keane, WF, Shapiro, FL, Raij, L. Incidence and type of infection occurring in 445 chronic hemodialysis patients. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1977;23:41–7.
127. Pezzarossi, HE, Ponce de Leon, S, Calva, JJ, et al. High incidence of subclavian dialysis catheter bacteremias. Infect Control 1986;7:596–9.
128. Shaffer, D, Madras, PN, Williams, ME, et al. Use of Dacron cuffed silicone catheters as long-term hemodialysis access. ASAIO J 1992;38:55–8.
129. Dobkin, JF, Miller, MH, Steigbigel, NH. Septicemia in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Ann Intern Med 1978;88:2833.
130. Uldall, PR, Merchant, N, Woods, F, et al. Changing subclavian hemodialysis cannulas to reduce infection. Lancet 1981;1:1373.
131. Cappello, M, DePauw, L, Bayer, A. Central venous access for hemodialysis using the Hickman catheter. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1989;4:988–92.
132. Schwab, SJ, Buller, GL, McCann, RL, et al. Prospective evaluation of a Dacron cuffed hemodialysis catheter for prolonged use. Am J Kidney Dis 1988;11:166–9.
133. Levin, A, Mason, AJ, Jindal, KK, Fong, IE, Goldstein, MB. Prevention of hemodialysis subclavian vein catheter infections by topical povidone-iodine. Kidney Int 1991;40:934–8.
134. Kirmani, N, Tuazon, CU, Murray, HW, et al. Staphylococcus aureus carriage rate of patients receiving long-term hemodialysis. Arch Intern Med 1978;138:1657–9.
135. Yu, VL, Goetz, A, Wagener, M, et al. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and infection in patients on hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 1986;315:91–6.
136. Tuazon, CU. Skin and skin structure infection in the patient at risk: carrier state of Staphylococcus aureus . Am J Med 1984;76(Suppl 51):166–71.
137. Goldblum, SE, Ulrich, JA, Reed, WP. Nasal and cutaneous flora among hemodialysis patients and personnel: quantitative characterization and pattern of staphylococcal carriage. Am J Kidney Dis 1982;2:281–6.
138. Wurzel, CL, Halom, K, Feldman, JG, et al. Infection rates of Broviac-Hickman catheters and implantable venous devices. Am J Dis Child 1988;142:536–40.
139. Shapiro, ED, Wald, ER, Nelson, KA, et al. Broviac catheter-related bacteremia in oncology patients. Am J Dis Child 1982;136:679–81.
140. Press, OW, Ramsey, PG, Larson, EB, et al. Hickman catheter infections in patients with malignancies. Medicine (Baltimore) 1984;63:189200.
141. Prince, A, Heller, B, Levy, J, et al. Management of fever in patients with central vein catheters. Pediatr Infect Dis 1986;5:20–4.
142. King, DR, Komer, M, Hoffman, J, et al. Broviac catheter sepsis: the natural history of an iatrogenic infection. J Pediatr Surg 1985;20:728–33.
143. Hartman, GE, Shochat, SJ. Management of septic complications associated with Silastic catheters in childhood malignancy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987;6:1042–7.
144. Ftynn, PM, Shenep, JL, Stokes, DC, et al. In situ management of confirmed central venous catheter-related bacteremia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987;6:729–34.
145. Rotstein, C, Brock, L, Roberts, RS. The incidence of first Hickman catheter-related infection and predictors of catheter removal in cancer patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:451–8.
146. Schuman, ES. Outpatient management of Hickman catheter sepsis. Infect Surg 1987;6:103–9.
147. Reilly, JJ Jr Steed, DL, Ritter, PS. Indwelling venous access catheters in patients with acute leukemia. Cancer 1984;53:219–23.
148. Hickman, RO, Buckner, CD, Clift, RA, et al. A modified right atrial catheter for access to the venous system in marrow transplant recipients. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1979;148:871–5.
149. Lazarus, HM, Lowder, JN, Herzig, RH. Occlusion and infection in Broviac catheters during intensive cancer therapy. Cancer 1983;52:2342–8.
150. Simon, VC, Simon, M. Antibacterial activity of teicoplanin and vancomycin in combination with rifampicin, fusidic acid, or fosfomycin against staphylococci on vein catheters. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 1990;72:14–9.
151. Guggenbichler, JP, Berchtold, D, Allerberger, FR, et al. In vitro and in vivo effect on antibiotics on catheters colonized by staphylococci. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1992;11:408–15.
152. De Arellano, ER, Pascual, A, Martinez-Martinez, L, et al. Activity of eight antibacterial agents on Staphylococcus epidermidis attached to Teflon catheters. J Med Microbiol 1994;40:43–7.
153. Kropec, A, Huebner, J, Wursthorn, M, et al. In vitro activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin against Staphylococcus epidermidis colonizing catheters. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1993;12:545–8.
