Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Update

  • Deverick J. Anderson (a1), Kelly Podgorny (a2), Sandra I. Berríos-Torres (a3), Dale W. Bratzler (a4), E. Patchen Dellinger (a5), Linda Greene (a6), Ann-Christine Nyquist (a7), Lisa Saiman (a8), Deborah S. Yokoe (a9), Lisa L. Maragakis (a10) and Keith S. Kaye (a11)...

Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their surgical site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,” published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Update
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Update
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Update
      Available formats
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

3. P. Cruse Wound infection surveillance. Rev Infect Dis 1981;3(4):734737.

7. DJ Anderson , DG Pyatt , DJ Weber , WA Rutala . Statewide costs of health care-associated infections: estimates for acute care hospitals in North Carolina. Am J Infect Control 2013;41(9): 764768.

9. E Zimlichman , D Henderson , O Tamir , et al. Health care-associated infections: a meta-analysis of costs and financial impact on the us health care system. JAMA Intern Med 2013; 173(22):20392046.

10. DW Meeks , KP Lally , MM Carrick , et al. Compliance with guidelines to prevent surgical site infections: as simple as 1-2-3? Am J Surg 2011;201(1):7683.

14. DJ Anderson , KS Kaye , LF Chen , et al. Clinical and financial outcomes due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection: a multi-center matched outcomes study. PloS ONE 2009;4(12):e8305.

15. JJ Engemann , Y Carmeli , SE Cosgrove , et al. Adverse clinical and economic outcomes attributable to methicillin resistance among patients with Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36(5):592598.

19. JM Boyce , G Potter-Bynoe , L. Dziobek Hospital reimbursement patterns among patients with surgical wound infections following open heart surgery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1990; 11(2):8993.

20. R Coello , H Glenister , J Fereres , et al. The cost of infection in surgical patients: a case-control study. J Hosp Infect 1993;25(4): 239250.

21. CS Hollenbeak , DM Murphy , S Koenig , RS Woodward , WC Dunagan , VJ Fraser . The clinical and economic impact of deep chest surgical site infections following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Chest 2000;118(2):397402.

22. MF VandeBergh , JA Kluytmans , BA van Hout , et al. Cost-effectiveness of perioperative mupirocin nasal ointment in cardiothoracic surgery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17(12): 786792.

25. KJ Bozic , P Katz , M Cisternas , L Ono , MD Ries , J. Showstack Hospital resource utilization for primary and revision total hip arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005;87(3):570576.

27. RE Condon , WJ Schulte , MA Malangoni , MJ Anderson-Teschendorf . Effectiveness of a surgical wound surveillance program. Arch Surg 1983;118(3):303307.

29. PB Mead , SE Pories , P Hall , PM Vacek , JH Davis Jr, RL Gamelli . Decreasing the incidence of surgical wound infections: validation of a surveillance-notification program. Arch Surg 1986; 121(4):458461.

30. C Baker , J Luce , C Chenoweth , C. Friedman Comparison of case-finding methodologies for endometritis after cesarean section. Am J Infect Control 1995;23(1):2733.

31. DM Cardo , PS Falk , CG Mayhall . Validation of surgical wound surveillance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993;14(4):211215.

34. AL Miner , KE Sands , DS Yokoe , et al. Enhanced identification of postoperative infections among outpatients. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10(11):19311937.

35. DS Yokoe , GA Noskin , SM Cunnigham , et al. Enhanced identification of postoperative infections among inpatients. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10(11):19241930.

39. JP Burke . Infection control—a problem for patient safety. N Engl J Med 2003;348(7):651656.

44. P Kent , M McDonald , O Harris , T Mason , D. Spelman Post-discharge surgical wound infection surveillance in a provincial hospital: follow-up rates, validity of data and review of the literature. ANZJ Surg 2001;71(10):583589.

45. FA Manian . Surveillance of surgical site infections in alternative settings: exploring the current options. Am J Infect Control 1997;25(2):102105.

47. DA Nafziger , T Lundstrom , S Chandra , RM Massanari . Infection control in ambulatory care. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1997; 11(2):279296.

48. ES Petherick , JE Dalton , PJ Moore , N. Cullum Methods for identifying surgical wound infection after discharge from hospital: a systematic review. BMC Infect Dis 2006;6:170.

49. D Mlangeni , R Babikir , M Dettenkofer , F Daschner , P Gastmeier , H. Ruden AMBU-KISS: quality control in ambulatory surgery. Am J Infect Control 2005;33(1):1114.

