This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1. RJ Sherertz , EW Ely , DM Westbrook , et al. Education of physicians-in-training can decrease the risk for vascular catheter infection. Ann Intern Med 2000;132:641–648.
2. P Eggimann , S Harbarth , MN Constantin , S Touveneau , JC Chevrolet , D Pittet . Impact of a prevention strategy targeted at vascular-access care on incidence of infections acquired in intensive care. Lancet 2000;355:1864–1868.
3. AE Nehme . Nutritional support of the hospitalized patient: the team concept. JAMA 1980;243:1906–1908.
4. NE Soifer , S Borzak , BR Edlin , RA Weinstein . Prevention of peripheral venous catheter complications with an intravenous therapy team: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:473–477.
6. D Davis , MA O'Brien , N Freemantle , FM Wolf , P Mazmanian , A Taylor-Vaisey . Impact of formal continuing medical education: do conferences, workshops, rounds, and other traditional continuing education activities change physician behavior or health care outcomes? JAMA 1999;282:867–874.
7. JM Conly , S Hill , J Ross , J Lertzman , TJ Louie . Handwashing practices in an intensive care unit: the effects of an educational program and its relationship to infection rates. Am J Infect Control 1989;17:330–339.
11. JW Tomford , CO Hershey , CE McLaren , DK Porter , DI Cohen . Intravenous therapy team and peripheral venous catheter-associated complications: a prospective controlled study. Arch Intern Med 1984; 144:1191–1194.
12. RP Wenzel , RP Wentzel . The development of academic programs for quality assessment. Arch Intern Med 1991;151:653–654.
13. SK Fridkin , SM Pear , TH Williamson , JN GaLgiani , WR Jarvis . The role of understaffing in central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:150–158.
15. AF Vicca . Nursing staff workload as a determinant of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus spread in an adult intensive therapy unit. J Hosp Infect 1999;43:109–113.
17. MC White , KE Ragland . Surveillance of intravenous catheter-related infections among home care clients. Am J Infect Control 1994;22:231–235.
18. AN Lorenzen , DJ Itkin . Surveillance of infection in home care. Am J Infect Control 1992;20:326–329.
20. D Pittet , D Tarana , RP Wenzel . Nosocomial bloodstream infection in critically ill patients', excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality. JAMA 1994;271:1598–1601.
21. II Raad , M Baba , GP Bodey . Diagnosis of catheter-related infections: the role of surveillance and targeted quantitative skin cultures. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:593–597.
22. AF Widmer , M Nettleman , K Flint , RP Wenzel . The clinical impact of culturing central venous catheters: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:1299–1302.
23. EL Larson , WR Rackoff , M Weiman , et al. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:251–269.
25. WE Bischoff , TM Reynolds , CN Sessler , MB Edmond , RP Wenzel . Handwashing compliance by health care workers: the impact of introducing an accessible, alcohol-based hand antiseptic. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1017–1021.
26. D Pittet , S Dharan , S Touveneau , V Sauvan , TV Perneger . Bacterial contamination of the hands of hospital staff during routine patient care. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:821–826.
27. B Simmons , J Bryant , K Neiman , L Spencer , K Arheart . The role of handwashing in prevention of endemic intensive care unit infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1990;11:589–594.
29. LA Mermel , RD McCormick , SR Springman , DG Maki . The pathogenesis and epidemiology of catheter-related infection with pulmonary artery Swan-Ganz catheters: a prospective study utilizing molecular sub-typing. Am J Med 1991;91:197S–205S.
31. JA Capdevila . Catheter-related infection: an update on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Int J Infect Dis 1998;2:230–236.
32. D Abi-Said , I Raad , J Umphrey , et al. Infusion therapy team and dressing changes of central venous catheters. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999; 20:101–105.
34. SP Povoski . A prospective analysis of the cephalic vein cutdown approach for chronic indwelling central venous access in 100 consecutive cancer patients. Ann Surg Oncol 2000;7:496–502.
