Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-6c8bd87754-ncgjf Total loading time: 1.402 Render date: 2022-01-19T05:07:25.971Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Shea/Apic Guideline: Infection Prevention and Control In The Long-Term Care Facility

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2015

Philip W. Smith*
Colleges Of Medicine And Public Health, University Of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska
Gail Bennett
Icp Associates, Inc, Rome, Georgia
Suzanne Bradley
Divisions Of Infectious Diseases And Geriatric Medicine Va Ann Arbor Healthcare System, And The University Of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Paul Drinka
Internal Medicine/Geriatrics, University Of Wisconsin-Madison, And Medical College Of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Ebbing Lautenbach
Associate Hospital Epidemiologist, Hospital Of The University Of Pennsylvania, And Senior Scholar, Center For Clinical Epidemiology And Biostatistics, University Of Pennsylvania School Of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
James Marx
Infection Preventionist, Broad Street Solutions, San Diego, California
Lona Mody
Divisions Of Geriatric Medicine, University Of Michigan Medical School, And Geriatric Research And Education Center, Veteran Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Lindsay Nicolle
Internal Medicine And Medical Microbiology, University Of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Kurt Stevenson
Division Of Infectious Diseases, Department Of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University College Of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio
Section Of Infectious Disease, University Of Nebraska Medical Center, 985400 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Ne 68198-5400 (Pwsmith@Unmc.Edu)
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Shea/Apic Guideline
Copyright © The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America 2008


1.American Health Care Association National Center for Assisted Living. Consumer information about long-term care—glossary of terms. Available at: Accessed July 2008.Google Scholar
2.Haley, RW, Culver, DH, White, JW, Morgan, WM, Emori, TG, Munn, VP, et al.The efficacy of infection surveillance and control programs in preventing nosocomial infections in US hospitals. Am J Epidemiol 1985;121:182205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3.Haley, RW, Culver, DH, White, JW, Morgan, WM, Emori, TG. The nationwide nosocomial infection rate: a new need for vital statistics. Am J Epidemiol 1985;121:15967.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4.Administration on Aging. Statistics on the aging population. Available at: Accessed July 2008.Google Scholar
5.AMA. American Medical Association white paper on elderly health: report of the Council on Scientific Affairs. Arch Intern Med 1990;150:245972.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6.American Health Care Association. Oscar data reports: nursing facility total, average and median number of patients per facility and ADL dependence. Available at: Accessed July 2008.Google Scholar
7.Smith, PW, Rusnak, PG. Infection prevention and control in the long-term-care facility. SHEA Long-Term Care Committee and APIC Guidelines Committee. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:8319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8.Strausbaugh, LJ, Joseph, CL. The burden of infection in long-term care. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:6749.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9.Strausbaugh, LJ, Sukumar, SR, Joseph, CL. Infectious disease outbreaks in nursing homes: an unappreciated hazard for frail elderly persons. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:8706.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10.Castle, SC. Clinical relevance of age-related immune dysfunction. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:57885.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11.Strausbaugh, LJ. Emerging health care-associated infections in the geriatric population. Etnerg Infect Dis 2001;7:26871.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
12.Richards, C. Infections in residents of long-term care facilities: an agenda for research. Report of an expert panel. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:5706.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13.Yoshikawa, TT. Geriatric infectious diseases: an emerging problem. J Am Geriatr Soc 1983;31:349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14.National Center for Health Statistics. 2004 Nursing Home Facility Survey tables. Available at: Accessed July 2008.Google Scholar
15.Richards, CL Jr, Darradji, M, Weinberg, A, Ouslander, JG. Antimicrobial use in post-acute care: a retrospective descriptive analysis in seven long-term care facilities in Georgia. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2005;6:10912.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16.Zimmerman, S, Gruber-Baldini, AL, Hebel, JR, Sloane, PD, Magaziner, J. Nursing home facility risk factors for infection and hospitalization: importance of registered nurse turnover, administration, and social factors. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:198795.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
17.Nicolle, LE, Strausbaugh, LJ, Garibaldi, RA. Infections and antibiotic resistance in nursing homes. Clin Microbiol Rev 1996;9:117.Google ScholarPubMed
18.Stevenson, KB, Moore, J, Colwell, H, Sleeper, B. Standardized infection surveillance in long-term care: interfacility comparisons from a regional cohort of facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26:2318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19.Smith, PW. Infections in long-term care facilities. Infect Control 1985;6:4356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20.Nicolle, LE, Bradley, S, Colgan, R, Rice, JC, Schaeffer, A, Hooton, TM, et al.Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:64354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21.Ouslander, JG, Schnelle, JF. Incontinence in the nursing home. Ann Intern Med 1995;122:43849.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
22.Nicolle, LE, Henderson, E, Bjornson, J, Mclntyre, M, Harding, GK, Mac-Donell, JA. The association of bacteriuria with resident characteristics and survival in elderly institutionalized men. Ann Intern Med 1987;106:6826.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23.McGeer, A, Campbell, B, Emori, TG, Hierholzer, WJ, Jackson, MM, Nicolle, LE, et al.Definitions of infection for surveillance in long-term care facilities. Am J Infect Control 1991;19:17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
24.Warren, JW, Steinberg, L, Hebel, JR, Tenney, JH. The prevalence of urethral catheterization in Maryland nursing homes. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:15357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
25.Kunin, CM, Douthitt, S, Dancing, J, Anderson, J, Moeschberger, M. The association between the use of urinary catheters and morbidity and mortality among elderly patients in nursing homes. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135:291301.Google Scholar
26.Ribeiro, BJ, Smith, SR. Evaluation of urinary catheterization and urinary incontinence in a general nursing home population. J Am Geriatr Soc 1985;33:47982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
27.Warren, JW, Tenney, JH, Hoopes, JM, Muncie, HL, Anthony, WC. A prospective microbiologic study of bacteriuria in patients with chronic indwelling urethral catheters. J Infect Dis 1982;146:71923.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
28.Gambert, SR, Duthie, EH Jr, Priefer, B, Rabinovitch, RA. Bacterial infections in a hospital-based skilled nursing facility. J Chronic Dis 1982;35:7816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
29.Daly, PB, Smith, PW, Rusnak, PG, Woods, GL. A microbiologic survey of long term care urinary catheters. Nebr Med J 1991;76:1615.Google ScholarPubMed