154. Pascual, A, Arellano, ER, Martinez-Martinez, L, et al. Effect of polyurethane catheters and bacterial biofilms on the in-vitro activity of antimicrobials against Staphylococcus epidermidis . J Hosp Infect 1993;24:211–8.
155. Sherertz, RJ. Pathogenesis of vascular catheter-related infections. In: Seifert, H, Jansen, B, Farr, BM, eds. Catheter-Related Infections. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997:129.
156. Messing, B, Pietra-Cohen, S, Dubure, A, et al. Antibiotic-lock technique: a new approach to optimal therapy for catheter-related sepsis in home-parenteral nutrition patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1988;12:185–9.
157. Douard, MC, Arlet, G, Leverger, G, et al. Quantitative blood cultures for diagnosis and management of catheter-related sepsis in pediatric hematology and oncology patients. Intensive Care Med 1991;17:30–5.
158. Cowan, C. Antibiotic lock technique. J Intraven Nurs 1992;15:283–7.
159. Krywda, E, Gotoff, R, Andris, D, et al. Antibiotic lock treatment (ALT): impact on catheter salvage and cost savings [abstract J4]. In: Program and Abstracts of the 35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (San Francisco). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1995.
160. Longuet, P, Douard, M, Maslo, C, et al. Limited efficacy of antibiotic lock techniques (ALT) in catheter related bacteremia of totally im-planted ports (TIP) in HW infected and oncologic patients [abstract J5]. In: Program and Abstracts of the 35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (San Francisco). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1995.
161. Elian, J, Frappaz, D, Ros, A, et al. Study of serum kinetics of vancomycin during the “antibiotic-lock” technique [in French]. Arch Fr Pediatr 1992;49:357–60.
162. Saxinger, LM, Williams, KE, Lyon, M, et al. Stability of antibiotics in heparin at 37°C: toward antibiotic locks for central venous catheter related infections [abstract 626]. In: Program and Abstracts of the 39th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (San Francisco). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1999.
163. Christensen, GD, Bisno, AL, Parisi, JT, et al. Nosocomial septicemia due to multiply antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis . Ann Intern Med 1982;96:110.
164. Winston, DJ, Dudnick, DV, Chapin, M, et al. Coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteremia in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Arch Intern Med 1983;143:32–6.
165. Sattler, FR, Foderaro, JB, Aber, RC. Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteremia associated with vascular catheters: an important cause of febrile morbidity in hospitalized patients. Infect Control 1984;5:279–83.
166. Sherertz, RJ, Falk, RJ, Thomann, CA, et al. Infections associated with subclavian Uldall catheters. Arch Intern Med 1983;143:52–6.
167. Engelhard, D, Elishoov, H, Strauss, N, et al. Nosocomial coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in bone marrow transplantation recipients with central vein catheter. Transplantation 1996;61:430–4.
168. Rabinovich, S, Smith, I, January, LE. The changing patterns of bacterial endocarditis. Med Clin North Am 1968;52:1091–101.
169. Lerner, P, Weinstein, L. Infective endocarditis in the antibiotic era. N Engl J Med 1966;274:388–93.
170. Hamburger, M. Treatment of bacterial endocarditis. Mod Treat 1964;1:1003–15.
171. Mylotte, J, McDermott, C, Spooner, JA. Prospective study of 114 consequences episodes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Rev Infect Dis 1987;9:891907.
172. Nolan, C, Beaty, H. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: current clinical patterns. Am J Med 1976;60:495500.
173. Iannini, P, Crossley, K. Therapy of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia associated with a removable focus of infection. Ann Intern Med 1976;84:558–60.
174. Bayer, A, Tillman, D, Conception, N. Clinical value teichoic acid antibody titers in the diagnosis and management of the staphylococcemias. West J Med 1980;132:294300.
175. Ehni, W, Reller, L. Short-course therapy for catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:533–6.
176. Jernigan, JA, Farr, B. Short course therapy of catheter related Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:304–11.
177. Jacobson, M, Gellermann, H, Chambers, H. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and recurrent staphylococcal infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and AIDS related complex. Am J Med 1988;85:172–6.
178. Mortara, L, Bayer, A. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1993;7:5369.
179. Schrenzel, J, Schockmel, G, Bregenzer, T, et al. Severe staphylococcal infections: A randomized trial comparing quinolone + rifampin Civ then po) with conventional iv therapy [abstract 93]. In: Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (San Francisco). Alexandria, VA: Infectious Diseases Society of America, 1998.
180. Dworkin, RJ, Lee, BL, Sande, MA, et al. Treatment of right sided Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis in intravenous drug users with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Lancet 1989;2:1071–3.
181. Heldman, AW, Hartert, TV, Ray, SC, et al. Oral antibiotic treatment of right-sided staphylococcal endocarditis in injection drug users: prospective randomized comparison with parenteral therapy. Am J Med 1996;101:6876.
