Casalino LP. Markets and medicine: barriers to creating a “business case for quality.” Perspect Biol Med
Murphy DM. From expert data collectors to interventionists: changing the focus for infection control professionals. Am J Infect Control
Burke JP. Infection control—a problem for patient safety. New Engl J Med
Calfee DP, Farr BM. Infection control and cost control in the era of managed care. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Murphy DM, Alvarado CI, Fawal H. The business of infection control and epidemiology. Am J Infect Control
Wright SB, Ostrowsky B, Fishman N, et al. Hospital epidemiology and infection control roles expanding despite limited resources and compensation. In: Program and abstracts of the 17th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology in America (Baltimore). 2007 (Abstract 55).
Heffler S, Smith S, Keehan S, Borger C, Clemens MK, Truffer C. US health spending projections for 2004-2014. Health Aff (Millwood) 2005;suppl Web exclusives:W5-74-W5-85.
Stone PW, Schackman BR, Neukermans CP, et al. A synthesis of cost-utility analysis literature in infectious disease. Lancet Infect Dis
Drummond MF, Sculpher MJ, Torrance GW, O'Brien BJ, Stoddart GL. Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes. 7th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press;2005.
Gold MR, Siegel JE, Russell LB, Weinstein MC. Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. 1st ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press;1996.
Petitti DB. Meta-analysis, Decision Analysis, and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press;2000.
Leatherman S, Berwick D, Iles D, et al. The business case for quality: case studies and an analysis. Health Aff (Millwood)
Stone PW, Braccia D, Larson E. Systematic review of economic analyses of health care-associated infections. Am J Infect Control
Mansley EC, McKenna MT. Importance of perspective in economic analyses of cancer screening decisions. Lancet
McGregor JC, Weekes E, Forrest GN, et al. Impact of a computerized clinical decision support system on reducing inappropriate antimicrobial use: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Inform Assoc
Harris AD, Bradham DD, Baumgarten M, Zuckerman IH, Fink JC, Perencevich EN. The use and interpretation of quasi-experimental studies in infectious diseases. Clin Infect Dis
McConkey SJ, L'Ecuyer PB, Murphy DM, Leet TL, Sundt TM, Fraser VJ. Results of a comprehensive infection control program for reducing surgical-site infections in coronary artery bypass surgery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Dietrich ES, Demmler M, Schulgen G, et al. Nosocomial pneumonia: a cost-of-illness analysis. Infection
Hugonnet S, Eggimann P, Borst F, Maricot P, Chevrolet JC, Pittet D. Impact of ventilator-associated pneumonia on resource utilization and patient outcome. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Warren DK, Shukla SJ, Olsen MA, et al. Outcome and attributable cost of ventilator-associated pneumonia among intensive care unit patients in a suburban medical center. Crit Care Med
Rello J, Ollendorf DA, Oster G, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a large US database. Chest
Safdar N, Dezfulian C, Collard HR, Saint S. Clinical and economic consequences of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review. Crit Care Med
Blot SI, Depuydt P, Annemans L, et al. Clinical and economic outcomes in critically ill patients with nosocomial catheter-related bloodstream infections. Clin Infect Dis
Digiovine B, Chenoweth C, Watts C, Higgins M. The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J Respir Crit Care Med
Rello J, Ochagavia A, Sabanes E, et al. Evaluation of outcome of intravenous catheter-related infections in critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med
Coello R, Charlett A, Wilson J, Ward V, Pearson A, Bordello P. Adverse impact of surgical site infections in English hospitals. J Hosp Infect
Coskun D, Aytac J, Aydinli A, Bayer A. Mortality rate, length of stay and extra cost of sternal surgical site infections following coronary artery bypass grafting in a private medical centre in Turkey. J Hosp Infect
Hollenbeak CS, Murphy DM, Koenig S, Woodward RS, Dunagan WC, Fraser VJ. The clinical and economic impact of deep chest surgical site infections following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Chest
Jenney AW, Harrington GA, Russo PL, Spelman DW. Cost of surgical site infections following coronary artery bypass surgery. ANZ J Surg
Tambyah PA, Knasinski V, Maki DG. The direct costs of nosocomial catheter-associated urinary tract infection in the era of managed care. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Lai KK, Fontecchio SA. Use of silver-hydrogel urinary catheters on the incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients. Am J Infect Control
Dimick JB, Weeks WB, Karia RJ, Das S, Campbell DA Jr. Who pays for poor surgical quality? Building a business case for quality improvement. J Am Coll Surg
Ward WJ Jr, Spragens L, Smithson K. Building the business case for clinical quality. Healthc Financ Manage
Roberts RR, Frutos PW, Ciavarella GG, et al. Distribution of variable vs fixed costs of hospital care. JAMA
US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare and Medicaid statistical supplement: details for Medicare short-stay hospitals. Available at: http://www.cms.hhs.gov. Accessed July 17, 2007.