35. DA Arrighi , MB Farnell , P Mucha Jr, DM Iistrup , DL Anderson . Prospective, randomized trial of rapid venous access for patients in hypovolemic shock. Ann Emerg Med 1989;18:927–930.
36. Z Ahmed , Z Mohyuddin . Complications associated with different insertion techniques for Hickman catheters. Postgrad Med J 1998;74:104–107.
37. DG Maki , M Ringer , CJ Alvarado . Prospective randomised trial of povidone-iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine for prevention of infection associated with central venous and arterial catheters. Lancet 1991;338:339–343.
38. JS Garland , RK Buck , R Maloney et al. Comparison of 10% povidone-iodine and 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate for the prevention of peripheral intravenous catheter colonization in neonates: a prospective trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1995;14:510–516.
39. JR Little , PR Murray , PS Traynor , E Spitznagel . A randomized trial of povidone-iodine compared with iodine tincture for venipuncture site disinfection: effects on rates of blood culture contamination. Am J Med 1999;107:119–125.
40. O Mimoz , L Pieroni , C Lawrence , et al. Prospective, randomized trial of two antiseptic solutions for prevention of central venous or arterial catheter colonization and infection in intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med 1996;24:1818–1823.
41. DG Maki , KN McCormack . Defatting catheter insertion sites in total parenteral nutrition is of no value as an infection control measure: controlled clinical trial. Am J Med 1987;83:833–840.
42. DG Maki , SS Stolz , S Wheeler , LA Mermel . A prospective, randomized trial of gauze and two polyurethane dressings for site care of pulmonary artery catheters: implications for catheter management. Crit Care Med 1994;22:1729–1737.
45. M Madeo , CR Martin , C Turner , V Kirkby , DR Thompson . A randomized trial comparing Arglaes (a transparent dressing containing silver ions) to Tegaderm (a transparent polyurethane dressing) for dressing peripheral arterial catheters and central vascular catheters. Intensive Critical Care Nursing 1998;14:187–191.
46. A Zakrzewska-Bode , HL Muytiens , KD Liem , JA Hoogkamp-Korstanje . Mupirocin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci, after topical prophylaxis for the reduction of colonization of central venous catheters. J Hosp Infect 1995;31:189–193.
47. RH Flowers , KJ Schwenzer , RF Kopel , MJ Fisch , SI Tucker , BM Farr . Efficacy of an attachable subcutaneous cuff for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infection: a randomized, controlled trial. JAMA 1989:261:878–883.
49. PB Howell , PE Walters , GR Donowitz , BM Farr . Risk factors for infection of adult patients with cancer who have tunnelled central venous catheters. Cancer 1995;75:1367–1375.
50. AM Goetz , MM Wagener , JM Miller , RR Muder . Risk of infection due to central venous catheters: effect of site of placement and catheter type. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19:842–845.
51. SJ Trottier , C Veremakis , J O'Brien , AI Auer . Femoral deep vein thrombosis associated with central venous catheterization: results from a prospective, randomized trial. Crit Care Med 1995;23:52–59.
53. C Martin , X Viviand , P Saux , F Gouin . Upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis after central venous catheterization via the axillary vein. Crit Care Med 1999;27:2626–2629.
54. JF Robinson , WA Robinson , A Cohn K Garg , JD Armstrong 2nd. Perforation of the great vessels during central venous line placement. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:1225–1228.
55. FA Lederle , CM Parenti , LC Berskow , KJ Ellingson . The idle intravenous catheter. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:737–738.
56. CM Parenti , FA Lederle , CL Impola , LR Peterson . Reduction of unnecessary intravenous catheter use: internal medicine house staff participate in a successful quality improvement project. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:1829–1832.
58. DK Cobb , KP High , RG Sawyer , et al. A controlled trial of scheduled replacement of central venous and pulmonary-artery catheters. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1062–1068.
59. F Thomas , JP Burke , J Parker , et al. The risk of infection related to radial vs femoral sites for arterial catheterization. Crit Care Med 1983;11:807–812.
