Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Infection Prevention and Control in Residential Facilities for Pediatric Patients and Their Families

  • Judith A. Guzman-Cottrill (a1), Karen A. Ravin (a2), Kristina A. Bryant (a3), Danielle M. Zerr (a4), Larry Kociolek (a5) and Jane D. Siegel (a6)...
Extract

The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) guideline “Infection Prevention and Control in Residential Facilities for Pediatric Patients and Their Families” is the first infection prevention and control (IPC) guideline to address preventing transmission of infectious agents in “home away from home” residential settings, of which the Ronald McDonald Houses (RMHs) serve as a prototype. These types of facilities provide support services, including overnight lodging, for ill and injured children and their families. Food preparation occurs in common areas, and cleaning of rooms or apartments is performed by the occupants during their stay and before departure. Pediatric patients are frequent guests of the family-centered facilities while receiving or recovering from specialized medical therapy. Examples of high-risk populations served in these facilities include families of patients with cancer, recipients of stem cell or solid organ transplants, surgical and/or very-low-birthweight infants who receive care in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), those with cystic fibrosis, and women with high-risk pregnancies awaiting delivery in a nearby medical center. Such facilities are located worldwide and vary in their physical structure and the predominant population served.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Infection Prevention and Control in Residential Facilities for Pediatric Patients and Their Families
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Infection Prevention and Control in Residential Facilities for Pediatric Patients and Their Families
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Infection Prevention and Control in Residential Facilities for Pediatric Patients and Their Families
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
1.Guzman-Cottrill, JA, Bryant, KA, Zerr, DM, et al.Infection prevention and control guidance for Ronald McDonald Houses: a needs assessment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33(3):299301.
3.Adler, AL, Casper, C, Boeckh, M, Heath, J, Zerr, DM. An outbreak of varicella with likely breakthrough disease in a population of pediatric cancer patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29(9):866870.
4. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/demo.asp. Cited March 11, 2012.
5.Perrin, JM, Bloom, SR, Gortmaker, SL. The increase of childhood chronic conditions in the United States. JAMA 200727;297(24):27552759.
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Deaths: final data for 2005. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr56/nvsr56_10.pdf. Cited March 11, 2012.
7.Ries, L, Smith, M, Gurney, J, et al.Cancer Incidence and Survival among Children and Adolescents: United States SEER Program 1975–1995 [Internet]. 1999th ed. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, SEER Program. NIH Publication 99-4649.
8.Kulich, M, Rosenfeld, M, Goss, CH, Wilmott, R. Improved survival among young patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 2003;142(6):631636.
9.Siegel, JD, Rhinehart, E, Jackson, M, Chiarello, L; Health Care Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. 2007 guide-line for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 2007;35(10 suppl 2):S65S164.
10.Yokoe, DS, Mermel, LA, Anderson, DJ, et al.A compendium of strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections in acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29(suppl 1): S12S21.
11.Recommendations for preventing transmission of infections among chronic hemodialysis patients. MMWR Recomm Rep 2001;50(RR-5):143.
12.Saiman, L, Siegel, J; Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. Infection control recommendations for patients with cystic fibrosis: microbiology, important pathogens, and infection control practices to prevent patient-to-patient transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24(5 suppl):S6S52.
13. Guide to infection prevention for outpatient settings: minimum expectations for safe care. http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/settings/outpatient/outpatient-care-guidelines.html. Updated July 2011. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.
14. Basic infection control and prevention plan for outpatient oncology settings, http://www.cdc.gov/hai/pdfs/guidelines/basic-infection-control-prevention-plan-2011.pdf. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.
15.Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and Hand-Hygiene Task Force, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Infection Diseases Society of America. Guideline for hand hygiene in healthcare settings. J Am Coll Surg 2004;198(1):121127.
16.WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241597906_eng.pdf. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2009.
17.Sandora, TJ, Taveras, EM, Shih, MC, et al.A randomized, controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention including alcohol-based hand sanitizer and hand-hygiene education to reduce illness transmission in the home. Pediatrics 2005;116(3):587594.
18.Talaat, M, Afifi, S, Dueger, E, et al.Effects of hand hygiene campaigns on incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza and absenteeism in schoolchildren, Cairo, Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis 2011;17(4):619625.
19.White, C, Kolble, R, Carlson, R, et al.The effect of hand hygiene on illness rate among students in university residence halls. Am J Infect Control 2003;31(6):364370.