30.Warren, JW. Catheter-associated bacteriuria in long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:55762.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
31.Raz, R, Schiller, D, Nicolle, LE. Chronic indwelling catheter replacement before antimicrobial therapy for symptomatic urinary tract infection. J Urol 2000;164:12548.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
32.Wong, ES, Hooten, TM. Guideline for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Infect Control 1981;2:12530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
33.Duffy, LM, Cleary, J, Ahern, S, Kuskowski, MA, West, M, Wheeler, L, et al.Clean intermittent catheterization: safe, cost-effective bladder management for male residents of VA nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995;43:86570.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
34.Smith, PW, Daly, PB, Roccaforte, JS. Current status of nosocomial infection control in extended care facilities. Am J Med 1991;91:S2815.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
35.Saint, S, Kaufman, SR, Rogers, MA, Baker, PD, Ossenkop, K, Lipsky, BA. Condom versus indwelling urinary catheters: a randomized trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006;54:105561.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
36.Minister of National Health and Welfare Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. Infection control guidelines for long-term care facilities. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Canada Ministry of National Health and Welfare; 1994.Google ScholarPubMed
37.Garofalo, K. Home health. In: Olmstead, RN, editor. APIC infection control and applied epidemiology: principles and practice. St. Louis: Mosby; 1996.Google Scholar
38.Falsey, AR. Noninfluenza respiratory virus infection in long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:6028.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
39.Drinka, PJ, Gravenstein, S, Langer, E, Krause, P, Shult, P. Mortality following isolation of various respiratory viruses in nursing home residents. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:8125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
40.Boivin, G, De Serres, G, Hamelin, ME, Côté, S, Argouin, M, Tremblay, G, et al.An outbreak of severe respiratory tract infection due to human metapneumovirus in a long-term care facility. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:11528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
41.Loeb, M, McGeer, A, McArthur, M, Walter, S, Simor, AE. Risk factors for pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections in elderly residents of long-term care facilities. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:205864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
42.Mylotte, JM. Nursing home-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:120511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
43.Mylotte, JM, Goodnough, S, Naughton, BJ. Pneumonia versus aspiration pneumonitis in nursing home residents: diagnosis and management. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51:1723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
44.Marrie, TJ. Pneumonia in the long-term-care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23:15964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
45.Naughton, BJ, Mylotte, JM, Tayara, A. Outcome of nursing home-acquired pneumonia: derivation and application of a practical model to predict 30-day mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48:12929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
46.Bentley, DW, Bradley, S, High, K, Schoenbaum, S, Taler, G, Yoshikawa, TT, et al.Practice guideline for evaluation of fever and infection in long-term care facilities. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:64053.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
47.Tan, CG, Ostrawski, S, Bresnitz, EA. A preventable outbreak of pneumococcal pneumonia among unvaccinated nursing home residents in New Jersey during 2001. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:84852.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
48.Gleich, S, Morad, Y, Echague, R, Miller, JR, Kornblum, J, Sampson, JS, et al.Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 outbreak in a home for the aged: report and review of recent outbreaks. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:7117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
49.Kotilainen, P, Routamaa, M, Peltonen, R, Evesti, P, Eerola, E, Salmenlinna, S, et al.Eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a health center ward and associated nursing home. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:85963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
50.Mody, L, Maheshwari, S, Galecki, A, Kauffman, CA, Bradley, SF. Indwelling device use and antibiotic resistance in nursing homes: identifying a high-risk group. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:19216.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
51.Meehan, TP, Chua-Reyes, JM, Tate, J, Prestwood, KM, Scinto, JD, Petrillo, MK, et al.Process of care performance, patient characteristics, and outcomes in elderly patients hospitalized with community-acquired or nursing home-acquired pneumonia. Chest 2000;117:137885.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
52.Fine, MJ, Auble, TE, Yealy, DM, Hanusa, BH, Weissfeld, LA, Singer, DE, et al.A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med 1997;336:24350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
53.Mylotte, JM, Naughton, B, Saludades, C, Maszarovics, Z. Validation and application of the pneumonia prognosis index to nursing home residents with pneumonia. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46:153844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
54.Tablan, OC, Anderson, LJ, Besser, R, Bridges, C, Hajjeh, R, CDC, et al.Guidelines for preventing health-care-associated pneumonia, 2003: recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. MMWR Recomm Rep 2004;53:136.Google Scholar
55.CDC. Prevention of pneumococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 1997;46:124.Google Scholar
56.Watson, L, Wilson, BJ, Waugh, N. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine: a systematic review of clinical effectiveness in adults. Vaccine 2002;20:216673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
57.Loeb, M, Stevenson, KB. SHEA Long-Term-Care Committee. Pneumococcal immunization in older adults: implications for the long-term-care setting. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004;25:98594.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
58.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)HHS. Medicare and Medicaid programs, condition of participation: immunization standard for long-term care facilities. Final rule. Fed Regist 2005;70:5883352.Google Scholar
59.Smith, NM, Bresee, JS, Shay, DK, Uyeki, TM, Cox, NJ, et al, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 2006;55:142.Google Scholar
60.Bradley, SF. Prevention of influenza in long-term-care facilities: Long-Term-Care Committee of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:62937.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
61.Thompson, WW, Shay, DK, Weintraub, E, Brammer, L, Cox, N, Anderson, LJ, et al.Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. JAMA 2003;289:17986.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
62.Zadeh, MM, Buxton Bridges, C, Thompson, WW, Arden, NH, Fukuda, K. Influenza outbreak detection and control measures in nursing homes in the united states. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48:13105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
63.Kohn, MA, Farley, TA, Sundin, D, Tapia, R, McFarland, LM, Arden, NH. Three summertime outbreaks of influenza type A. J Infect Dis 1995;172:2469.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
64.Gravenstein, S, Miller, BA, Drinka, P. Prevention and control of influenza A outbreaks in long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:4954.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
