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Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in pediatric inpatients: A meta-analysis and systematic review

  • Scott Anjewierden (a1), Zheyi Han (a1), Charles B. Foster (a2), Chaitanya Pant (a3) and Abhishek Deshpande (a4) (a5)...
Abstract
Objective:

To summarize risk factors for Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) in hospitalized pediatric patients as determined by previous observational studies.

Design:

Meta-analysis and systematic review.

Patients:

Studies evaluating risk factors for CDI in pediatric inpatients were eligible for inclusion.

Method:

We systematically searched MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and EMBASE for subject headings and text words related to CDI and pediatrics from 1975 to 2017. Two of the investigators independently screened studies, extracted and compiled data, assessed study quality, and performed the meta-analysis.

Results:

Of the 2,033 articles screened, 14 studies reporting 10,531,669 children met the inclusion criteria. Prior antibiotic exposure (odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–3.52) and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07–1.64) were associated with an increased risk of CDI in children. Subgroup analyses using studies reporting only adjusted results suggested that prior antibiotic exposure is not a significant risk factor for CDI. H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) use (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.31–5.98) and that female gender (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.74–1.03) did not play a significant role as a risk factor for developing CDI.

Conclusion:

Prior antibiotic exposure appears to be an important risk factor for CDI based on the combined analysis but not significant using adjusted studies. PPI use was associated with an increased risk of CDI. Judicious and appropriate use of antibiotics and PPIs may help reduce the risk of CDI in this vulnerable population.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Abhishek Deshpande, Email: abhishekdp@gmail.com
Footnotes
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a

Authors of equal contribution.

PREVIOUS PRESENTATION: An abstract containing data used in this study was presented at the 2018 CSCTR Midwest Clinical and Translational Research Meeting on April 26, 2018, in Chicago, Illinois.

Footnotes
References
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