1.Nelson, DB, Jarvis, WR, Rutala, WA, et al.Multi-society guideline for reprocessing flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes. Gastroin-test Endose 2003;58:1–8.
2.Nelson, DB, Jarvis, WR, Rutala, WA, et al.Multi-society guideline for reprocessing flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:532–7.
3.Desilets, D, Kaul, V, Tierney, WM, et al; ASGE Technology Committee. Automated endoscope reprocessors. Gastrointest Endose 2010;72:675–80.
4.Croffie, J, Carpenter, S, Chuttani, R; ASGE Technology Committee. ASGE technology status evaluation report: disposable endoscopic accessories. Gastrointest Endose 2005;62:477–9.
5.Petersen, BT. Gaining perspective on reprocessing of GI endoscopes. Gastrointest Endose 1999;50:287–91.
6.Nelson, DB. Recent advances in epidemiology and prevention of gastrointestinal endoscopy related infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2005;18:326–30.
7.Rutala, WA, Weber, DJ. Disinfection and sterilization in health care facilities: what clinicians need to know. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39:702–9.
8.Acute hepatitis C virus infections attributed to unsafe injection practices at an endoscopy clinic-Nevada, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008;57:513–7.
9.Office of Inspector General. Healthcare inspection. Use and reprocessing of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes at VA medical facilities. Report no. 09-01784-146. Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs; 2009. p. 1–45.
10.Schaefer, MK, Jhung, M, Dahl, M, et al.Infection control assessment of ambulatory surgical centers. JAMA 2010;303:2273–9.
11.Favero, MS, Bond, WW. Disinfection of medical and surgical materials. In: Block, SS, editor. Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott Williams & Wil-kins, 2001. p. 881–917.
12.Everhart, JE. The burden of digestive disease in the United States. NIH publication no. 09-6443. Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008.
13.Spach, DH, Silverstein, FE, Stamm, WE. Transmission of infection by gastrointestinal endoscopy and bronchoscopy. Ann Intern Med 1993;118:117–28.
14.Nelson, DB. Infectious disease complications of GI endoscopy: part II, exogenous infections. Gastrointest Endose 2003;57:695–711.
15.Kimmey, MB, Burnett, DA, Carr-Locke, DL, et al.Transmission of infection by gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastrointest Endose 1993;36:885–8.
16.Muscarella, LF. Recommendations for preventing hepatitis C virus infection: analysis of a Brooklyn endoscopy clinic's outbreak. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2001;22:669.
17.Lo Passo, C, Pernice, I, Celeste, A, et al.Transmission of Tri-chosporon asahii esophagitis by a contaminated endoscope. Mycoses 2001;44:13–21.
18.Yu-Hsien, L, Te-Li, C, Chien-Pei, C, et al.Nosocomial Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU endocarditis following an endoscopic procedure. Intern Med 2008;47:799–802.
19.Bronowicki, J-P, Venard, V, Botté, C, et al.Patient-to-patient transmission of hepatitis C virus during colonoscopy. N Engl J Med 1997;337:237–40.
20.Le Pogam, S, Gondeau, A, Bacq, Y. Nosocomial transmission of hepatitis C virus. Ann Intern Med 1999;131:794.
21.Tennenbaum, R, Colardelle, P, Chochon, M, et al.Hepatitis C after retrograde cholangiography. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1993;17:763–75.
22.Nelson, DB. Hepatitis C virus cross-infection during endoscopy: is it the “tip of the iceberg” or the absence of ice? Gastrointest Endose 2007;65:589–91.
24.U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Draft guidance for the content of premarket notifications for endoscopes used in gastroenterology and urology. Rockville (MD): National Press Office; 1995.
26.Banerjee, S, Shen, B, Nelson, DB, et al.Infection control during GI endoscopy. Gastrointest Endose 2008;67:781–90.
27.Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates. Standards of infection control in reprocessing of flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes. Gastroenterol Nurs 2006;29:142–8.
29.Recommended practices for high level disinfection. In: Perioperative standards and recommended practices. Denver (CO): AORN Ine; 2010. p. 389–404.
30.Recommended practices for cleaning and processing endoscopes and endoscope accessories. In: Perioperative standards and tecommended practices. Denver (CO): AORN Ine; 2010. p. 405–19.
31.Alvarado, CJ, Reichelderfer, M. APIC guidelines for infection prevention and control in flexible endoscopy. Am J Infect Control 2000;28:138–55.
32.Gorse, GJ, Messner, RL. Infection control practices in gastrointestinal endoscopy in the United States: a national survey. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:289–96.
33.Kaczmarek, RG, Moore, RM, John, M, et al.Multi-state investigation of the actual disinfection/sterilization of endoscopes in health care facilities. Am J Med 1992;92:257–61.
34.Reynolds, CD, Rhinehart, E, Dreyer, P, et al.Variability in reprocessing policies and procedures for flexible fiberoptic endoscopes in Massachusetts hospitals. Am J Infect Control 1992;20:283–90.
35.Jackson, FW, Ball, MD. Correction of deficiencies in flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscope cleaning and disinfection technique in family practice and internal medicine offices. Arch Fam Med 1997;6:578–82.
36.Cheung, RJ, Ortiz, D, DiMarino, AJ. GI endoscopic reprocessing practices in the United States. Gastrointest Endose 1999;50:362–8.
37.Muscarella, LF. Current instrument reprocessing practices: results of a national survey. Gastroenterol Nurs 2001;24:253–60.
38.Moses, FM, Lee, JS. Current GI endoscope disinfection and QA practices. Digest Dis Sci 2004;49:1791–7.
39.Osborne, S, Reynolds, S, George, N, et al.Challenging endoscopy reprocessing guidelines: a prospective study investigating the safe shelf life of flexible endoscopes in a tertiary gastroenterology unit. Endoscopy 2007;39:825–30.
40.Rejchrt, S, Cermak, P, Pavlatova, L, et al.Bactériologie testing of endoscopes after high-level disinfection. Gastrointest Endose 2004;60:76–8.
41.Vergis, AS, Thomson, D, Pieroni, P, et al.Reprocessing flexible gastrointestinal endoscopies after a period of disuse: is it necessary? Endoscopy 2007;39:737–9.
42.Cowen, A, Jones, D, Wardle, E, editors. Infection control in gastrointestinal endoscopy, 2nd ed. Sydney (Australia): Gastroenterological Society of Australia; 2003.
43.Beilenhoff, EU, Neumann, CS, Rey, JF, et al; the ESGE Guidelines Committee. ESGE-ESGENA guideline: cleaning and disinfection in gastrointestinal endoscopy: update 2008. Endoscopy 2008;40:939–57.
44.Beilenhoff, U, Neumann, C, Rey, JF, et al.ESGE-ESGENA guideline for quality assurance in reprocessing: microbiological surveillance testing in endoscopy. Endoscopy 2007;39:175–81.
45.Deva, AK, Vickery, K, Zou, J, et al.Detection of persistent vegetative bacteria and amplified viral nucleic acid from in-use testing of gastrointestinal endoscopes. J Hosp Infect 1998;39:149–57.
46.Moses, FM, Lee, JS. Surveillance cultures to monitor quality of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing. Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98:77–81.
47.Tunuguntla, A, Sullivan, M. Monitoring quality of flexible endoscope disinfection by microbiologic surveillance cultures. Tennessee Med 2004;97:453–6.
48.Obee, PC, Griffith, CJ, Cooper, RA, et al.Real-time monitoring in managing the decontamination of flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes. Am J Infect Control 2005;33:202–6.
49.Alfa, MJ, DeGagne, P, Olson, N, et al.EVOTECH endoscope cleaner and reprocessor (ECR) simulated-use and clinical-use evaluation of cleaning efficacy. BMC Infect Dis 2010;10:200.
51.Alfa, MJ, Jackson, M. A new hydrogen peroxide—based medical-device detergent with germicidal properties: comparison with enzymatic cleaners. Am J Infect Control 2001;29:168–77.
52.Zühlsdorf, B, Floss, H, Martiny, H. Efficacy of 10 different cleaning processes in a washer disinfector for flexible endoscopes. J Hosp Infect 2004;56:305–11.
53.British Society of Gastroenterology. Cleaning and disinfection of equipment for gastrointestinal endoscopy: report of a Working Party of the British Society of Gastroenterology Endoscopy Committee. Gut 1998;42:585–93.
54.Babb, JR, Bradley, CR. Endoscope reprocessing: where do we go from here? I Hosp Infect 1995;30:543–51.
55.Rutala, WA. APIC guideline for selection and use of disinfectants. Am J Infect Control 1996;24:313–42.
56.Graham, DY, Osato, MS. Disinfection of biopsy forceps and culture of Helicobacter pylori from gastric mucosal biopsies. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:1422–3.
