Scott, RD. The direct medical costs of healthcare-associated infections in US hospitals and the benefits of prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. https://www.cdc.gov/hai/pdfs/hai/scott_costpaper.pdf. Published 2009. Accessed February 12, 2019.
Klevens, RM, Edwards, JR, Richards, CL Jr., et al. Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in US hospitals, 2002. Public Health Rep 2007;122:160–166.
Magill, SS, Edwards, JR, Bamberg, W, et al. Multistate point-prevalence survey of health care-associated infections. N Engl J Med 2014;370:1198–1208.
Hidron, AI, Edwards, JR, Patel, J, et al. NHSN annual update: antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections: annual summary of data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006–2007. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:996–1011.
Brusselaers, N, Vogelaers, D, Blot, S. The rising problem of antimicrobial resistance in the intensive care unit. Ann Intensive Care 2011;1:47.
Kollef, MH, Fraser, VJ. Antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit. Ann Intern Med 2001;134:298–314.
Bonten, MJ, Weinstein, RA. Bird’s-eye view of nosocomial infections in medical ICU: blue bugs, fungi, and device-days. Crit Care Med 1999;27:853–854.
Bonten, MJ, Slaughter, S, Ambergen, AW, et al. The role of “colonization pressure” in the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: an important infection control variable. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1127–1132.
Weinstein, RA. Hand hygiene—of reason and ritual. Ann Intern Med 2004;141:65–66.
Morgan, DJ, Rogawski, E, Thom, KA, et al. Transfer of multidrug-resistant bacteria to healthcare workers’ gloves and gowns after patient contact increases with environmental contamination. Crit Care Med 2012;40:1045–1051.
Hayden, MK, Blom, DW, Lyle, EA, Moore, CG, Weinstein, RA. Risk of hand or glove contamination after contact with patients colonized with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus or the colonized patients’ environment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:149–154.
Duckro, AN, Blom, DW, Lyle, EA, Weinstein, RA, Hayden, MK. Transfer of vancomycin-resistant enterococci via health care worker hands. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:302–307.
Ray, AJ, Hoyen, CK, Taub, TF, Eckstein, EC, Donskey, CJ. Nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from surfaces. JAMA 2002;287:1400–1401.
Tomas, ME, Kundrapu, S, Thota, P, et al. Contamination of health care personnel during removal of personal protective equipment. JAMA Intern Med 2015;175:1904–1910.
Guo, YP, Li, Y, Wong, PL. Environment and body contamination: a comparison of two different removal methods in three types of personal protective clothing. Am J Infect Control 2014;42:e39–e45.
Casanova, L, Alfano-Sobsey, E, Rutala, WA, Weber, DJ, Sobsey, M. Virus transfer from personal protective equipment to healthcare employees’ skin and clothing. Emerg Infect Dis 2008;14:1291–1293.
Kwon, JH, Burnham, CD, Reske, KA, et al. Assessment of healthcare worker protocol deviations and self-contamination during personal protective equipment donning and doffing. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1077–1083.
Krein, SL, Mayer, J, Harrod, M, et al. Identification and characterization of failures in infectious agent transmission precaution practices in hospitals: a qualitative study. JAMA Intern Med 2018; 178:1051–1057.
Okamoto, K, Rhee, Y, Schoeny, M, et al. Flocked nylon swabs versus RODAC plates for detection of multidrug-resistant organisms on environmental surfaces in intensive care units. J Hosp Infect 2018;98:105–108.
McAllister, SK, Albrecht, VS, Fosheim, GE, et al. Evaluation of the impact of direct plating, broth enrichment, and specimen source on recovery and diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates among HIV-infected outpatients. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:4126–4130.
Ieven, M, Vercauteren, E, Descheemaeker, P, van Laer, F, Goossens, H. Comparison of direct plating and broth enrichment culture for the detection of intestinal colonization by glycopeptide-resistant enterococci among hospitalized patients. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:1436–1440.
Fleiss, JL. Measuring nominal scale agreement among many raters. Psychollogical Bulletin 1971;76:378–382.
Altman, DG. Practical Statistics for Medical Research. 1st edition. London: Chapman and Hall; 1990.
Thom, KA, Rock, C, Jackson, SS, et al. Factors leading to transmission risk of Acinetobacter baumannii
. Crit Care Med 2017;45:e633–e639.
Morgan, DJ, Liang, SY, Smith, CL, et al. Frequent multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii contamination of gloves, gowns, and hands of healthcare workers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:716–721.
Snyder, GM, Thom, KA, Furuno, JP, et al. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci on the gowns and gloves of healthcare workers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:583–589.
Hayden, MK, Bonten, MJ, Blom, DW, Lyle, EA, van de Vijver, DA, Weinstein, RA. Reduction in acquisition of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus after enforcement of routine environmental cleaning measures. Clin Infect Dis 2006;42:1552–1560.
Jackson, SS, Harris, AD, Magder, LS, et al. Bacterial burden is associated with increased transmission to health care workers from patients colonized with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus
. Am J Infect Control 2019;47:13–17.
Doll, M, Feldman, M, Hartigan, S, et al. Acceptability and necessity of training for optimal personal protective equipment use. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:226–229.
John, A, Tomas, ME, Hari, A, Wilson, BM, Donskey, CJ. Do medical students receive training in correct use of personal protective equipment? Med Educ Online 2017;22:1264125.
Tenorio, AR, Badri, SM, Sahgal, NB, et al. Effectiveness of gloves in the prevention of hand carriage of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species by health care workers after patient care. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:826–829.
Olsen, RJ, Lynch, P, Coyle, MB, Cummings, J, Bokete, T, Stamm, WE. Examination gloves as barriers to hand contamination in clinical practice. JAMA 1993;270:350–353.
Zellmer, C, Van Hoof, S, Safdar, N. Variation in health care worker removal of personal protective equipment. Am J Infect Control 2015;43:750–751.
Boyce, JM, Potter-Bynoe, G, Chenevert, C, King, T. Environmental contamination due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: possible infection control implications. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:622–627.