65.Patriarca, PA, Weber, JA, Parker, RA, Hall, WN, Kendal, AP, Bregman, DJ, et al.Efficacy of influenza vaccine in nursing homes: reduction in illness and complications during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic. JAMA 1985;253:11369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
66.Gross, PA, Hermogenes, AW, Sacks, HS, Lau, J, Levandowski, RA. The efficacy of influenza vaccine in elderly persons: a meta-analysis and review of the literature. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:51827.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
67.Gross, PA, Quinnan, GV, Rodstein, M, LaMontagne, JR, Kaslow, RA, Saah, AJ, et al.Association of influenza immunization with reduction in mortality in an elderly population: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:5625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
68.Monto, AS, Rotthoff, J, Teich, E, Herlocher, ML, Truscon, R, Yen, HL, et al.Detection and control of influenza outbreaks in well-vaccinated nursing home populations. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39:45964.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
69.Mody, L, Langa, KM, Saint, S, Bradley, SF. Preventing infections in nursing homes: a survey of infection control practices in southeast Michigan. Am J Infect Control 2005;33:48992.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
70.Mody, L, Langa, KM, Malani, PN. Impact of the 2004-2005 influenza vaccine shortage on immunization practices in long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:3837.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
71.Saah, AJ, Neufeld, R, Rodstein, M, La Montagne, JR, Blackwelder, WC, Gross, P, et al.Influenza vaccine and pneumonia mortality in a nursing home population. Arch Intern Med 1986;146:23537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
72.Arden, NH. Control of influenza in the long-term-care facility: a review of established approaches and newer options. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:5964.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
73.Gravenstein, S, Davidson, HE. Current strategies for management of influenza in the elderly population. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:72937.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
74.Stead, WW, Lofgren, JP, Warren, E, Thomas, C. Tuberculosis as an endemic and nosocomial infection among the elderly in nursing homes. N Engl f Med 1985;312:14837.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
75.Ijaz, K, Dillaha, JA, Yang, Z, Cave, MD, Bates, JH. Unrecognized tuberculosis in a nursing home causing death with spread of tuberculosis to the community. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:12138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
76.Narain, JP, Lofgren, JP, Warren, E, Stead, WW. Epidemic tuberculosis in a nursing home: a retrospective cohort study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1985;33:25863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
77.Price, LE, Rutala, WA. Tuberculosis screening in the long-term care setting. Infect Control 1987;8:3536.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
78.Thrupp, L, Bradley, S, Smith, P, Simor, A, Gantz, N, Crossley, K, et al.Tuberculosis prevention and control in long-term-care facilities for older adults. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004;25:1097108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
79.CDC. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. American Thoracic Society. MMWR Recomm Rep 2000;49:151.Google ScholarPubMed
80.American Thoracic Society, CDC, Infectious Diseases Society of America. Treatment of tuberculosis. MMWR Recomm Rep 2003;52:177.Google ScholarPubMed
81.Rajagopalan, S. Tuberculosis and aging: a global health problem. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:10349.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
82.Naglie, G, McArthur, M, Simor, A, Naus, M, Cheung, A, McGeer, A. Tuberculosis surveillance practices in long-term care institutions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:14851.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
83.CDC and American Thoracic Society. Diagnostic standards and classification of tuberculosis in adults and children. This official statement of the American Thoracic Society and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was adopted by the ATS board of directors, July 1999. This statement was endorsed by the Council of the Infectious Disease Society of America, September 1999. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:137695.Google Scholar
84.Institute of Medicine (US). Committee on the Elimination of Tuberculosis in the United States. In: Geiter, L, editor. Ending neglect: the elimination of tuberculosis in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2000.Google Scholar
85.Jensen, PA, Lambert, LA, Iademarco, MF, Ridzon, R, CDC. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in healthcare settings, 2005. MMWR Recomm Rep 2005;54:1141.Google ScholarPubMed
86.Garcia, AD, Thomas, DR. Assessment and management of chronic pressure ulcers in the elderly. Med Clin North Am 2006;90:92544.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
87.Brandeis, GH, Morris, JN, Nash, DJ, Lipsitz, LA. The epidemiology and natural history of pressure ulcers in elderly nursing home residents. JAMA 1990;264:29059.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
88.Livesley, NJ, Chow, AW. Infected pressure ulcers in elderly individuals. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:13906.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
89.Lyder, CH. Pressure ulcer prevention and management. JAMA 2003;289:2236.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
90.Gupta, S, Baharestani, M, Baranoski, S, de Leon, J, Engel, SJ, Mendez-Eastman, S, et al.Guidelines for managing pressure ulcers with negative pressure wound therapy. Adv Skin Wound Care 2004;17(Suppl 2):116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
91.Auerbach, SB, Schwartz, B, Williams, D, Fiorilli, MG, Adimora, AA, Breiman, RF, et al.Outbreak of invasive group A streptococcal infections in a nursing home: lessons on prevention and control. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:101722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
92.Schwartz, B, Ussery, XT. Group A streptococcal outbreaks in nursing homes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:7427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
93.Greene, CM, Van Beneden, CA, Javadi, M, Skoff, TH, Beall, B, Facklam, R, et al.Cluster of deaths from group A streptococcus in a long-term care facility—Georgia, 2001. Am J Infect Control 2005;33:10813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
94.Andersen, BM, Haugen, H, Rasch, M, Heldal Haugen, A, Tageson, A. Outbreak of scabies in Norwegian nursing homes and home care patients: control and prevention. J Hosp Infect 2000;45:1604.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
95.Wilson, MM, Philpott, CD, Breer, WA. Atypical presentation of scabies among nursing home residents. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001;56:M4247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed Beer, G, Miller, MA, Tremblay, L, Monette, J. An outbreak of scabies in a long-term care facility: the role of misdiagnosis and the costs associated with control. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:5178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
97.Chosidow, O. Scabies and pediculosis. Lancet 2000;355:81926.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
98.Scheinfeld, N. Controlling scabies in institutional settings: a review of medications, treatment models, and implementation. Am J Clin Dermatol 2004;5:317.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
99.Augustin, AK, Simor, AE, Shorrock, C, McCausland, J. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to Norwalk-like virus in two long-term care facilities for the elderly. Can J Infect Control 1995;10:1113.Google Scholar