20.Mott, PJ, Sisk, BW, Arbogast, JW, Ferrazzano-Yaussy, C, Bondi, CA, Sheehan, JJ. Alcohol-based instant hand sanitizer use in military settings: a prospective cohort study of army basic trainees. Mil Med 2007;172(11):11701176.
21. Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities: recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). http://www.cdc.gov/hicpac/pdf/guidelines/eic_in_HCF_03.pdf. Cited March 21, 2012.
22.Bean, B, Moore, BM, Sterner, B, Peterson, LR, Gerding, DN, Balfour, HH Jr. Survival of influenza viruses on environmental surfaces. J Infect Dis 1982;146(1):4751.
23.American Academy of Pediatrics. Infection control measures. In: Aronson, SA, Shope, TR, eds. Managing Infectious Diseases in Child Care and Schools: A Quick Reference Guide. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2008:1730.
24.Gartner, LM, Morton, J, Lawrence, RA, et al.Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 2005;115(2):496450.
25.Zeilhofer, UB, Frey, B, Zandee, J, Bernet, V. The role of critical incident monitoring in detection and prevention of human breast milk confusions. Eur J Pediatr 2009;168(10):12771279.
26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. What to do if an infant or child is mistakenly fed another woman's breast milk. http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/recommendations/other_mothers_milk.htm. Cited March 12, 2012.
27.Goddard, J, deShazo, R. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) and clinical consequences of their bites. JAMA 2009;301(13):13581366.
28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Environmental Protection Agency. Joint statement on bed bug control in the United States from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/publications/bed_bugs_cdc-epa_statement.htm. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010.
29.Dubberke, ER, Gerding, DN, Classen, D, et al.Strategies to prevent Clostridium difficile infections in acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29(suppl 1):S81S92.
30.Simor, AE, Bradley, SF, Strausbaugh, LJ, Crossley, K, Nicolle, LE; SHEA Long-Term-Care Committee. Clostridium difficile in long-term-care facilities for the elderly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23(11):696703.
31.American Academy of Pediatrics. Clostridium difficile. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:285287.
32.Cohen, SH, Gerding, DN, Johnson, S, et al.Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31(5):431455.
33.National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system report, data summary from October 1986–April 1998, issued June 1998. Am J Infect Control 1998;26(5):522533.
34.Brito, DV, Oliveira, EJ, Matos, C, Abdallah, VO, Gontijo Filho, PP. An outbreak of conjunctivitis caused by multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Brazilian newborn intensive care unit. Braz J Infect Dis 2003;7(4):234235.
35.Haas, J, Larson, E, Ross, B, See, B, Saiman, L. Epidemiology and diagnosis of hospital-acquired conjunctivitis among neonatal intensive care unit patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24(7):586589.
36.Ariga, T, Shimada, Y, Ohgami, K, et al.New genome type of adenovirus serotype 4 caused nosocomial infections associated with epidemic conjunctivitis in Japan. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42(8):36443648.
37.Wu, D, Ke, CW, Mo, YL, et al.Multiple outbreaks of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis due to a variant of coxsackievirus A24: Guangdong, China, 2007. J Med Virol 2008;80(10):17621768.
38.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreak caused by coxsackievirus A24—Puerto Rico, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkty Rep 2004;53(28):632634.
39.Park, K, Lee, K, Lee, J, et al.Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic caused by coxsackievirus A24 variants in Korea during 2002–2003. J Med Virol 2006;78(1):9197.
40.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumococcal conjunctivitis at an elementary school—Maine, September 20–December 6, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003;52(4): 6466.
41.Martin, M, Turco, JH, Zegans, ME, et al.An outbreak of conjunctivitis due to atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae. N Engl J Med 2003;348(12):11121121.
42.Crum, NF, Barrozo, CP, Chapman, FA, Ryan, MA, Russell, KL. An outbreak of conjunctivitis due to a novel unencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae among military trainees. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39(8):11481154.
43.Ong, AE, Dashraath, P, Lee, VJ. Management of enteroviral conjunctivitis outbreaks in the Singapore military in 2005. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2008;39(3):398403.
44.American Academy of Pediatrics. School health. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:152160.
45.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated noro-virus outbreak management and disease prevention guidelines. MMWR 2011;60(RR-3):112.
46.American Academy of Pediatrics. Rotavirus. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:626629.
47.American Academy of Pediatrics. Diphtheria. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:307311.
48.American Academy of Pediatrics. Hepatitis A. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:361369.