50. M Whitby , ML McLaws , B Collopy , et al. Post-discharge surveillance: can patients reliably diagnose surgical wound infections? J Hosp Infect 2002;52(3):155160.

51. FA Manian , L. Meyer Comparison of patient telephone survey with traditional surveillance and monthly physician questionnaires in monitoring surgical wound infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993;14(4):216218.

53. K Sands , G Vineyard , R. Platt Surgical site infections occurring after hospital discharge. J Infect Dis 1996;173(4):963970.

58. DW Bratzler , DR Hunt . The surgical infection prevention and surgical care improvement projects: national initiatives to improve outcomes for patients having surgery. Clin Infect Dis 2006;43(3):322330.

59. EP Dellinger , SM Hausmann , DW Bratzler , et al. Hospitals collaborate to decrease surgical site infections. Am J Surg 2005; 190(1):915.

61. HL Lazar , M McDonnell , SR Chipkin , et al. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons practice guideline series: blood glucose management during adult cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2009;87(2):663669.

67. ME van Kasteren , J Mannien , BJ Kullberg , et al. Quality improvement of surgical prophylaxis in Dutch hospitals: evaluation of a multi-site intervention by time series analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2005;56(6):10941102.

69. JM Torpy , A Burke , RM Glass . JAMA patient page: wound infections. JAMA 2005;294(16):2122.

70. G Kanter , NR Connelly , J. Fitzgerald A system and process redesign to improve perioperative antibiotic administration. Anesth Analg 2006;103(6):15171521.

71. SL Pestotnik , DC Classen , RS Evans , JP Burke . Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes. Ann Intern Med 1996;124(10):884890.

72. AL Webb , RL Flagg , AS Fink . Reducing surgical site infections through a multidisciplinary computerized process for preoperative prophylactic antibiotic administration. Am J Surg 2006; 192(5):663668.

73. BG Nair , SF Newman , GN Peterson , WY Wu , HA Schwid . Feedback mechanisms including real-time electronic alerts to achieve near 100% timely prophylactic antibiotic administration in surgical cases. Anesth Analg 2010;111(5):12931300.

74. RG Berger , JP Kichak . Computerized physician order entry: helpful or harmful? J Am Med Inform Assoc 2004;11(2):100103.

76. DW Bratzler , EP Dellinger , KM Olsen , et al. Clinical practice guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2013;70(3): 195283.

77. JP Steinberg , BI Braun , WC Hellinger , et al. Timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the risk of surgical site infections: results from the Trial to Reduce Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Errors. Ann Surg 2009;250(1):1016.

78. ME van Kasteren , J Mannien , A Ott , BJ Kullberg , AS de Boer , IC Gyssens . Antibiotic prophylaxis and the risk of surgical site infections following total hip arthroplasty: timely administration is the most important factor. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44(7): 921927.

79. A Soriano , G Bori , S Garcia-Ramiro , et al. Timing of antibiotic prophylaxis for primary total knee arthroplasty performed during ischemia. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46(7):10091014.

80. AL Akinyoola , OO Adegbehingbe , A. Odunsi Timing of antibiotic prophylaxis in tourniquet surgery. J Foot Ankle Surg 2011;50(4):374376.

81. S Harbarth , MH Samore , D Lichtenberg , Y. Carmeli Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis after cardiovascular surgery and its effect on surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance. Circulation 2000;101(25):29162921.

82. M McDonald , E Grabsch , C Marshall , A. Forbes Single-versus multiple-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis for major surgery: a systematic review. Aust N ZJ Surg 1998;68(6):388396.

83. BA Coakley , ES Sussman , TS Wolfson , et al. Postoperative antibiotics correlate with worse outcomes after appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis. J Am Coll Surg 2011;213(6):778783.

84. JA Cannon , LK Altom , RJ Deierhoi , et al. Preoperative oral antibiotics reduce surgical site infection following elective co-lorectal resections. Dis Colon Rectum 2012;55(11):11601166.

86. DE Fry . Colon preparation and surgical site infection. Am J Surg 2011;202(2):225232.

87. S Hendren , D Fritze , M Banerjee , et al. Antibiotic choice is independently associated with risk of surgical site infection after colectomy: a population-based cohort study. Ann Surg 2013;257(3):469475.

89. RL Nelson , AM Glenny , F. Song Antimicrobial prophylaxis for colorectal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(1):CD001181.