Wright MO, Hebden JN, Harris AD, et al. Aggressive control measures for resistant Acinetobacter haumannii and the impact on acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in a medical intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Guinan JL, McGuckin M, Shubin A, Tighe J. A descriptive review of malpractice claims for health care-acquired infections in Philadelphia. Am J Infect Control
Julian KG, Brumbach AM, Chicora MK, et al. First year of mandatory reporting of healthcare-associated infections, Pennsylvania: an infection control-chart abstractor collaboration. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Lindenauer PK, Remus D, Roman S, et al. Public reporting and pay for performance in hospital quality improvement. New Engl J Med
Perencevich EN, Fisman DN, Lipsitch M, Harris AD, Morris JG Jr, Smith DL. Projected benefits of active surveillance for vancomycin-resistant enterococci in intensive care units. Clin Infect Dis
Ginter PM, Swayne LE, Duncan WJ. Strategic Management of Health Care Organizations. 4thed. Maiden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.;2002.
Dooley RS, Fryxell GE, Judge WQ. Belaboring the not-so-obvious: consensus, commitment, and strategy implementation speed and success. J Management
Zanetti G, Goldie SJ, Piatt R. Clinical consequences and cost of limiting use of vancomycin for perioperative prophylaxis: example of coronary artery bypass surgery. Emerg Infect Dis
Neumann PJ. Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Improve Health Care. 1st ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press;2005.
Koplan JP, Harpaz R. Shingles vaccine: effective and costly or cost-effective?
Ann Intern Med
Bell CM, Urbach DR, Ray JG, et al. Bias in published cost effectiveness studies: systematic review. BMJ
US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Consumer Price Index, 2006. Available at: http://www.bls.gov/cpi/home.htm. Accessed April 29, 2007.
US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Consumer Price Index inflation calculator. Available at: http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/cpicalc.pl. Accessed April 29, 2007.
US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). How BLS measures price change for medical care services in the Consumer Price Index. March 1, 2007. Available at: http://www.bls.gov/cpi/cpifact4.htm. Accessed April 29, 2007.
Keeler E, Cretin S. Discounting of life-savings and other non-monetary effects. Management Sei
Carmeli Y, Cosgrove SE, et al. Adverse clinical and economic outcomes attributable to methicillin resistance among patients with Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection. Clin Infect Dis
Kaye KS, Engemann JJ, Mozaffari E, Carmeli Y. Reference group choice and antibiotic resistance outcomes. Emerg Infect Dis
Schulgen G, Kropec A, Kappstein I, Daschner F, Schumacher M. Estimation of extra hospital stay attributable to nosocomial infections: heterogeneity and timing of events. J Clin Epidemiol
Knaus WA, Draper EA, Wagner DP, Zimmerman JE. APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system. Crit Care Med
Iezzoni LI. The risks of risk adjustment. JAMA
Robins JM. The control of confounding by intermediate variables. Stat Med
Perencevich EN. Excess shock and mortality in Staphylococcus aureus related to methicillin resistance. Clin Infect Dis
Schwaber MJ, Carmeli Y. Antimicrobial resistance and patient outcomes: the hazards of adjustment. Crit Care
Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis
Von Korff M, Wagner EH, Saunders K. A chronic disease score from automated pharmacy data. J Clin Epidemiol
Batista R, Kaye K, Yokoe DS. Admission-specific chronic disease scores as alternative predictors of surgical site infection for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Kaye KS, Sands K, Donahue JG, Chan KA, Fishman P, Platt R. Preoperative drug dispensing as predictor of surgical site infection. Emerg Infect Dis
McGregor JC, Kim PW, Perencevich EN, et al. Utility of the Chronic Disease Score and Charlson Comorbidity Index as comorbidity measures for use in epidemiologic studies of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Am J Epidemiol
McGregor JC, Perencevich EN, Furuno JP, et al. Comorbidity risk-adjustment measures were developed and validated for studies of antibiotic-resistant infections. J Clin Epidemiol
Perencevich EN, Sands KE, Cosgrove SE, Guadagnoli E, Meara E, Piatt R. Health and economic impact of surgical site infections diagnosed after hospital discharge. Emerg Infect Dis
Cosgrove SE, Carmeli Y. The impact of antimicrobial resistance on health and economic outcomes. Clin Infect Dis
Haley RW. Measuring the costs of nosocomial infections: methods for estimating economic burden on the hospital. Am J Med
Finkler SA. The distinction between cost and charge. Ann Intern Med
Pronovost P, Angus DC. Cost reduction and quality improvement: it takes two to tango. Crit Care Med
Howard D, Cordell R, McGowan JE Jr, Packard RM, Scott RD 2nd, Solomon SL. Measuring the economic costs of antimicrobial resistance in hospital settings: summary of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Emory Workshop. Clin Infect Dis
Ashby J. The accuracy of cost measures derived from Medicare cost report data, Intramural #1-93-01. Prospective Payment Assessment Commission. Washington, DC, 1993.