100.Green, KY, Belliot, G, Taylor, JL, Valdesuso, J, Lew, JF, Kapikian, AZ, et al.A predominant role for Norwalk-like viruses as agents of epidemic gastroenteritis in Maryland nursing homes for the elderly. J Infect Dis 2002;185:13346.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
101.Slotwiner-Nie, PK, Brandt, LJ. Infectious diarrhea in the elderly. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2001;30:62535.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
102.Olsen, SJ, DeBess, EE, McGivern, TE, Marano, N, Eby, T, Mauvais, S, et al.A nosocomial outbreak of fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella infection. N Engl J Med 2001;344:15729.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
103.Carter, AO, Borczyk, AA, Carlson, JA, Harvey, B, Hockin, JC, Karmali, MA, et al.A severe outbreak of Escherichia coli 0157:H7-associated hemorrhagic colitis in a nursing home. N Engl J Med 1987;317:1496500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
104.Simor, AE, Bradley, SF, Strausbaugh, LJ, Crossley, K, Nicolle, LE. SHEA Long-Term-Care Committee. Clostridium difficile in long-term-care facilities for the elderly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23:696703.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
105.Winquist, AG, Roome, A, Mshar, R, Fiorentino, T, Mshar, P, Hadler, J. Outbreak of campylobacteriosis at a senior center. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001;49:3047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
106.White, KE, Hedberg, CW, Edmonson, LM, Jones, DB, Osterholm, MT, MacDonald, KL. An outbreak of giardiasis in a nursing home with evidence for multiple modes of transmission. J Infect Dis 1989;160:298304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
107.Bennett, RG. Diarrhea among residents of long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993;14:397404.Google ScholarPubMed
108.CDC. Diagnosis and management of foodborne illnesses. A primer for physicians and other health care professionals. MMWR Recomm Rep 2004;53:133.Google Scholar
109.Setia, U, Serventi, I, Lorenz, P. Bacteremia in a long-term care facility: spectrum and mortality. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:16335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
110.Mylotte, JM, Tayara, A, Goodnough, S. Epidemiology of bloodstream infection in nursing home residents: evaluation in a large cohort from multiple homes. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:148490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
111.Muder, RR, Brennen, C, Wagener, MM, Goetz, AM. Bacteremia in a long-term-care facility: a five-year prospective study of 163 consecutive episodes. Clin Infect Dis 1992;14:64754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
112.O'Grady, NP, Alexander, M, Dellinger, EP, Gerberding, JL, Heard, SO, Maki, DG, et al.Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep 2002;51:129.Google ScholarPubMed
113.Garibaldi, RA, Brodine, S, Matsumiya, S. Infections among patients in nursing homes: policies, prevalence, problems. N Engl J Med 1981;305:7315.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
114.Boustcha, E, Nicolle, LE. Conjunctivitis in a long-term care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:2106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
115.Drinka, PJ, Stemper, ME, Gauerke, CD, Miller, JE, Goodman, BM, Reed, KD. Clustering of multiple endemic strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a nursing home: an 8-year study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26:2158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
116.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for epidemics. MMWR Recomm Rep 1989;38:6946.Google ScholarPubMed
117.Ryan, CA, Tauxe, RV, Hosek, GW, Wells, JG, Stoesz, PA, McFadden, HW Jr, et al.Escherichia coli 0157:H7 diarrhea in a nursing home: Clinical, epidemiological, and pathological findings. J Infect Dis 1986;154:6318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
118.Arnold, KE, Schweitzer, JL, Wallace, B, Salter, M, Neeman, R, Hlady, WG, et al.Tightly clustered outbreak of group a streptococcal disease at a long-term care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:137784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
119.Bentley, DW. Clostridium difficile–associated disease in long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1990;11:4348.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
120.Standaert, SM, Hutcheson, RH, Schaffner, W. Nosocomial transmission of Salmonella gastroenteritis to laundry workers in a nursing home. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
121.Troy, CJ, Peeling, RW, Ellis, AG, Hockin, JC, Bennett, DA, Murphy, MR, et al.Chlamydia pneumoniae as a new source of infectious outbreaks in nursing homes. JAMA 1997;277:12148.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
122.Nakashima, K, Tanaka, T, Kramer, MH, Takahashi, H, Ohyama, T, Kishimoto, T, et al.Outbreak of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a Japanese nursing home, 1999-2000. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:11717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
123.Seenivasan, MH, Yu, VL, Muder, RR. Legionnaires' disease in long-term care facilities: overview and proposed solutions. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:87580.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
124.Rodriguez, EM, Parrott, C, Rolka, H, Monroe, SS, Dwyer, DM. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis in a nursing home: importance of excluding ill employees. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:58792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
125.Levine, WC, Smart, JF, Archer, DL, Bean, NH, Tauxe, RV. Foodborne disease outbreaks in nursing homes, 1975 through 1987. JAMA 1991;266:21059.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
126.Musher, DM, Musher, BL. Contagious acute gastrointestinal infections. N Engl J Med 2004;351:241727.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
127.Khan, AJ, Cotter, SM, Schulz, B, Hu, X, Rosenberg, J, Robertson, BH, et al.Nosocomial transmission of hepatitis B virus infection among residents with diabetes in a skilled nursing facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23:3138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
128.Shlaes, DM, Lehman, MH, Currie-McCumber, CA, Kim, CH, Floyd, R. Prevalence of colonization with antibiotic resistant gram-negative bacilli in a nursing home care unit: the importance of cross-colonization as documented by plasmid analysis. Infect Control 1986;7:53845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
129.John, JF Jr, Ribner, BS. Antibiotic resistance in long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:24550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
130.Muder, RR, Brennen, C, Wagener, MM, Vickers, RM, Rihs, JD, Hancock, GA, et al.Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal colonization and infection in a long-term care facility. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:10712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
131.Bradley, SF, Terpenning, MS, Ramsey, MA, Zarins, LT, Jorgensen, KA, Sottile, WS, et al.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: colonization and infection in a long-term care facility. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:41722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
132.Strausbaugh, LJ, Jacobson, C, Sewell, DL, Potter, S, Ward, TT. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in extended-care facilities: experiences in a Veterans' Affairs nursing home and a review of the literature. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:3645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
133.Boyce, JM. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals and long-term care facilities: microbiology, epidemiology, and preventive measures. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:72537.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