60. KK Lai . Safety of prolonging peripheral cannula and i.v. tubing use from 72 hours to 96 hours. Am J Infect Control 1998;26:66–70.
65. NP O'Grady , PS Barie , J Bartlett , et al. Practice parameters for evaluating new fever in critically ill adult patients: Task Force of the American College of Critical Care Medicine of the Society of Critical Care Medicine in collaboration with the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Crit Care Med 1998;26:392–408.
66. LA Mermel , BM Farr , RJ Sherertz , et al. Guidelines for the management of intravascular catheter-related infections. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:1249–1272.
67. A Sitges-Serra J Linares , JL Perez , E Jaurrieta , L Lorente . A randomized trial on the effect of tubing changes on hub contamination and catheter sepsis during parenteral nutrition. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1985; 9:322–325.
69. DG Maki , JT Botticelli , ML LeRoy , TS Thielke . Prospective study of replacing administration sets for intravenous therapy at 48- vs 72-hour intervals: 72 hours is safe and cost-effective. JAMA 1987;258:1777–1781.
71. MA Melly , HC Meng , W Schaffner . Microbiol growth in lipid emulsions used in parenteral nutrition. Arch Surg 1975;110:1479–1481.
72. J Mershon , W Nogami , JM Williams , C Yoder , HE Eitzen , JA Lemons . Bacterial/fungal growth in a combined parenteral nutrition solution. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1986;10:498–502.
74. DG Maki , WT Martin . Nationwide epidemic of septicemia caused by contaminated infusion products: IV. Growth of microbial pathogens in fluids for intravenous infusions. J Infect Dis 1975;131:267–272.
75. ME Didier , S Fischer , DG Maki . Total nutrient admixtures appear safer than lipid emulsion alone as regards microbial contamination: growth properties of microbial pathogens at room temperature. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1998;22:291–296.
77. MJ Arduino , LA Bland , LE Danzig , SK McAllister , SM Aguero . Microbiologic evaluation of needleless and needle-access devices. Am J Infect Control 1997;25:377–380.
78. JD Brown , HA Moss , TS Elliott . The potential for catheter microbial contamination from a needleless connector. J Hosp Infect 1997;36:181–189.
79. ST Cookson , M Ihrig , EM O'Mara , et al. Increased bloodstream infection rates in surgical patients associated with variation from recommended use and care following implementation of a needleless device. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19:23–27.
80. MA Luebke , MJ Arduino , DL Duda , et al. Comparison of the microbial barrier properties of a needleless and a conventional needle-based intravenous access system. Am J Infect Control 1998;26:437–441.
81. LC McDonald , SN Banerjee , WR Jarvis . Line-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric intensive-care-unit patients associated with a needleless device and intermittent intravenous therapy. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19:772–777.
82. MH Mendelson , LJ Short , CB Schechter , et al. Study of a needleless intermittent intravenous-access system for peripheral infusions: analysis of staff, patient, and institutional outcomes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19:401–406.
83. VM Seymour , TS Dhallu , HA Moss SE Tebbs , TS Elliot . A prospective clinical study to investigate the microbial contamination of a needleless connector. J Hosp Infect 2000;45:165–168.
84. AN Do , BJ Ray , SN Banerjee , et al. Bloodstream infection associated with needleless device use and the importance of infection-control practices in the home health care setting. J Infect Dis 1999;179:442–448.
85. KS Crocker , R Noga , DJ Filibeck , SH Krey , M Markovic , WP Steffee . Microbial growth comparisons of five commercial parenteral lipid emulsions. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1984;8:391–395.
89. BB Barrett , JW Andersen , KC Anderson . Strategies for the avoidance of bacterial contamination of blood components. Transfusion 1993;33:228–233.
90. SJ Wagner , LI Friedman , RY Dodd . Transfusion-associated bacterial sepsis. Clin Microbiol Rev 1994;7:290–302.
91. RT Plott , RF Wagner Jr, SK Tyring . Iatrogenic contamination of multi-dose vials in simulated use: a reassessment of current patient injection technique. Arch Dermatol 1990;126:1441–1444.
95. KA Green , B Mustachi , K Schoer , D Moro , R Blend , A McGeer . Gadolinium-based MR contrast media: potential for growth of microbial contaminants when single vials are used for multiple patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;165:669–671.
98. KH Falchuk , L Peterson , BJ McNeil . Microparticulate-induced phlebitis: its prevention by in-line filtration. N Engl J Med 1985;312:78–82.
99. J Cohran , E Larson , H Roach , C Blane , P Pierce . Effect of intravascular surveillance and education program on rates of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Heart Lung 1996;25:161–164.
101. MR Ranson , BA Oppenheim , A Jackson , AG Kamthan , JH Scarffe . Double-blind placebo controlled study of vancomycin prophylaxis for central venous catheter insertion in cancer patients. J Hosp Infect 1990;15:95–102.
102. MA Miller , A Dascal , J Portnoy , J Mendelson . Development of mupirocin resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after widespread use of nasal mupirocin ointment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:811–813.
103. KR Netto dos Santos , L de Souza Fonseca , PP Gontijo Filho . Emergence of high-level mupirocin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Brazilian university hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:813–816.
105. JL Tully , GH Friedland , LM Baldini , DA Goldmann . Complications of intravenous therapy with steel needles and Teflon catheters: a comparative study. Am J Med 1981;70:702–706.
107. DG Maki , DA Goldman , FS Rhame . Infection control in intravenous therapy. Ann Intern Med 1973;79:867–887.
108. DG Maki , M Ringer . Risk factors for infusion-related phlebitis with small peripheral venous catheters: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:845–854.
110. LA Mermel , S Parenteau , SM Tow . The risk of midline catheterization in hospitalized patients: a prospective study. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123:841–844.
111.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System report: data summary from October 1986-April 1998, issued June 1998. Am J Infect Control 1998; 26:522–533.
112.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System report: data summary from January 1990-May 1999, issued June 1999. Am J Infect Control 1999; 27:520–532.
113. SN Banerjee , TG Emori , DH Culver , et al. Secular trends in nosocomial primary bloodstream infections in the United States, 1980-1989: National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Am J Med 1991; 91:86S–89S.
114. TC Horan , TG Emori . Definitions of key terms used in the NNIS System. Am J Infect Control 1997;25:112–116.
115. NA Khuri-Bulos , M Shennak , S Agabi , et al. Nosocomial infections in the intensive care units at a university hospital in a developing country: comparison with National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance intensive care unit rates. Am J Infect Control 1999;27:547–552.
116. D Pittet , RP Wenzel . Nosocomial bloodstream infections: secular trends in rates, mortality, and contribution to total hospital deaths. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:1177–1184.
119. N Clark-Christoff , VA Watters , W Sparks , P Snyder , JP Grant . Use of triple-lumen subclavian catheters for administration of total parenteral nutrition. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1992;16:403–407.
120. TF Early , RT Gregory , JR Wheeler , SO Snyder Jr, RG Gayle . Increased infection rate in double-lumen versus single-lumen Hickman catheters in cancer patients. South Med J 1990;83:34–36.
121. E Hilton , TM Haslett , MT Borenstein , V Tucci , HD Isenberg , C Singer . Central catheter infections: single- versus triple-lumen catheters. Influence of guide wires on infection rates when used for replacement of catheters. Am J Med 1988;84:667–672.
122. C Yeung , J May , R Hughes . Infection rate for single lumen v triple lumen subclavian catheters. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1988;9:154–158.
123. I Raad , R Darouiche , J Dupuis , et al. Central venous catheters coated with minocycline and rifampin for the prevention of catheter-related colonization and bloodstream infections: a randomized, double-blind trial. The Texas Medical Center Catheter Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1997;127:267–274.
124. DL Veenstra , S Saint , S Saha , T Lumley , SD Sullivan . Efficacy of antiseptic-impregnated central venous catheters in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection: a meta-analysis. JAMA 1999;281:261–267.