49.American Academy of Pediatrics. Hepatitis B. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:369390.
50.Weinbaum, CM, Williams, I, Mast, EE, et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for identification and public health management of persons with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. MMWR Recomm Rep 2008;57(RR-8):120.
51.American Academy of Pediatrics. Hepatitis C. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:391395.
52.Hepatitis C virus infection. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on infectious diseases. Pediatrics 1998;101(3 pt 1):481485.
53.American Academy of Pediatrics. Human immunodeficiency virus infection. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:418439.
54.American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Pediatric AIDS. Pediatric guidelines for infection control of human immunodeficiency virus (acquired immunodeficiency virus) in hospitals, medical offices, schools, and other settings. Pediatrics 1988;82(5):801807.
55.American Academy of Pediatrics. Herpes simplex. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:398408.
56.American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediculosis capitis (head lice). In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:543546.
57.Frankowski, BL, Bocchini, JA JrCouncil on School Health and Committee on Infectious Diseases. Head lice. Pediatrics 2010;126(2):392403.
58.American Academy of Pediatrics. Measles. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:489499.
59.American Academy of Pediatrics. Haemophilus influenza infections. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:345352.
60.American Academy of Pediatrics. Meningococcal infections. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:500509.
61.American Academy of Pediatrics. Enterovirus (nonpoliovirus) infections. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:315318.
62.Fritz, SA, Krauss, MJ, Epplin, EK, et al.The natural history of contemporary Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in community children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011;30(4):349351.
63.Lacey, S, Flaxman, D, Scales, J, Wilson, A. The usefulness of masks in preventing transient carriage of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by healthcare workers. J Hosp Infect 2001;48(4):308311.
64.Gray, JW, George, RH. Experience of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a children's hospital. J Hosp Infect 2000;45(1):1118.
65.Tsiatis, AC, Manes, B, Calder, C, Billheimer, D, Wilkerson, KS, Frangoul, H. Incidence and clinical complications of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus in pediatric stem cell transplant patients. Bone Marrow Transplant 2004;33(9):937941.
66.American Academy of Pediatrics. Mumps. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:514518.
67.Jenkinson, D. Duration of effectiveness of pertussis vaccine: evidence from a 10 year community study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988;296(6622):612614.
68.Cherry, JD. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory aspects of pertussis in adults. Clin Infect Dis 1999;28(suppl 2):S112S117.
69.Bryant, KA, Humbaugh, K, Brothers, K, et al.Measures to control an outbreak of pertussis in a neonatal intermediate care nursery after exposure to a healthcare worker. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27(6):541545.
70.Khetsuriani, N, Bisgard, K, Prevots, DR, et al.Pertussis outbreak in an elementary school with high vaccination coverage. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001;20(12):11081112.
71.Srugo, I, Benilevi, D, Madeb, R, et al.Pertussis infection in fully vaccinated children in day-care centers, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis 2000;6(5):526529.
72.Fisher, MC, Long, SS, McGowan, KL, Kaselis, E, Smith, DG. Outbreak of pertussis in a residential facility for handicapped people. J Pediatr 1989;114(6):934939.
73.Yeh, J, Batt, RE. Contingency plans and the sniffles. Acad Med 2006;81(4):325.
74. Guidelines for the control of pertussis outbreaks, http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pertussis-guide/guide.htm. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.
75.Bisgard, KM, Pascual, FB, Ehresmann, KR, et al.Infant pertussis: who was the source? Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004;23(11):985989.
76.Kretsinger, K, Broder, KR, Cortese, MM, et al.Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adults: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and recommendation of ACIP, supported by the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), for use of tdap among health-care personnel. MMWR Recomm Rep 2006;55(RR-17):137.
77.Hall, CB, Weinberg, GA, Iwane, MK, et al.The burden of respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children. N Engl J Med 2009;360(6):588589.
78.Nichols, WG, Gooley, T, Boeckh, M. Community-acquired respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center experience. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2001;7(suppl):11S15S.
79.Harrington, RD, Hooton, TM, Hackman, RC, et al.An outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus in a bone marrow transplant center. J Infect Dis 1992;165(6):987993.
80.American Academy of Pediatrics. Scabies. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:641643.
81.Obasanjo, OO, Wu, P, Conlon, M, et al.An outbreak of scabies in a teaching hospital: lessons learned. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2001;22(1):1318.