134.Viray, M, Linkin, D, Maslow, JN, Stieritz, DD, Carson, LS, Bilker, WB, et al.Longitudinal trends in antimicrobial susceptibilities across long-term-care facilities: emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26:5662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
135.Flournoy, DJ. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria from nursing home residents in Oklahoma. Gerontology 1994;40:536.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
136.Trick, WE, Weinstein, RA, DeMarais, PL, Kuehnert, MJ, Tomaska, W, Nathan, C, et al.Colonization of skilled-care facility residents with 3 antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001;49:2706.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
137.Fry, AM, Udeagu, CC, Soriano-Gabarro, M, Fridkin, S, Musinski, D, LaClaire, L, et al.Persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant, multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a long-term-care facility: efforts to reduce intrafacility transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26:23947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
138.Suetens, C, Niclaes, L, Jans, B, Verhaegen, J, Schuermans, A, Van Eldere, J, et al.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization is associated with higher mortality in nursing home residents with impaired cognitive status. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006;54:185460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
139.Capitano, B, Nicolau, DP. Evolving epidemiology and cost of resistance to antimicrobial agents in long-term care facilities. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2003;4:S909.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
140.Lautenbach, E, Fishman, NO, Bilker, WB, Castiglioni, A, Metlay, JP, Edelstein, PH, et al.Risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance in nosocomial Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:246977.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
141.Lautenbach, E, Strom, BL, Bilker, WB, Patel, JB, Edelstein, PH, Fishman, NO. Epidemiological investigation of fluoroquinolone resistance in infections due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:128894.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
142.Byers, KE, Anglim, AM, Anneski, CJ, Farr, BM. Duration of colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23:20711.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
143.Montecalvo, MA, de Lencastre, H, Carraher, M, Gedris, C, Chung, M, Van-Horn, K, et al.Natural history of colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:6805.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
144.Lautenbach, E, Tolomeo, P, Mao, X, Fishman, NO, Metlay, JP, Bilker, WB, et al.Duration of outpatient fecal colonization due to Escherichia coli isolates with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones: longitudinal study of patients recently discharged from the hospital. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:393943.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
145.Graham, PLLin, SX III, Larson, EL. A US population-based survey of Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:31825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
146.Faulkner, CM, Cox, HL, Williamson, JC. Unique aspects of antimicrobial use in older adults. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:9971004.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
147.Wendt, C, Svoboda, D, Schmidt, C, Bock-Hensley, O, von Baum, H. Characteristics that promote transmission of Staphylococcus aureus nursing homes in German nursing homes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26:81621.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
148.Boyce, JM, Jackson, MM, Pugliese, G, Batt, MD, Fleming, D, Garner, JS, et al.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): A briefing for acute care hospitals and nursing facilities. The AHA Technical Panel on infections within hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:10515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
149.Price, LE, Sarubbi, FA Jr, Rutala, WA. Infection control programs in twelve North Carolina extended care facilities. Infect Control 1985;6:43741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
150.Crossley, KB, Irvine, P, Kaszar, DJ, Loewenson, RB. Infection control practices in Minnesota nursing homes. JAMA 1985;254:291821.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
151.Khabbaz, RF, Tenney, JH. Infection control in Maryland nursing homes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1988;9:15962.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
152.Pearson, DA, Checko, PJ, Hierholzer, WJ Jr, Jekel, JF. Infection control practices in Connecticut's skilled nursing facilities. Am J Infect Control 1990;18:26976.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
153.Pearson, DA, Checko, PJ, Hierholzer, WJ Jr, Jekel, JF. Infection control practitioners and committees in skilled nursing facilities in Connecticut. Am J Infect Control 1990;18:16775.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
154.Goldrick, B, Larson, E. Assessment of infection control programs in Maryland skilled-nursing long-term care facilities. Am J Infect Control 1994;22:839.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
155.Roup, BJ, Roche, JC, Pass, M. Infection control program disparities between acute and long-term care facilities in Maryland. Am J Infect Control 2006;34:1227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
156.Smith, PW, Helget, V, Sonksen, D. Survey of infection control training program graduates: long-term care facility and small hospital practitioners. Am J Infect Control 2002;30:3113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
157.Yoshikawa, TT, Ouslander, JG. Infection management for geriatrics in long-term care facilities. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2002.Google Scholar
158.Collier, WM, Collier, WM. Matthew Bender. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987, Public Law No. 100-203: As Amending ERISA with Respect to Pension Plans in Cases Under the Bankruptcy Code. New York, NY: M. Bender; 1988.Google Scholar
159.Medicare and Medicaid. Requirements for long-term care facilities—HCFA. Final rule. Fed Regist 1991;56:4882680.Google ScholarPubMed
160.US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Part 483—requirements for states and long-term care facilities. Section 483.65. Available at: Accessed July 2008.Google Scholar
161.American Health Care Association. The Long-Term Care Survey Washington, DC: American Health Care Association; 2005.Google ScholarPubMed
162.Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens—OSHA. Final rule. Fed Regist 1991;56:64004182.Google ScholarPubMed
163.Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens; needlestick and other sharps injuries. Final rule. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. Final rule: request for comment on the information collection (paperwork) requirements. Fed Regist 2001;66:531825.Google ScholarPubMed
164.Facilities Guidelines Institute. AIA Academy of Architecture for Health. 2006 Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health Care Facilities. Washington, DC: AIA 2006.Google Scholar
165.Joint Commission Resources on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Comprehensive Accreditation Manuals for Long Term Care. Chicago, IL: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations; 2006.Google ScholarPubMed
166.Health Canada. Development of a resource model for infection prevention and control programs in acute, long term, and home care settings: Conference Proceedings of the Infection Prevention and Control Alliance. Am J Infect Control 2004;32:26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
167.Friedman, C, Barnette, M, Buck, AS, Ham, R, Harris, JA, Hoffman, P, et al.Requirements for infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology in out-of-hospital settings: a consensus panel report. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:695705.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