125. DG Maki , SM Stolz , S Wheeler , LA Mermel . Prevention of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection by use of an antiseptic-impregnated catheter: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1997;127:257–266.
126. DL Veenstra , S Saint , SD Sullivan . Cost-effectiveness of antiseptic-impregnated central venous catheters for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection. JAMA 1999;282:554–560.
128. GR Collin . Decreasing catheter colonization through the use of an antiseptic-impregnated catheter: a continuous quality improvement project. Chest 1999;115:1632–1640.
129. JS Groeger , AB Lucas , HT Thaler , et al. Infectious morbidity associated with long-term use of venous access devices in patients with cancer. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:1168–1174.
130. D Pegues , P Axelrod , C McClarren , et al. Comparison of infections in Hickman and implanted port catheters in adult solid tumor patients. J Surg Oncol 1992;49:156–162.
132. AH Moss , C Vasilakis , JL Holley , CJ Foulks , K Pillai , DE McDowell . Use of a silicone dual-lumen catheter with a Dacron cuff as a long-term vascular access for hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1990;16:211–215.
134. A Levin , AJ Mason , KK Jindal , IW Fong , MB Goldstein . Prevention of hemodialysis subclavian vein catheter infections by topical povidone-iodine. Kidney Int 1991;40:934–938.
136. J Merrer , B De Jonghe , F Golliot , et al. Complications of femoral and subclavian venous catheterization in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001;286:700–707.
137. ST Venkataraman , AE Thompson , RA Orr . Femoral vascular catheterization in critically ill infants and children. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1997; 36:311–319.
138. JP Stenzel , TP Green , BP Fuhrman , PE Carlson , RP Marchessault . Percutaneous femoral venous catheterizations: a prospective study of complications. J Pediatr 1989;114:411–415.
139. AM Goldstein , JM Weber , RL Sheridan . Femoral venous access is safe in burned children: an analysis of 224 catheters. J Pediatr 1997; 130:442–446.
140. F Schillinger , D Schillinger , R Montagnac , T Milcent . Post catheterisation vein stenosis in haemodialysis: comparative angiographic study of 50 subclavian and 50 internal jugular accesses. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1991;6:722–724.
141. GE Cimochowski , E Worley , WE Rutherford , J Sartain , J Blondin , H Harter . Superiority of the internal jugular over the subclavian access for temporary dialysis. Nephron 1990;54:154–161.
143. SO Trerotola , J Kuhn-Fulton , MS Johnson , H Shah , WT Ambrosius , PH Kneebone . Tunneled infusion catheters: increased incidence of symptomatic venous thrombosis after subclavian versus internal jugular venous access. Radiology 2000;217:89–93.
144. S Macdonald , AJ Watt , D McNally , RD Edwards , JG Moss . Comparison of technical success and outcome of tunneled catheters inserted via the jugular and subclavian approaches. J Vase Interv Radiol 2000;11:225–231.
145. Y Cohen , JP Fosse , P Karoubi , et al. The “hands-off” catheter and the prevention of systemic infections associated with pulmonary artery catheter: a prospective study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:284–287.
146. S Eyer , C Brummitt , K Crossley , R Siegel , F Cerra . Catheter-related sepsis: prospective, randomized study of three methods of long-term catheter maintenance. Crit Care Med 1990;18:1073–1079.
147. AF Widmer . Management of catheter-related bacteremia and fungemia in patients on total parenteral nutrition. Nutrition 1997;13:18S–25S.
148. C Powell , KA Kudsk , PA Kulich , JA Mandelbaum , PJ Fabri . Effect of frequent guidewire changes on triple-lumen catheter sepsis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1988;12:462–464.
149. DR Snydman , SA Murray , SJ Kornfeld , JA Majka , CA Ellis . Total parenteral nutrition-related infections: prospective epidemiologic study using semiquantitative methods. Am J Med 1982;73:695–699.
153. LM Vercaigne , DS Sitar , SB Penner , K Bernstein , GQ Wang , FJ Burczynski . Antibiotic-heparin lock: in vitro antibiotic stability combined with heparin in a central venous catheter. Pharmacotherapy 2000;20:394–399.