82.Andersen, BM, Haugen, H, Rasch, M, Heldal Haugen, A, Tageson, A. Outbreak of scabies in Norwegian nursing homes and home care patients: control and prevention. J Hosp Infect 2000;45(2): 160164.
83. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parasites—scabies: institutional settings. http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/scabies/health_professionals/institutions.html. Cited March 15, 2012. Accessed January 8, 2013.
84.Stevens, DL, Bisno, AL, Chambers, HF, et al.Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft-tissue infections. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41(10):13731406.
85. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology. Guide to the elimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission in hospital settings. 2nd ed. 2010. http://www.apic.org/Resource_/EliminationGuideForm/631fcd91-8773-4067-9f85-ab2a5bl57eab/File/MRSA-elimination-guide-2010.pdf. Accessed January 8, 2013.
86. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology. Guide to the elimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the long-term care facility. 2009. http://www.apic.org/Resource_/EliminationGuideForm/08b12595-9f92-4a64-ad41-4afdd0088224/File/APIC-MRSA-in-Long-Term-Care.pdf. Accessed January 8, 2013.
87.Calfee, DP, Salgado, CD, Classen, D, et al.Strategies to prevent transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29(suppl 1):S62S80.
88.American Academy of Pediatrics. Group A streptococcal infections. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012: 668680.
89.Jensen, PA, Lambert, LA, Iademarco, MF, Ridzon, R; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care settings, 2005. MMWR Recomm Rep 2005;54(RR-17):1141.
90.American Academy of Pediatrics. Tuberculosis. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:736759.
91.American Academy of Pediatrics. Varicella-zoster infections. In: Pickering, L, Baker, C, Kimberlin, D, Long, S, eds. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012:774789.
92.Langley, JM, Hanakowski, M. Variation in risk for nosocomial chickenpox after inadvertent exposure. J Hosp Infect 2000;44(3):224226.
93.Ross, AH. Modification of chicken pox in family contacts by administration of gamma globulin. N Engl J Med 1962;267:369376.
94.Saidel-Odes, L, Borer, A, Riesenberg, K, et al.An outbreak of varicella in staff nurses exposed to a patient with localized herpes zoster. Scand J Infect Dis 2010;42(8):620622.
95.Lopez, AS, Burnett-Hartman, A, Nambiar, R, et al.Transmission of a newly characterized strain of varicella-zoster virus from a patient with herpes zoster in a long-term-care facility, West Virginia, 2004. J Infect Dis 2008;197(5):646653.
96.Marin, M, Guris, D, Chaves, SS, Schmid, S, Seward, JF; Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of varicella: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 2007;56(RR-4):140.
97.Price, CS, Thompson, WW, Goodson, B, et al.Prenatal and infant exposure to thimerosal from vaccines and immunoglobulins and risk of autism. Pediatrics 2010;126(4):656664.
98.Immunization Safety Review Committee. Front matter. Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.
99.Talbot, TR. Revised SHEA position paper: influenza vaccination of healthcare personnel. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:987.
100.Puig-Barbera, J. Reduction in hospital admissions for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people as a result of influenza vaccination: a case-control study in Spain. J Epidemiol Community Health 1997;51:526.
101.Reichert, TA. The Japanese experience with vaccinating school-children against influenza. N Engl J Med 2001;344:889.
102.Piedra, PA. Herd immunity in adults against influenza-related illnesses with use of the trivalent-live attenuated influenza vaccine (CAIV-T) in children. Vaccine 2005;23:1540.
103.Loeb, M. Effect of influenza vaccination of children on infection rates in Hutterite communities: a randomized trial. JAMA 2010;303:943.
104.Grizas, AP, Camenga, D, Vazquez, M. Cocooning: a concept to protect young children from infectious diseases. Curr Opin Pediatr 2012;24(1):9297.
105.Lynch, JP 3rdZhanel, GG. Streptococcus pneumoniae: epidemiology and risk factors, evolution of antimicrobial resistance, and impact of vaccines. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2010;16(3):217225.
106.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FDA approval of expanded age indication for a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine. MMWR 2011;60(37):12791280.
107.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in pregnant women and persons who have or anticipate having close contact with an infant aged <12 months—Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2011. MMWR 2011;60(41):14241426.
108.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Achievements in public health, 1900–1999 impact of vaccines universally recommended for children—United States, 1990–1998. MMWR 1999;48(12):243248.
109. College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Vaccine development, testing, and regulation—history of vaccines. http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/articles/vaccine-development-testing-and-regulation. Accessed November 12, 2012.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed