Skip to main content Accessibility help

Handrub Consumption Mirrors Hand Hygiene Compliance

  • Sebastian Haubitz (a1) (a2), Andrew Atkinson (a1), Tanja Kaspar (a1), Doris Nydegger (a1), Anne Eichenberger (a3), Rami Sommerstein (a1) and Jonas Marschall (a1)...


We assessed handrub consumption as a surrogate marker for hand hygiene compliance from 2007 to 2014. Handrub consumption varied substantially between departments but correlated in a mixed effects regression model with the number of patient-days and the observed hand hygiene compliance. Handrub consumption may supplement traditional hand hygiene observations.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:707–710


Corresponding author

Address correspondence to Sebastian Haubitz, MD, Division of Infectious Diseases, Kantonsspital Aarau, Tellstrasse, 5000 Aarau, Switzerland (


Hide All

Presented in part: IDWeek 2015; San Diego, California; October 7-11, 2015.



Hide All
1. Hagel, S, Reischke, J, Kesselmeier, M, et al. Quantifying the Hawthorne effect in hand hygiene compliance through comparing direct observation with automated hand hygiene monitoring. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36:957962.
2. Haessler, S. The Hawthorne effect in measurements of hand hygiene compliance: a definite problem, but also an opportunity. BMJ Qual Saf 2014;23:965967.
3. Sodre da Costa, LS, Neves, VM, Marra, AR, et al. Measuring hand hygiene compliance in a hematology-oncology unit: a comparative study of methodologies. Am J Infect Control 2013;41:9971000.
4. Magnus, TP, Marra, AR, Camargo, TZ, et al. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates in different special care settings: a comparative study of methodologies. Int J Infect Dis 2015;33:205208.
5. Sax, H, Allegranzi, B, Chraiti, MN, Boyce, J, Larson, E, Pittet, D. The World Health Organization hand hygiene observation method. Am J Infect Control 2009;37:827834.
6. Marra, AR, Moura, DF Jr, Paes, AT, dos Santos, OF, Edmond, MB. Measuring rates of hand hygiene adherence in the intensive care setting: a comparative study of direct observation, product usage, and electronic counting devices. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:796801.
7. Tschudin-Sutter, S, Sepulcri, D, Dangel, M, Schuhmacher, H, Widmer, AF. Compliance with the World Health Organization hand hygiene technique: a prospective observational study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36:482483.
8. Boyce, JM. Measuring healthcare worker hand hygiene activity: current practices and emerging technologies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:10161028.
9. Morgan, DJ, Pineles, L, Shardell, M, et al. Automated hand hygiene count devices may better measure compliance than human observation. Am J Infect Control 2012;40:955959.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed