1.Hart, C. Klebsiella and the neonate. J Hosp Infect 1993;23:83–86.
2.Podschun, R, Fischer, A, Ullman, U. Expression of putative virulence factors by clinical isolates of Klebsiella planticola. J Med Microbiol 2000;49:115–119.
3.Knothe, H, Shah, P, Krcmery, V, Mitsuhashi, S. Transferable resistance to cefotaxime, cefoxitin, cefamandole and cefuroxime in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. Infection 1983;11:315–317.
4.Lebessi, E, Dellagrammaticus, H, Tassios, PT, et al. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit in the high-prevalence area of Athens, Greece. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:799–804.
5.Adler, JL, Shulman, JA, Terry, PM, Feldman, DB, Skaliy, P. Nosocomial colonization with kanamycin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, types 2 and 11, in a premature nursery. J Pediatr 1970;77:376–385.
6.Coovadia, YM, Johnson, AP, Bhana, RH, Hutchinson, GR, George, RC, Hafferjee, IE. Multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal nursery: the importance of maintenance of infection control policies and procedures in the prevention of outbreaks. J Hosp Infect 1992;22:197–205.
7.Royle, J, Halasz, S, Eagles, G, et al. Outbreak of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal unit. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1999;80:F64–F68.
8.Lin, H. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria: a current and future problem. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999;455:387–396.
9.Flaherty, JP, Weinstein, RA. Nosocomial infection caused by antibiotic-resistant organisms in the intensive-care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:236–248.
10.Goldmann, DA, Huskins, WC. Control of nosocomial antimicrobial-resistant bacteria: a strategic priority for hospitals worldwide. Clin Infect Dis 1997;24(suppl 1):S139–S145.
11.Larson, EL, Hughes, CA, Pyrek, JD, Sparks, SM, Cagatay, EU, Bartkus, JM. Changes in bacterial flora associated with skin damage on hands of health care personnel. Am J Infect Control 1998;26:513–521.
12.National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance of Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Twelfth Informational Supplement. Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 2002:22. M100–S12.
13.Tenover, FC, Arbeit, RD, Goering, RV, et al. Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: criteria for bacterial strain typing. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:2233–2239.
14.Stone, PW, Gupta, A, Loughrey, M, et al. Attributable costs of an extended spectrum beta-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak in a NICU. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:601–606.
15.Gaynes, RP, Edwards, JR, Jarvis, WR, et al. Nosocomial infections among neonates in high-risk nurseries in the United States. Pediatrics 1996;98:357–361.
16.Stoll, BJ, Gordon, T, Korones, SB, et al. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: a report from the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. J Pediatr 1996;129:63–71.
17.Sohn, AH, Garett, DO, Sinkowitz-Cochran, RL, et al. Prevalence of nosocomial infections in the neonatal intensive care unit patients: results from the first national point-prevalence survey. J Pediatr 2001;139:821–827.
18.Philippon, A, Labia, R, Jacoby, G. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1989;33:1131–1136.
19.Macrae, MB, Shannon, KP, Rayner, DM, Kaiser, AM, Hoffman, PN, French, GL. A simultaneous outbreak on a neonatal unit of two strains of multiply antibiotic resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae controllable only by ward closure. J Hosp Infect 2001;49:183–192.
20.Jacoby, G. Epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:81–83.
21.Schiappa, DA, Hayden, MK, Matushek, MG, et al. Ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli blood stream infection: a case-control and molecular epidemiology investigation. J Infect Dis 1996;174:529–536.
22.Pena, C, Pujols, M, Ardunay, C, et al. Epidemiology and successful control of a large outbreak due to Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998;42:53–58.
23.Lautenbach, E, Patel, JB, Bilker, WB, Edelstein, PH, Fishman, NO. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: risk factors for infection and impact of resistance on outcomes. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:1162–1171.
24.Piroth, L, Aube, H, Diose, J, Vincent-Martin, M. Spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: are beta-lactamase inhibitors of therapeutic value? Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:76–80.
25.Venezia, RA, Scarano, FJ, Preston, KE, et al. Molecular epidemiology of an SHV-5 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. Clin Infect Dis 1995;21:915–923.
26.Pessoa-Silva, CL, Meurer-Moreira, B, Camara-Almeida, V, et al. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors for infection and colonization. J Hosp Infect 2003;53:198–206.
27.Pottinger, J, Burns, S, Manske, C. Bacterial carriage by artificial versus natural nails. Am J Infect Control 1989;17:340–344.
28.Edel, E, Houston, S, Kennedy, V, LaRocco, M. Impact of a 5-minute scrub on the microbial flora found on artificial, polished, or natural fingernails of operating room personnel. Nurs Res 1998;47:54–59.
29.Wynd, CA, Samstag, DE, Lapp, AM. Bacterial carriage on the fingernails of OR Nurses. AORN J 1994;60:796–805.
30.Hedderwick, SA, McNeil, SA, Lyons, MJ, Kauffman, CA. Pathogenic organisms associated with artificial fingernails. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:505–509.
31.Winslow, EH, Jacobson, AF. Can a fashion statement harm the patient? Am J Nurs 2000;100:63–65.
32.Moolenaar, RL, Crutcher, M, San Joaquin, VH, et al. A prolonged outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a neonatal intensive care unit: did staff fingernails play a role in disease transmission? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:80–85.
33.Foca, M, Jakob, K, Whittier, S, et al. Endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a neonatal intensive care unit. N Engl J Med 2000;343:695–700.
34.Passaro, DJ, Waring, L, Armstrong, R, et al. Postoperative Serratia marcescens wound infections traced to an out-of-hospital source. J Infect Dis 1997;175:992–995.
35.Parry, MF, Grant, B, Yukna, M, et al. Candida osteomyelitis and diskitis after spinal surgery: an outbreak that implicates artificial nail use. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:352–357.
36.Boyce, JM, Pittet, D. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Am J Infect Control 2002;30:S1–S46.
37.Saiman, L, Lerner, A, Saal, L, et al. Banning artificial nails from health care settings. Am J Infect Control 2002;30:252–254.