168.Wendt, C, Bock-Hensley, O, von Baum, H. Infection control in German nursing homes. Am J Infect Control 2006;34:4269.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
169.Mayon-White, R, Grant-Casey, J. Infection control in British nursing homes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:2968.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
170.Murphy, CL, McLaws, ML. Who coordinates infection control programs in Australia? Am J Infect Control 1999;27:2915.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
171.Harris, JA. Infection control in pediatric extended care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27:598603.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
172.Smith, PW, Rusnak, PG. APIC guideline for infection prevention and control in the long-term care facility. Am J Infect Control 1991;19:198215.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
173.Nicolle, LE. Infection control in long-term care facilities. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:7526.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
174.Goldrick, BA. Infection control programs in long-term-care facilities: structure and process. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:7649.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
175.Nicolle, LE, Garibaldi, RA. Infection control in long-term care facilities. In: Lautenbach, E, Woeltje, KF, Thorofare, NJ, editors. Practical handbook for healthcare epidemiology. 2nd ed. Slack, Inc.; 2004. p. 27580.Google Scholar
176.Bradley, SF. Infections and infection control in the long-term care setting. In: Yoshikawa, TT, Norman, DC, editors. Infectious disease in the aging, a clinical handbook. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2000. p. 24556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
177.Mody, L. Establishing an infection control program. In: Yoshikawa, TT, Ouslander, JG, editors. Infection management for geriatrics in long-term care facilities. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 2006. p. 11530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
178.Horan-Murphy, E, Barnard, B, Chenoweth, C, Friedman, C, Hazuka, B, Russell, B, et al.APIC/CHICA-Canada infection control and epidemiology: professional and practice standards. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc, and the Community and Hospital Infection Control Association-Canada. Am J Infect Control 1999;27:4751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
179.Lee, TB, Baker, OG, Lee, JT, Scheckler, WE, Steele, L, Laxton, CE. Recommended practices for surveillance. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc., Surveillance Initiative Working Group. Am J Infect Control 1998;26:27788.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
180.Garner, JS, Jarvis, WR, Emori, TG, Horan, TC, Hughes, JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am J Infect Control 1988;16:12840.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
181.Smith, PW. Infection surveillance in long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:558.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
182.Satterfield, N. Infection control in long-term care facilities: the hospital-based practitioner's role. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993;14:407.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
183.Smith, PW. Consensus conference on nosocomial infections in longterm care facilities. Am J Infect Control 1987;15:97100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
184.McKibben, L, Horan, TC, Tokars, JI, Fowler, G, Cardo, DM, Pearson, ML, et al.Guidance on public reporting of health care-associated infections: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26:5807.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
185.Stevenson, KB. Regional data set of infection rates for long-term care facilities: description of a valuable benchmarking tool. Am J Infect Control 1999;27:206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
186.Rusnak, PG. Long-term care. In: Olmstead, R, editor. APIC infection control and applied epidemiology: principles and practice. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Year Book, Inc.; 1996.Google Scholar
187.Smith, PW. Infection control in long-term care facilities. 2nd ed. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers; 1994.Google ScholarPubMed
188.Vlahov, D, Tenney, JH, Cervino, KW, Shamer, DK. Routine surveillance for infections in nursing homes: experience at two facilities. Am J Infect Control 1987;15:4753.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
189.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Infection control measures for preventing and controlling influenza transmission in longterm care facilities. Available at: Scholar
190.Stern, JK, Smith, PW. Tuberculosis in the long-term care facility. Geriatr Focus Infect Dis 1991;1:610.Google Scholar
191.Beck-Sague, C, Soto-Caceres, V, Jarvis, WR. Outbreak investigations (chapter 10). In: Lautenbach, E, Woeltje, KF, editors. Practical handbook for healthcare epidemiologists. 2nd ed. Thorofare, NJ: Slack; 2004 p. 373.Google Scholar
192.Oteo, J, Navarro, C, Cercenado, E, Delgado-lribarren, A, Wilhelmi, I, Orden, B, et al.Spread of Escherichia coli strains with high-level cefotaxime and ceftazidime resistance between the community, longterm care facilities, and hospital institutions. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:235966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
193.Wiener, J, Quinn, JP, Bradford, PA, Goering, RV, Nathan, C, Bush, K, et al.Multiple antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella and Escherichia coli in nursing homes. JAMA 1999;281:51723.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
194.National Communicable Disease Center. Isolation techniques for use in hospitals. PHS publication No. 2054. 1st ed. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 1970.Google ScholarPubMed
195.Garner, JS, Simmons, BP. Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals. Infect Control 1983;4:245325.Google ScholarPubMed
196.Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Update: universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other bloodborne pathogens in healthcare settings. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1988;37:377823878.Google Scholar
197.Centers for Disease Control. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in health-care settings. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1987;36:18188.Google ScholarPubMed
198.Decker, MD. The OSHA bloodborne hazard standard. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:40717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
199.Garner, JS. Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals. The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:5380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
200.Siegel, JD, Rhinehart, E, Jackson, M, Chiarello, L, HICPAC. Management of multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings, 2006. Available at: Accessed July 2008.Google Scholar
201.Siegel, JD, Rhinehart, E, Jackson, M, Chiarello, L, the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. 2007 Guideline for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings. Available at: Accessed July 2008.Google Scholar
202.Kreman, T, Hu, J, Pottinger, J, Herwaldt, LA. Survey of long-term-care facilities in Iowa for policies and practices regarding residents with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2005;26:8115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
203.Geditz, AF, Potter, JF, Vandenberg, EV, Smith, LM, Smith, PW. Isolation practices in Nebraska long-term-care facilities: a survey. Infect Dis Clin Pract 2005;13:23640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