154. DG Maki , M Ringer . Evaluation of dressing regimens for prevention of infection with peripheral intravenous catheters: gauze, a transparent polyurethane dressing, and an iodophor-transparent dressing. JAMA 1987;258:2396–2403.
155. JS Garland , CP Alex , CD Mueller , et al. A randomized trial comparing povidone-iodine to a chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated dressing for prevention of central venous catheter infections in neonates. Pediatrics 2001;107:1431–1436.
157. S Riu , CG Ruiz , A Martinez-Vea , C Peralta , JA Oliver . Spontaneous rupture of polyurethane peritoneal catheter: a possible deleterious effect of mupirocin ointment. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998;13:1870–1871.
158. LG Donowitz , FJ Marsik , JW Hoyt , RP Wenzel . Serratia marcescens bacteremia from contaminated pressure transducers. JAMA 1979;242:1749–1751.
159. RL Luskin , RA Weinstein , C Nathan , WH Chamberlin , SA Kabins . Extended use of disposable pressure transducers: a bacteriologie evaluation. JAMA 1986;255:916–920.
160. DG Maki , CA Hassemer . Endemic rate of fluid contamination and related septicemia in arterial pressure monitoring. Am J Med 1981;70:733–738.
162. R Tenold , L Priano , K Kim , B Rourke , T Marrone . Infection potential of nondisposable pressure transducers prepared prior to use. Crit Care Med 1987;15:582–583.
163. I Raad , J Umphrey , A Khan , LJ Truett , GP Bodey . The duration of placement as a predictor of peripheral and pulmonary arterial catheter infections. J Hosp Infect 1993;23:17–26.
165. MC Fisher , SS Long , EM Roberts , JM Dunn , RK Balsara . Pseudomonas maltophilia bacteremia in children undergoing open heart surgery. JAMA 1981;246:1571–1574.
166. WE Stamm , JJ Colella , RL Anderson , RE Dixon . Indwelling arterial catheters as a source of nosocomial bacteremia: an outbreak caused by Flavobacterium species. N Engl J Med 1975;292:1099–1102.
168. T Shinozaki , RS Deane , JE Mazuzan Jr, AJ Hamel , D Hazelton . Bacterial contamination of arterial lines: a prospective study. JAMA 1983;249:223–225.
169. SL Solomon , H Alexander , JW Eley , et al. Nosocomial fungemia in neonates associated with intravascular pressure-monitoring devices. Pediatr Infect Dis 1986;5:680–655.
173. NY Boo , NC Wong , SS Zulkifli , MS Lye . Risk factors associated with umbilical vascular catheter-associated thrombosis in newborn infants. J Paediatr Child Health 1999;35:460–465.
174. AN Krauss , RF Albert , MM Kannan . Contamination of umbilical catheters in the newborn infant. J Pediatr 1970;77:965–969.
176. WA Cronin , TP Germanson , LG Donowitz . Intravascular catheter colonization and related bloodstream infection in critically ill neonates. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1990;11:301–308.
177. KL Miller , PE Coen , WJ White , WJ Hurst , BE Achey , CM Lang . Effectiveness of skin absorption of tincture of I in blocking radioiodine from the human thyroid gland. Health Phys 1989;56:911–914.
179. MJ Horgan , A Bartoletti , S Polansky , JC Peters , TJ Manning , BM Lamont . Effect of heparin infusates in umbilical arterial catheters on frequency of thrombotic complications. J Pediatr 1987;111:774–778.
181. MA Fletcher , DR Brown , S Landers , J Seguin . Umbilical arterial catheter use: report of an audit conducted by the Study Group for Complications of Perinatal Care. Am J Perinatol 1994;11:94–99.
182. J Seguin , MA Fletcher , S Landers , D Brown , T Macpherson . Umbilical venous catheterizations: audit by the Study Group for Complications of Perinatal Care. Am J Perinatol 1994;11:67–70.