57.SGNA Practice Committee. Reprocessing of endoscopic accessories and valves. SGNA J 2007;29:394–5.
59.Urayama, S, Kozarek, RA, Sumida, S, et al.Mycobacteria and glutaraldehyde: is high-level disinfection of endoscopes possible? Gastrointest Endose 1996;43:451–6.
60.Vesley, D, Melson, J, Patricia, S. Microbial bioburden in endoscope reprocessing and an in use evaluation of the high-level disinfection capabilities of Cidex PA. Gastroenterol Nurs 1999;22:63–8.
61.Collins, FM. Kinetics of tuberculocidal response by alkaline glutaraldehyde in solution and on an inert surface. J Appi Bacteriol 1986;61:87–93.
62.Collins, FM. Bactericidal activity of alkaline glutaraldehyde solution against a number of atypical mycobacterial species. J Appi Bacteriol 1986;61:247–51.
63.Ascenzi, JM, Ezzell, RJ, Wendt, TM. A more accurate method for measurement of tuberculocidal activity of disinfectants. Appi Environ Microbiol 1987;53:2189–92.
64.Collins, FM. Use of membrane filters for measurement of mycobacterial activity of alkaline glutaraldehyde solution. Appi Environ Microbiol 1987;53:737–9.
65.Best, M, Sattar, SA, Springthorpe, VS, et al.Efficacies of selected disinfectants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol 1990;28:2234–9.
66.Cole, EC, Rutala, WA, Nessen, L, et al.Effect of methodology, dilution, and exposure time on the tuberculocidal activity of glutaraldehyde-based disinfectants. Appi Environ Microbiol 1990;56:1813–7.
67.Hanson, PJV, Gor, D, Jeffries, DJ, et al.Elimination of high titre HIV from fiberoptic endoscopes. Gut 1990;31:657-9.
68.Hanson, PJ, Jeffries, DJ, Collins, JV. Viral transmission and fibreoptic endoscopy. J Hosp Infect 1991;18:136-40.
69.Rutala, WA, Cole, EC, Wannamaker, NS, et al.Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis by 14 hospital disinfectants. Am J Med 1991;91:267S–71S.
70.Hanson, PJ, Chadwick, MV, Gaya, H, et al.A study of glutaraldehyde disinfection of fibreoptic bronchoscopes experimentally contaminated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Hosp Infect 1992;22:137–42.
71.Best, M, Springthorpe, VS, Sattar, SA. Feasibility of a combined carrier test for disinfectants: studies with a mixture of five types of microorganisms. Am J Infect Control 1994;22:152–62.
72.Jackson, J, Leggett, JE, Wilson, D, et al.Mycobacterium gordonae in fiberoptic bronchoscopes. Am J Infect Control 1996;24:19–23.
73.Chanzy, B, Due-Bin, DL, Rousset, B, et al.Effectiveness of a manual disinfection procedure in eliminating hepatitis C virus from experimentally contaminated endoscopes. Gastrointest Endose 1999;50:147–51.
74.Fuselier, HA, Mason, C. Liquid sterilization versus high level disinfection in the urologie office. Urology 1997;50:337–40.
75.Rutala, WA, Weber, DJ. Disinfection of endoscopes: review of new chemical sterilants used for high-level disinfection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:69–76.
76.Rutala, WA, Weber, DJ. Importance of lumen flow in liquid chemical sterilization. Am J Infect Control 1999;20:458–9.
77.Sorin, M, Segal-Maurer, S, Urban, C, Combest, A, et al.Nosocomial transmission of imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa following bronchoscopy associated with improper connection to the Steris System 1 processor. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2001;20:514–6.
78.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Bronchoscopy-related infections and pseudoinfections: New York, 1996 and 1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999;48:557–60.
79.Allen, JI. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection during endoscopy: reply. Gastroenterology 1987;93:1451.
80.Streulens, MJ, Rost, F, Deplano, A, et al.Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia after biliary endoscopy: an outbreak investigation using DNA macrorestriction analysis. Am J Med 1993;95:489–98.
81.O'Connor, HJ, Babb, JR, Ayliffe, GAJ. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection during endoscopy. Gastroenterology 1987;93:1451.
82.Alvarado, CJ, Stolz, SM, Maki, DG. Nosocomial infections from contaminated endoscopes: a flawed automated endoscope washer. An investigation using molecular epidemiology. Am J Med 1991;91:272S–80S.
83.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nosocomial infection and pseudoinfection from contaminated endoscopes and bronchoscopes: Wisconsin and Missouri. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1991;40:675–8.
84.Fraser, VJ, Jones, M, Murray, PR, et al.Contamination of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopes with Mycobacterium chelonae linked to an automated bronchoscope disinfection machine. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145:853–5.
85.Cronmiller, JR, Nelson, DK, Salman, G, et al.Antimicrobial efficacy of endoscopic disinfection procedures: a controlled, multifactorial investigation. Gastrointest Endose 1999;50:152–8.
86.Gerding, DN, Peterson, LR, Vennes, JA. Cleaning and disinfection of fiberoptic endoscopes: evaluation of glutaraldehyde exposure time and forced-air drying. Gastroenterology 1982;83:613–8.
87.Allen, JI, Allen, MOC, Olson, MM, et al.Pseudomonas infection of the biliary system resulting from use of a contaminated endoscope. Gastroenterology 1987;92:759–63.
88.Alfa, MJ, Sitter, DL. In hospital evaluation of contamination of duodenoscopes: a quantitative assessment of the effects of drying. J Hosp Infect 1991;19:89–98.
89.Muscarella, LF. Inconsistencies in endoscope-reprocessing and infection-control guidelines: the importance of endoscope drying. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:2147–54.
90.Noy, MF, Harrison, L, Holmes, GKT, et al.The significance of bacterial contamination of fiberoptic endoscopes. J Hosp Infect 1980;1:53–61.
91.Meenhorst, PL, Reingold, AL, Groothuis, D. Water-related nosocomial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila sero-groups 1 and 10. J Infect Dis 1985;152:356–64.
92.Wright, EP, Collins, CH, Yates, MD. Mycobacterium xenopi and Mycobacterium kansasii in a hospital water supply. J Hosp Infect 1985;6:175–8.
93.Rutala, WA, Weber, DJ. Water as a reservoir of nosocomial pathogens. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:609–16.
94.Wallace, RJ Jr, Brown, BA, Griffith, DE. Nosocomial outbreaks/pseudo-outbreaks caused by ontuberculous mycobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 1998;52:453–90.
95.SGNA Practice Committee. Reprocessing of water bottles used during endoscopy. J SGNA 2006;29:396–7.
96.Mbisi, JN, Springthorpe, VS, Sattar, SA, et al.Bactericidal, virucidal, and mycobactericidal activities of reused alkaline glutaraldehyde in an endoscopy unit. J Clin Microbiol 1993;31:2988–95.
98.Nelson, DB, Barkun, AN, Block, KP, et al.Transmission of infection by gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastrointest Endose 2001;54:824–8.
99.Rutala, WA, Hamory, BH. Expanding role of hospital epidemiology: employee health-chemical exposure in the health care setting. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1989;10:261–6.
100.Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Air contaminants, final rule. 58 Federal Register 35338-35351 (1993).
101.Weber, DJ, Rutala, WA. Occupational risks associated with the use of selected disinfectants and sterilants. In: Rutala, WA, editor. Disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis in healthcare. Champlain (NY): Polyscience Publications; 1998. p. 211-26.
102.American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Threshold Limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biologic exposure indices. Cincinnati (Ohio): American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists; 2001.
103.Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Hazard communication standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200. Available at: http://www.osha.gov.
104.Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens, final rule. 56 Federal Register 64003-64182 (1991).
105.Carr-Locke, DL, Conn, MI, Faigel, DO, et al.Personal protective equipment. Gastrointest Endose 1999;49:854–7.
107.Bond, WW, Hedrick, ER. Microbiological culturing of environment and medical-device surfaces. In: Isenberg, HD, Gilchrist, MJR, editors. Clinical microbiology procedures handbook. Washington (DC): American Society for Microbiology; 1992. p. 11.0.1–9.
108.Muscarella, LF. Infection control and its application to the administration of intravenous medications during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Am J Infect Control 2004;32:282–6.
109.Dixon, RE. Investigation of endemic and epidemic nosocomial infection data. In: Bennett, JL, Brachman, P, editors. Hospital infection, 3rd ed. Boston (Mass): Little, Brown; 1992. p. 109-35.
110.Banerjee, S, Nelson, DB, Dominitz, JA; the ASGE Standards of Practice Committee. Reprocessing failure. Gastrointest Endose 2007;66:869–71.
111.Rutala, WA, Weber, DJ. How to assess risk of disease transmission to patients when there is a failure to follow recommended disinfection and sterilization guidelines. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:146–55.