204.Trick, WE, Weinstein, RA, DeMarais, PL, Tomaska, W, Nathan, C, McAllister, SK, et al.Comparison of routine glove use and contact isolation precautions to prevent transmission of multidrug-resistant bacteria in a long-term care facility. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52:20039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
205.Bradley, SF. Issues in the management of resistant bacteria in longterm-care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:3626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
206.Recommendations for preventing the spread of vancomycin resistance. Recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR Recomm Rep 1995;44:113.Google Scholar
207.Bula, CJ, Ghilardi, G, Wietlisbach, V, Petignat, C, Francioli, P. Infections and functional impairment in nursing home residents: a reciprocal relationship. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52:7006.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
208.Strausbaugh, LJ, Crossley, KB, Nurse, BA, Thrupp, LD. Antimicrobial resistance in long-term-care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:12940.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
209.Crossley, K. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in long-term-care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19:5215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
210.Silverblatt, FJ, Tibert, C, Mikolich, D, Blazek-D'Arezzo, J, Alves, J, Tack, M, et al.Preventing the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a long-term care facility. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48:12115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
211.Beltrami, EM, Kozak, A, Williams, IT, Saekhou, AM, Kalish, ML, Nainan, OV, et al.Transmission of HIV and hepatitis C virus from a nursing home patient to a health care worker. Am J Infect Control 2003;31:16875.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
212.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Updated US public health service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005;54:117.Google Scholar
213.Thompson, BL, Dwyer, DM, Ussery, XT, Denman, S, Vacek, P, Schwartz, B. Handwashing and glove use in a long-term-care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:97103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
214.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Handwashing and glove use in a long-term-care facility—Maryland, 1992. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1993;42:6725.Google Scholar
215.Larson, E, Bobo, L, Bennett, R, Murphy, S, Seng, ST, Choo, JT, et al.Lack of caregiver hand contamination with endemic bacterial pathogens in a nursing home. Am J Infect Control 1992;20:115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
216.Fendler, EJ, Ali, Y, Hammond, BS, Lyons, MK, Kelley, MB, Vowell, NA. The impact of alcohol hand sanitizer use on infection rates in an extended care facility. Am J Infect Control 2002;30:22633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
217.Boyce, JM, Pittet, D. Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Association for Professionals in Infection Control. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Hand Hygiene Task Force. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/- SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23:S340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
218.Larson, E. Guideline for use of topical antimicrobial agents. Am J Infect Control 1988;16:25366.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
219.Larson, EL. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:25169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
220.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1989;38:648 73-6.Google ScholarPubMed
221.Richardson, JP. Tetanus and tetanus immunization in long-term care facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993;14:5914.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
222.Richardson, JP, Knight, AL. The prevention of tetanus in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1991;151:17127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
223.Gardner, P, Eickhoff, T, Poland, GA, Gross, P, Griffin, M, LaForce, FM, et al.Adult immunizations. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:3540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
224.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Facilitating influenza and pneumococcal vaccination through standing orders programs. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003;52:689.Google ScholarPubMed
225.Murphy, S, West, KP Jr, Greenough, WB III, Cherot, E, Katz, J, Clement, L. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on the incidence of infection in elderly nursing-home residents: a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 1992;21:4359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
226.Liu, BA, McGeer, A, McArthur, MA, Simor, AE, Aghdassi, E, Davis, L, et al.Effect of multivitamin and mineral supplementation on episodes of infection in nursing home residents: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:3542.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
227.Sepkowitz, KA. Occupationally acquired infections in health care workers. Part I. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:82634.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
228.Sepkowitz, KA. Occupationally acquired infections in health care workers. Part II. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:91728.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
229.Diekema, DJ, Doebbeling, BN. Employee health and infection control. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:292301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
230.CDC. Immunization of health-care workers: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR Recomm Rep 1997;46:142.Google Scholar
231.Prevention and control of tuberculosis in facilities providing longterm care to the elderly: recommendations of the Advisory Committee for Elimination of Tuberculosis. MMWR Recomm Rep 1990;39:713.Google Scholar
232.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventing transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care settings, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005;54:1141.Google Scholar
233.Leinbach, RM, English, AJ. Training needs of infection control professionals in long-term care facilities in Virginia. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
234.Smith, PW, Daly, PB, Rusnak, PG, Roccaforte, JS. Design and dissemination of a multiregional long-term care infection control training program. Am J Infect Control 1992;20:2757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
235.Daly, PB, Smith, PW, Rusnak, PG, Jones, MB, Giuliano, D. Impact on knowledge and practice of a multiregional long-term care facility infection control training program. Am J Infect Control 1992;20:22533.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
236.Maslow, JN, Lee, B, Lautenbach, E. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli carriage in long-term care facility. Emerg Infect Dis 2005;11:88994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
237.Richards, CL Jr, Steele, L. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in long-term care facilities: infection control considerations. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2003;4:S1104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
238.Loeb, MB, Craven, S, McGeer, AJ, Simor, AE, Bradley, SF, Low, DE, et al.Risk factors for resistance to antimicrobial agents among nursing home residents. Am J Epidemiol 2003;157:407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
239.Cohen, AE, Lautenbach, E, Morales, KH, Linkin, DR. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in the long-term care setting. Am J Med 2006;119:95863.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
240.Sandoval, C, Walter, SD, McGeer, A, Simor, AE, Bradley, SF, Moss, LM, et al.Nursing home residents and enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:10505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