90. RJ Deierhoi , LG Dawes , C Vick , KM Itani , MT Hawn . Choice of intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis for colorectal surgery does matter. J Am Coll Surg 2013;217(5):763769.

91. GD Toneva , RJ Deierhoi , M Morris , et al. Oral antibiotic bowel preparation reduces length of stay and readmissions after colorectal surgery. J Am Coll Surg 2013;216(4):756762.

92. KF Guenaga , D Matos , R Wille-Jorgensen Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(9):CD001544.

93. J Tanner , D Woodings , K. Moncaster Preoperative hair removal to reduce surgical site infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;(3):CD004122.

94. AS Dronge , MF Perkal , S Kancir , J Concato , M Asian , RA Rosenthal . Long-term glycémie control and postoperative infectious complications. Arch Surg 2006;141(4):375380.

95. SH Golden , C Peart-Vigilance , WH Kao , FL Brancati . Perioperative glycemic control and the risk of infectious complications in a cohort of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999; 22(9):14081414.

96. MA Olsen , JJ Nepple , KD Riew , et al. Risk factors for surgical site infection following orthopaedic spinal operations. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2008;90(1):6269.

97. S Kwon , R Thompson , P Dellinger , D Yanez , E Farrohki , D. Flum Importance of perioperative glycemic control in general surgery: a report from the Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program. Ann Surg 2013;257(1):814.

98. GE Umpierrez , D Smiley , S Jacobs , et al. Randomized study of basal-bolus insulin therapy in the inpatient management of patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing general surgery (RABBIT 2 surgery). Diabetes Care 2011;34(2):256261.

99. J Jacobi , N Bircher , J Krinsley , et al. Guidelines for the use of an insulin infusion for the management of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 2012;40(12):32513276.

100. GE Umpierrez , R Hellman , MT Korytkowski , et al. Management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients in non-critical care setting: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrino J Metab 2012;97(1):1638.

101. GY Gandhi , GA Nuttall , MD Abel , et al. Intensive intraoperative insulin therapy versus conventional glucose management during cardiac surgery: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2007;146(4):233243.

102. DI Sessler . Complications and treatment of mild hypothermia. Anesthessiology 2001;95(2):531543.

103. A Kurz , DI Sessler , R Lenhardt ; Study of Wound Infection and Temperature Group. Perioperative normothermia to reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infection and shorten hospitali-zation. N Engl J Med 1996;334(19):12091215.

104. AC Melling , B Ali , EM Scott , DJ Leaper . Effects of preoperative warming on the incidence of wound infection after clean surgery: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2001;358(9285): 876880.

105. PF Wong , S Kumar , A Bohra , D Whetter , DJ Leaper . Randomized clinical trial of perioperative systemic warming in major elective abdominal surgery. Br J Surg 2007;94(4):421426.

106. FJ Belda , L Aguilera , J Garcia de la Asuncion , et al. Supplemental perioperative oxygen and the risk of surgical wound infection: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005;294(16): 20352042.

107. R Greif , O Akca , EP Horn , A Kurz , DI Sessler ; Outcomes Research Group. Supplemental perioperative oxygen to reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infection. N Engl J Med 2000; 342(3):161167.

108. A Bickel , M Gurevits , R Vamos , S Ivry , A. Eitan Perioperative hyperoxygenation and wound site infection following surgery for acute appendicitis: a randomized, prospective, controlled trial. Arch Surg 2011;146(4):464470.

109. CS Meyhoff , J Wetterslev , LN Jorgensen , et al. Effect of high perioperative oxygen fraction on surgical site infection and pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery: the PROXI randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2009;302(14):15431550.

110. KO Pryor , TJ Fahey 3rd, CA Lien , PA Goldstein . Surgical site infection and the routine use of perioperative hyperoxia in a general surgical population: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291(1):7987.

111. M Schietroma , F Carlei , EM Cecilia , F Piccione , Z Bianchi , G. Amicucci Colorectal infraperitoneal anastomosis: the effects of perioperative supplemental oxygen administration on the anastomotic dehiscence. J Gastrointest Surg 2012;16(2):427434.

112. M Schietroma , EM Cecilia , F Carlei , et al. Prevention of anastomotic leakage after total gastrectomy with perioperative supplemental oxygen administration: a prospective randomized, double-blind, controlled, single-center trial. Ann Surg Oncol 2013;20(5):15841590.

113. CS Meyhoff , LN Jorgensen , J Wetterslev , KB Christensen , LS Rasmussen . Increased long-term mortality after a high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction during abdominal surgery: follow-up of a randomized clinical trial. Anesth Analg 2012; 115(4):849854.

114. M Qadan , O Akca , SS Mahid , CA Hornung , HC Polk Jr. Perioperative supplemental oxygen therapy and surgical site infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Surg 2009;144(4):359366.

115. M Maiwald , ES Chan . The forgotten role of alcohol: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy and perceived role of chlorhexidine in skin antisepsis. PloS ONE 2012;7(9):e44277.

116. RO Darouiche , MJ Wall Jr, KM Itani , et al. Chlorhexidine-alcohol versus povidone-iodine for surgical-site antisepsis. N Engl J Med 2010;362(1):1826.

118. R Aly , HI Maibach . Comparative antibacterial efficacy of a 2-minute surgical scrub with chlorhexidine gluconate, povidone-iodine, and chloroxylenol sponge-brushes. Am J Infect Control 1988;16(4):173177.

119. E. Larson Guideline for use of topical antimicrobial agents. Am J Infect Control 1988;16(6):253266.

120. JP Edwards , AL Ho , MC Tee , E Dixon , CG Ball . Wound protectors reduce surgical site infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Surg 2012;256(1):5359.

121. AB Haynes , TG Weiser , WR Berry , et al. A surgical safety checklist to reduce morbidity and mortality in a global population. N Engl J Med 2009;360(5):491499.

122. TG Weiser , AB Haynes , G Dziekan , WR Berry , SR Lipsitz , AA Gawande . Effect of a 19-item surgical safety checklist during urgent operations in a global patient population. Ann Surg 2010;251(5):976980.

123. WA van Klei , RG Hoff , EE van Aarnhem , et al. Effects of the introduction of the WHO “Surgical Safety Checklist” on in hospital mortality: a cohort study. Ann Surg 2012;255(1):4449.

127. MK Bolon , D Hooper , KB Stevenson , et al. Improved surveillance for surgical site infections after orthopedic implantation procedures: extending applications for automated data. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48(9):12231229.

128. S Gerbier-Colomban , M Bourjault , JC Cetre , J Baulieux , MH Metzger . Evaluation study of different strategies for detecting surgical site infections using the hospital information system at Lyon University Hospital, France. Ann Surg 2012;255(5): 896900.

130. G Jamtvedt , JM Young , DT Kristoffersen , MA O’Brien , AD Oxman . Audit and feedback: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;(2): CD000259.

131. A Skoufalos , JL Clarke , M Napp , et al. Improving awareness of best practices to reduce surgical site infection: a multistake-holder approach. Am J Med Qual 2012;27(4):297304.

133. DH Culver , TC Horan , RP Gaynes , et al; National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Surgical wound infection rates by wound class, operative procedure, and patient risk index. Am J Med 1991;91(3 B):152S157S.

134. RW Loftus , JR Brown , MD Koff , et al. Multiple reservoirs contribute to intraoperative bacterial transmission. Anesth Analg 2012;114(6):12361248.

135. AE Andersson , I Bergh , J Karlsson , BI Eriksson , K. Nilsson Traffic flow in the operating room: an explorative and descriptive study on air quality during orthopedic trauma implant surgery. Am J Infect Control 2012;40(8):750755.

136. RM Crolla , L van der Laan , EJ Veen , Y Hendriks , C van Schendel , J. Kluytmans Reduction of surgical site infections after implementation of a bundle of care. PloS ONE 2012;7(9):e44599.

137. M van Rijen , M Bonten , R Wenzel , J. Kluytmans Mupirocin ointment for preventing Staphylococcus aureus infections in nasal carriers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(4):CD006216.

138. MH Wilcox , J Hall , H Pike , et al. Use of perioperative mupirocin to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) orthopaedic surgical site infections. J Hosp Infect 2003; 54(31):196201.

139. MR Nicholson , LA Huesman . Controlling the usage of intra-nasal mupirocin does impact the rate of Staphylococcus aureus deep sternal wound infections in cardiac surgery patients. Am J Infect Control 2006;34(1):4448.

141. LG Bode , JA Kluytmans , HF Wertheim , et al. Preventing surgical-site infections in nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. N Engl J Med 2010;362(1):917.