Shwartz M, Young DW, Siegrist R. The ratio of costs to charges: how good a basis for estimating costs?
Larson E. State-of-the-science—2004: time for a “no excuses/no tolerance” (NET) strategy. Am J Infect Control
Classen DC, Evans RS, Pestotnik SL, Horn SD, Menlove RL, Burke JP. The timing of prophylactic administration of antibiotics and the risk of surgical-wound infection. New Engl J Med
Benson K, Hartz AJ. A comparison of observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. Neyv Engl J Med
Concato J, Shah N, Horwitz RI. Randomized, controlled trials, observational studies, and the hierarchy of research designs. New Engl J Med
Pocock SJ, Elbourne DR. Randomized trials or observational tribulations?
New Engl J Med
Hayes RJ, Alexander ND, Bennett S, Cousens SN. Design and analysis issues in cluster-randomized trials of interventions against infectious diseases. Stat Methods Med Res
Klar N, Donner A. Current and future challenges in the design and analysis of cluster randomization trials. Stat Med
Bennett S, Parpia T, Hayes R, Cousens S. Methods for the analysis of incidence rates in cluster randomized trials. Int J Epidemiol
Donner A, Klar N. Pitfalls of and controversies in cluster randomization trials. Am J Public Health
Elbourne DR, Campbell MK. Extending the CONSORT statement to cluster randomized trials: for discussion. Stat Med
Muto CA, Giannetta ET, Durbin LJ, Simonton BM, Farr BM. Cost-effectiveness of perirectal surveillance cultures for controlling vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus
. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Rao N, Jacobs S, Joyce L. Cost-effective eradication of an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a community teaching hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Shadish WR, Cook TD, Campbell DT. Experimental and Quasi-experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company;2002.
Harris AD, Lautenbach E, Perencevich E. A systematic review of quasi-experimental study designs in the fields of infection control and antibiotic resistance. Clin Infect Dis
Shadish WR, Heinsman DT. Experiments versus quasi-experiments: do they yield the same answer?
NIDA Res Monogr
Austin DJ, Bonten MJ, Weinstein RA, Slaughter S, Anderson RM. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in intensive-care hospital settings: transmission dynamics, persistence, and the impact of infection control programs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Bergstrom CT, Lo M, Lipsitch M. Ecological theory suggests that antimicrobial cycling will not reduce antimicrobial resistance in hospitals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Bonhoeffer S, Lipsitch M, Levin BR. Evaluating treatment protocols to prevent antibiotic resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Bootsma MC, Diekmann O, Bonten MJ. Controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: quantifying the effects of interventions and rapid diagnostic testing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Lipsitch M, Cohen T, Cooper B, et al. Transmission dynamics and control of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Science
Perencevich EN, Hartley DM. Of models and methods: our analytic armamentarium applied to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Ostrowsky B, Steinberg JT, Farr B, Sohn AH, Sinkowitz-Cochran RL, Jarvis WR. Reality check: should we try to detect and isolate vancomycin-resistant enterococci patients?
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Hunink M, Glasziou P, Siegel J, et al. Decision Making in Health and Medicine.
1st ed. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press;2001.