241.Nicolle, LE, Bentley, DW, Garibaldi, R, Neuhaus, EG, Smith, PW. Antimicrobial use in long-term-care facilities. SHEA Long-term Care Committee. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:53745.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
242.Zimmer, JG, Bentley, DW, Valenti, WM, Watson, NM. Systemic antibiotic use in nursing homes: a quality assessment. J Am Geriatr Soc 1986;34:70310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
243.Jones, SR, Parker, DF, Liebow, ES, Kimbrough, RC III, Frear, RS. Appropriateness of antibiotic therapy in long-term care facilities. Am J Med 1987;83:499502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
244.Warren, JW, Palumbo, FB, Fitterman, L, Speedie, SM. Incidence and characteristics of antibiotic use in aged nursing home patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1991;39:96372.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
245.Loeb, M, Simor, AE, Landry, L, Walter, S, McArthur, M, Duffy, J, et al.Antibiotic use in Ontario facilities that provide chronic care. J Gen Intern Med 2001;16:37683.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
246.Katz, PR, Beam, TR Jr, Brand, F, Boyce, K. Antibiotic use in the nursing home: Physician practice patterns. Arch Intern Med 1990;150:14658.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
247.Mylotte, JM, Keagle, J. Benchmarks for antibiotic use and cost in longterm care. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:111722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
248.Smith, PW, Seip, CW, Schaefer, SC, Bell-Dixon, C. Microbiologic survey of long-term care facilities. Am J Infect Control 2000;28:813.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
249.O'Fallon, E, Harper, J, Shaw, S, Lynfield, R. Antibiotic and infection tracking in Minnesota long-term care facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:12437.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
250.Dellit, TH, Owens, RC, McGowan, JE Jr, Gerding, DN, Weinstein, RA, Burke, JP, et al.Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines for developing an institutional program to enhance antimicrobial stewardship. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:15977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
251.Gahr, P, Harper, J, Kieke, B Jr, Como-Sabetti, K, Christianson, R, Williams, D, et al.Healthcare professional surveys: judicious antibiotic use in Minnesota long-term care facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:4734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
252.Loeb, M, Bentley, DW, Bradley, S, Crossley, K, Garibaldi, R, Gantz, N, et al.Development of minimum criteria for the initiation of antibiotics in residents of long-term-care facilities: results of a consensus conference. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2001;22:1204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
253.Monette, J, Miller, MA, Monette, M, Laurier, C, Boivin, JF, Sourial, N, et al.Effect of an educational intervention on optimizing antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:12315.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
254.Schwartz, DN, Abiad, H, DeMarais, PL, Armeanu, E, Trick, WE, Wang, Y, et al.An educational intervention to improve antimicrobial use in a hospital-based long-term care facility. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:123642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
255.Healthcare Financing Administration. Long-term care survey process training manual. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service; 1986.Google Scholar
256.Rusnak, PG, Boehlem, MC. Regulations, policies and procedures. In: Smith, PW, editor. Infection control in long-term care facilities. 2nd ed. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers Inc.; 1994.Google Scholar
257.Joint Committee on Healthcare Laundry Guidelines. Guidelines for healthcare linen service. 1999.Google Scholar
258.Sehulster, L, Chinn, RY, CDC, HICPAC. Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities: recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR Recomm Rep 2003;52:142s.Google Scholar
259.Linnemann, CC. Nosocomial infections associated with physical therapy, including hydrotherapy. In: Mayhall, CG, editor. Hospital epidemiology and infection control. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1996.Google Scholar
260.Haberstich, NJ. Infection control measures: the environmental reservoir. In: Smith, PW, editor. Infection control in long-term care facilities. 2nd ed. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers, Inc.; 1994.Google Scholar
261.Rutala, WA. APIC guideline for selection and use of disinfectants. 1994, 1995, and 1996 APIC Guidelines Committee. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Am J Infect Control 1996;24:31342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
262.US Department of Health and Human services, Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for FDA Staff and Industry, Section 300.500 Reprocessing of single use devices (CPG 7124.16). Available at: Accessed July 2008.Google Scholar
263.Weatherly, KS, Kenwood, L, Hlusko, DL, Franklin, KG. Product evaluation process: a systems approach to controlling health care costs. AORN J 1994;59:48998.Google Scholar
264.Rutala, WA, Mayhall, CG. Medical waste. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:3848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
265.Environmental Protection Agency. Standards for the tracking and management of medical waste. Fed Regist 1989;54:1232695.Google Scholar
266.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Chapter 3: item-by-item guide to the MDS. Long-term care facility resident assessment instrument user's manual. Washington, DC: CMS; 2002.Google Scholar
267.Stevenson, KB, Moore, JW, Sleeper, B. Validity of the minimum data set in identifying urinary tract infections in residents of long-term care facilities. J Am Ceriatr Soc 2004;52:70711.Google Scholar
268.Crede, W, Hierholzer, WJ Jr. Linking hospital epidemiology and quality assurance: seasoned concepts in a new role. Infect Control 1988;9:424.Google Scholar
269.Stevenson, KB, Loeb, M. Performance improvement in the long-termcare setting: building on the foundation of infection control. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004;25:729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
270.Simmons, BP, Kritchevsky, SB. Epidemiologic approaches to quality assessment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:1014.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
271.Gross, PA, Barrett, T, Dellinger, EP, Krause, PJ, Martone, WJ, McGowan, JE Jr, et al.Consensus development of quality standards. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:1801.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
272.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Section W. Long-term care facility resident assessment instrument user's manual. Washington, DC: CMS; 2002.Google Scholar
273.Sand, KL, Lynn, J, Bardenheier, B, Seow, H, Nace, DA. Increasing influenza immunization for long-term care facility staff using quality improvement. J Am Ceriatr Soc 2007;55:17417.Google ScholarPubMed
274.Bellelli, G, Frisoni, GB, Barbisoni, P, Boffelli, S, Rozzini, R, Trabucchi, M. The management of adverse clinical events in nursing homes: a 1-year survey study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001;49:91525.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
275.Mody, L, Cinti, S. Pandemic influenza planning in nursing homes: are we prepared? J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:14317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
276.US Department of Health and Human services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Long-term care and other residential facilities pandemic influenza planning checklist. Available at: Accessed July 2008.Google Scholar
277.Smith, PW, Shostrom, V, Smith, A, Kaufmann, M, Mody, L. Preparedness for pandemic influenza in nursing homes: a 2-state survey. JAMA 2008;300:3924.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
You have Access
Cited by