142. S Harbarth , C Fankhauser , J Schrenzel , et al. Universal screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at hospital admission and nosocomial infection in surgical patients. JAMA 2008;299(10):11491157.

143. TM Perl , JJ Cullen , RP Wenzel , et al. Intranasal mupirocin to prevent postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections. N Engl J Med 2002;346(24):18711877.

144. M Schweizer , E Perencevich , J McDanel , et al. Effectiveness of a bundled intervention of decolonization and prophylaxis to decrease Gram positive surgical site infections after cardiac or orthopedic surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2013;346:f2743.

145. MA Miller , A Dascal , J Portnoy , J. Mendelson Development of mupirocin resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after widespread use of nasal mupirocin ointment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17(12):811813.

146. OJ Whiteside , MG Tytherleigh , S Thrush , R Farouk , RB Galland . Intra-operative peritoneal lavage—who does it and why? Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2005;87(4):255258.

147. I Fournel , M Tiv , M Soulias , C Hua , K Astruc , LS Aho Glele . Meta-analysis of intraoperative povidone-iodine application to prevent surgical-site infection. Br J Surg 2010;97(11):16031613.

148. KM Thompson , WA Oldenburg , C Deschamps , WC Rupp , CD Smith . Chasing zero: the drive to eliminate surgical site infections. Ann Surg 2011;254(3):430436.

150. P Panahi , M Stroh , DS Casper , J Parvizi , MS Austin . Operating room traffic is a major concern during total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2012;470(10):26902694.

151. MA Tadros , VR Williams , S Plourde , S Callery , AE Simor , M. Vearncombe Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection during an outbreak in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. Am J Infect Control 2013;41(6):509512.

152. Y Wiener-Well , M Galuty , B Rudensky , Y Schlesinger , D Attias , AM Yinnon . Nursing and physician attire as possible source of nosocomial infections. Am J Infect Control 2011;39(7):555559.

154. A Kohlenberg , D Weitzel-Kage , P van der Linden , et al. Outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a surgical intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect 2010;74(4): 350357.

156. ES Dodds Ashley , DN Carroll , JJ Engemann , et al. Risk factors for postoperative mediastinitis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38(11):15551560.

157. D Chambers , G Worthy , L Myers , et al. Glycopeptide vs. non-glycopeptide antibiotics for prophylaxis of surgical site infections: a systematic review. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2010;11(5): 455462.

158. MK Bolon , M Morlote , SG Weber , B Koplan , Y Carmeli , SB Wright . Glycopeptides are no more effective than beta-lactam agents for prevention of surgical site infection after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38(10):13571363.

159. AL Bull , LJ Worth , MJ Richards . Impact of vancomycin surgical antibiotic prophylaxis on the development of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infections: report from Australian Surveillance Data (VICNISS). Ann Surg 2012; 256(6):10891092.

160. MF Brennan , PW Pisters , M Posner , O Quesada , M. Shike A prospective randomized trial of total parenteral nutrition after major pancreatic resection for malignancy. Ann Surg 1994; 220(4):436441.

161.Veterans Affairs Total Parenteral Nutrition Cooperative Study Group. Perioperative total parenteral nutrition in surgical patients. N Engl J Med 1991;325(8):525532.

162. K Marimuthu , KK Varadhan , O Ljungqvist , DN Lobo . A meta-analysis of the effect of combinations of immune modulating nutrients on outcome in patients undergoing major open gastrointestinal surgery. Ann Surg 2012;255(6):10601068.

163. Y Zhang , Y Gu , T Guo , Y Li , H. Cai Perioperative immuno-nutrition for gastrointestinal cancer: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Surg Oncol 2012;21(2):e87e95.

165. T Nakamura , N Kashimura , T Noji , et al. Triclosan-coated sutures reduce the incidence of wound infections and the costs after colorectal surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Surgery 2013;153(4):576583.

166. WK Chang , S Srinivasa , R Morton , AG Hill . Triclosan-impregnated sutures to decrease surgical site infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Ann Surg 2012;255(5):854859.

167. AE Deliaert , E Van den Kerckhove , S Tuinder , et al. The effect of triclosan-coated sutures in wound healing: a double blind randomised prospective pilot study. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2009;62(6):771773.

168. J Webster , AA Alghamdi . Use of plastic adhesive drapes during surgery for preventing surgical site infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(4):CD006353.