182. Acocella, G. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of rifampin in humans. Rev Infect Dis 1983;5(Suppl 3):S428–32.
183. Farr, BM. Rifamycins. In: Mandell, GL, Douglas, RG Jr Bennett, JE, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 5th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000:348–61.
184. Rose, HD. Venous catheter-associated candidemia. Am J Med Sci 1978;275:265–9.
185. Anaissie, EJ, Vartivarian, SE, Abi-Said, D, et al. Fluconazole versus amphotericin B in the treatment of hematogenous candidiasis: a matched cohort study. Am J Med 1996;101:170–6.
186. Eppes, SC, Troutman, H, Gutman, LT. Outcome of treatment of candidemia in children whose central catheters were removed or retained. Pedtatr Infect Dis 1989;8:99104.
187. Dato, VM, Dajani, AS. Candidemia in children with central venous catheters: role of catheter removal and amphotericin B therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1990;9:309–14.
188. Lecciones, JA, Lee, JW, Navarro, EE, et al. Vascular catheter-associated fungemia in patients with cancer: analysis of 155 episodes. Clin Infect Dis 1992;14:875–83.
189. Kulak, K, Maki, DG. Treatment of Hickman catheter-related candidemia without removing the catheter [abstract 832]. In: Program and Abstracts of the 32nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Anaheim, CA). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1992.
190. Anaissie, E, Rex, JH, Uzun, O, et al. Prognosis and outcome of candidemia in cancer patients. Am J Med 1998;104:238–45.
191. Baltimore, RS. Neonatal nosocomial infections. Semin Perinatol 1998;22:2532.
192. Weiner, ES. Catheter sepsis: the central venous line Achilles' heel. Semin Pediatr Surg 1995;4:207–14.
193. Weiner, ES, McGuire, P, Stolar, CJH, et al. The CCSG prospective study of venous access devices: an analysis of insertions and causes for removal. J Pediatr Surg 1992;27:155–64.
194. Wang, EEL, Prober, CG, Ford-Jones, L, Gold, R. The management of central venous catheter infections. Pediatr Infect Dis 1984;3:110–3.
195. Nahata, MC, King, DR, Powell, DA, et al. Management of catheter related infections in pediatric patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1988;12:58–9.
196. Stovroff, M, Teague, WG. Intravenous access in infants and children. Pediatr Clin North Am 1998;45:1373–93.
197. National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System. National nosocomial infection surveillance (NNIS) report, data summary from January 1992-April 2000, issued June 2000. Am J Infect Control 2000;28:429–48.
198. Gaynes, RP, Edwards, JR, Jarvis, WR, et al. Nosocomial infections among neonates in high-risk nurseries in the United States. Pediatrics 1996;98:357–61.
199. Huskins, WC, Goldmann, DA. Nosocomial infections. In: Feigin, RD, Cherry, JD, eds. Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1998:2545–85.
200. Freeman, J, Platt, R, Epstein, MF, et al. Coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteremia in the changing neonatal intensive care unit population: is there an epidemic? JAMA 1987;258:2548–52.
201. Decker, MD, Edwards, KM. Central venous catheter infections. Pediatr Clin North Am 1988;35:579612.
202. Jones, GR, Konsler, GK, Dunaway, RP, et al. Prospective analysis of urokinase in the treatment of catheter sepsis in pediatric hematologyoncology patients. J Pediatr Surg 1993;28:350–7.
203. Lacey, SR, Zantsky, A, Azizhan, RG. Successful treatment of Candida infected caval thrombus in critically ill infants by low dose streptokinase infusion. J Pediatr Surg 1988;23:1204–7.
204. Khan, EA, Correa, AG, Baker, CJ. Suppurative thrombophlebitis in children: a ten-year experience. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1997;16:63–7.
205. Graham, DR. Nosocomial fungemia in a normal host. JAMA 1983;250:2791.
206. Wilkins, EGL, Manning, D, Roberts, RC, et al. Quantitative bacteriology of peripheral venous cannulae in neonates. J Hosp Infect 1985;6:209–17.
207. Raad, I, Narro, J, Khan, A, et al. Serious complications of vascular catheter-related Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in cancer patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1992;11:675–82.
208. Kentos, A, Dufaye, P, Jacobs, F, et al. Candida albicans septic thrombosis of the right atrium is associated with a central venous catheter. Clin Infect Dis 1995;21:440–2.
209. Benoit, D, Decruyenaere, J, Vandewoude, K, et al. Management of candidal thrombophlebitis of the central veins: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:393–7.
210. Eggimann, P, Harbarth, S, Constantin, MN, Touveneau, S, Chevrolet, JC, Pittet, D. Impact of a prevention strategy targeted at vascular-access care in incidence of infections acquired in intensive care. Lancet 2000;355:1864–8.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 10 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 584 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.