169. T Cordtz , L Schouenborg , K Laursen , et al. The effect of incisional plastic drapes and redisinfection of operation site on wound infection following caesarean section. J Hosp Infect 1989;13(3):267272.

170. PA Dewan , Van AM Rij , RG Robinson , GB Skeggs , M. Fergus The use of an iodophor-impregnated plastic incise drape in abdominal surgery—a controlled clinical trial. Aust N Z J Surg 1987;57(11):859863.

171. CG Segal , JJ Anderson . Preoperative skin preparation of cardiac patients. AORN J 2002;76(5):821828.

172. BR Swenson , TR Camp , DP Mulloy , RG Sawyer . Antimicrobial-impregnated surgical incise drapes in the prevention of mesh infection after ventral hernia repair. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2008; 9(1):2332.

174. J Webster , S. Osborne Preoperative bathing or showering with skin antiseptics to prevent surgical site infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(2):CD004985.

175. CE Edmiston Jr, CJ Krepel , GR Seabrook , BD Lewis , KR Brown , JB Towne . Preoperative shower revisited: can high topical antiseptic levels be achieved on the skin surface before surgical admission? J Am Coll Surg 2008;207(2):233239.

176. D. Eiselt Presurgical skin preparation with a novel 2% chlorhexidine gluconate cloth reduces rates of surgical site infection in orthopaedic surgical patients. Orthop Nurs 2009;28(3):141145.

177. P Segers , RG Speekenbrink , DT Ubbink , ML van Ogtrop , BA de Mol . Prevention of nosocomial infection in cardiac surgery by decontamination of the nasopharynx and oropharynx with chlorhexidine gluconate: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2006;296(20):24602466.

178. AF de Bruin , MP Gosselink , E van der Harst , HJ Rutten . Local application of gentamicin collagen implants in the prophylaxis of surgical site infections following gastrointestinal surgery: a review of clinical experience. Tech Coropractol 2010;14(4):301310.

179. G Guzmán Valdivia Gomez , TS Guerrero , MC Lluck , FJ Delgado . Effectiveness of collagen-gentamicin implant for treatment of “dirty” abdominal wounds. World J Surg 1999;23(2):123126.

181. E Bennett-Guerrero , TN Pappas , WA Koltun , et al. Gentamicin-collagen sponge for infection prophylaxis in colorectal surgery. N Engl J Med 2010;363(11):10381049.

182. AM Eklund , M Valtonen , KA Werkkala . Prophylaxis of sternal wound infections with gentamicin-collagen implant: randomized controlled study in cardiac surgery, J Hosp Infect 2005; 59(2):108112.

183. O Friberg , R Svedjeholm , B Soderquist , H Granfeldt , T Vikerfors , J. Kallman Local gentamicin reduces sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Thome Surg 2005;79(1):153161.

184. C Schimmer , M Ozkur , B Sinha , et al. Gentamicin-collagen sponge reduces sternal wound complications after heart surgery: a controlled, prospectively randomized, double-blind study, J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;143(1):194200.

185. E Bennett-Guerrero , TB Ferguson Jr, M Lin , et al. Effect of an implantable gentamicin-collagen sponge on sternal wound infections following cardiac surgery: a randomized trial. JAMA 2010;304(7):755762.

186. MN Mavros , PK Mitsikostas , VG Alexiou , G Peppas , ME Falagas . Gentamicin collagen sponges for the prevention of sternal wound infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;144(5):12351240.

187. T Anthony , BW Murray , JT Sum-Ping , et al. Evaluating an evidence-based bundle for preventing surgical site infection: a randomized trial. Arch Surg 2011;146(3):263269.

188. Y Young-Xu , J Neily , PD Mills , et al. Association between implementation of a medical team training program and surgical morbidity. Arch Surg 2011;146(12):13681373.

195. L McKibben , T Horan , JI Tokars , et al. Guidance on public reporting of healthcare-associated infections: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Am J Infect Control 2005;33(4):217226.

199. PJ Pronovost , SM Berenholtz , DM Needham . Translating evidence into practice: a model for large scale knowledge translation. BMJ 2008;337:a1714.

200. EC Wick , DB Hobson , JL Bennett , et al. Implementation of a surgical comprehensive unit-based safety program to reduce surgical site infections. J Am Coll Surg 2012;215(2):193200.

204. MR Ballard , NH Miller , AC Nyquist , B Elise , DM Baulesh , MA Erickson . A multidisciplinary approach improves infection rates in pediatric spine surgery. J Pediatr Orthop 2012;32(3): 266270.

205. R Cima , E Dankbar , J Lovely , et al. Colorectal surgery surgical site infection reduction program: a national surgical quality improvement program-driven multidisciplinary single-institution experience. J Am Coll Surg 2013;216(1):2333.

206. T Hranjec , BR Swenson , RG Sawyer . Surgical site infection prevention: how we do it. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2010;11(3): 289294.

207. M Jain , L Miller , D Belt , D King , DM Berwick . Decline in ICU adverse events, nosocomial infections and cost through a quality improvement initiative focusing on teamwork and culture change. Qual Saf Health Care 2006;15(4):235239.

208. JW Alexander , JS Solomkin , MJ Edwards . Updated recommendations for control of surgical site infections. Ann Surg 2011;253(6):10821093.

209. S Hendren , MJ Englesbe , L Brooks , J Kubus , H Yin , DA Campbell Jr. Prophylactic antibiotic practices for colectomy in Michigan. Am J Surg 2011;201(3):290293.

210. MM Riley , D Suda , K Tabsh , A Flood , DA Pegues . Reduction of surgical site infections in low transverse cesarean section at a university hospital. Am J Infect Control 2012;40(9):820825.

211. VL Lipke , AS Hyott . Reducing surgical site infections by bundling multiple risk reduction strategies and active surveillance. AORN J 2010;92(3):288296.

212. NM Schwann , KA Bretz , S Eid , et al. Point-of-care electronic prompts: an effective means of increasing compliance, demonstrating quality, and improving outcome. Anesth Analg 2011; 113(4):869876.

213. CM Berenguer , MG Ochsner Jr, SA Lord , CK Senkowski . Improving surgical site infections: using National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data to institute Surgical Care Improvement Project protocols in improving surgical outcomes. J Am Coll Surg 2010;210(5):737741.

215. TC Horan , RP Gaynes , WJ Mattone , WR Jarvis , TG Emori . CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13(10):606608.

216. KS Kaye , K Schmit , C Pieper , et al. The effect of increasing age on the risk of surgical site infection. J Infect Dis 2005; 191(7):10561062.

217. P Pessaux , S Msika , D Atalia , JM Hay , Y. Flamant Risk factors for postoperative infectious complications in noncolorectal abdominal surgery: a multivariate analysis based on a prospective multicenter study of 4718 patients. Arch Surg 2003;138(3):314324.

219. MA Olsen , M Lefta , JR Dietz , et al. Risk factors for surgical site infection after major breast operation. J Am Coll Surg 2008; 207(3):326335.

220. N Faraday , P Rock , EE Lin , et al. Past history of skin infection and risk of surgical site infection after elective surgery. Ann Surg 2013;257(1):150154.

222. MT Hawn , TK Houston , EJ Campagna , et al. The attributable risk of smoking on surgical complications. Ann Surg 2011; 254(6):914920.

223. AM Moller , T Pedersen , N Villebro , A. Munksgaard Effect of smoking on early complications after elective orthopaedic surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2003;85(2):178181.

224. AM Moller , N Villebro , T Pedersen , H. Tonnesen Effect of preoperative smoking intervention on postoperative complications: a randomised clinical trial. Lancet 2002;359(9301):114—117.

225. A Sharma , AP Deeb , JC Iannuzzi , AS Rickles , JR Monson , FJ Fleming . Tobacco smoking and postoperative outcomes after colorectal surgery. Ann Surg 2013;258(2):296300.

226. A Theadom , M. Cropley Effects of preoperative smoking cessation on the incidence and risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications in adult smokers: a systematic review. Tob Control 2006;15(5):352358.

227. DB Hennessey , JP Burke , T Ni-Dhonochu , C Shields , DC Winter , K. Mealy Preoperative hypoalbuminemia is an independent risk factor for the development of surgical site infection following gastrointestinal surgery: a multi-institutional study. Ann Surg 2010;252(2):325329.

230. KA Horvath , MA Acker , H Chang , et al. Blood transfusion and infection after cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2013;95(6):21942201.

231. MA Olsen , P Lock-Buckley , D Hopkins , LB Polish , TM Sundt , VJ Fraser . The risk factors for deep and superficial chest surgical-site infections after coronary artery bypass graft surgery are different. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002;124(1):136145.

234. GH Guyatt , AD Oxman , GE Vist , et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008;336(7650):924926.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 1448 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1784 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.