1.Bruce J, Russell EM, Mollison J, Krukowski ZH. The measurement and monitoring of surgical adverse events. Health Technol Assess 2001;5(22):1–194.
2.Kurz A, Sessler DI, Lenhardt R. Perioperative normothermia to reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infection and shorten hospitalization. Study of Wound Infection and Temperature Group. N Engl f Med 1996;334(19):1209–1215.
3.Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20(4):250–278.
4.National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Surgical site infection: draft full guideline 2006. http://www.nice.org.uk/CG74. Accessed October 1, 2010.
5.Leaper DJ, Orr C, Maung Z, White A. Inflammation and Infection: STEP 2000 Module II. Royal College of Surgeons of England. Blackwell Science; 2001.
6.AORN. Standards, Recommended Practices, and Guidelines. Denver; 2006.
7.National Association of Theatre Nurses (NATN). NATN standards and recommendations for safe perioperative practice. Harrogate: NATN; 2004.
9.Darouiche RO, Wall MJ Jr, Itani KM, Otterson MF, Webb AL, Carrick MM, et al.Chlorhexidine-alcohol versus povidone-iodine for surgical-site antisepsis. N Engl I Med 2010;362(1):18–26.
10.Deeks JJ, Higgins J.P.T., Altman D.G. Analyzing data and undertaking meta-analyses. In: Higgins J, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Oxford; 2008:501.
11.Egger M, Zellweger-Zahner T, Schneider M, Junker C, Lengeier C, Antes G. Language bias in randomised controlled trials published in English and German. Lancet 1997;350(9074):326–329.
12.Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 1994;50:1088–1101.
13.Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds DJ, Gavaghan DJ, et al.Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?. Control Clin Trials 1996;17(1):1–12.
14.Chalmers TC, Smith H Jr, Blackburn B, Silverman B, Schroeder B, Reit-man D, et al.A method for assessing the quality of a randomized control trial. Control Clin Trials 1981;2(1):31–49.
15.Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Alonso-Coello P, et al.GRADE: An emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008;336(7650):924–926.
16.Umscheid CA, Mitchell MD, Doshi JA, Agarwal R, Williams K, Brennan PJ. Estimating the proportion of reasonably preventable healthcare associated infections and associated mortality and costs. In: Program and abstracts of the 19th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Soceity for Healthcare Epidemiology of America 2009.
17.Edwards PS, Lipp A, Holmes A. Preoperative skin antiseptics for preventing surgical wound infections after clean surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(3):003949.
18.Berry AR, Watt B, Goldacre MJ, Thomson JW, McNair TJ. A comparison of the use of povidone-iodine and Chlorhexidine in the prophylaxis of postoperative wound infection. J Hosp Infect 1982;3(1):55–63.
19.Paocharoen V, Mingmalairak C, Apisarnthanarak A. Comparison of surgical wound infection after preoperative skin preparation with 4% chlor hexidine [correction of chlohexidine] and povidone iodine: a prospective randomized trial. J Med Assoc Thai 2009;92(7):898–902.
20.Saltzman MD, Nuber GW, Gryzlo SM, Marecek GS, Koh JL. Efficacy of surgical preparation solutions in shoulder surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2009;91(8):1949–1953.
21.Veiga DF, Damasceno CA, Veiga-Filho J, Figueiras RG, Vieira RB, Florenzano FH, et al.Povidone iodine versus Chlorhexidine in skin antisepsis before elective plastic surgery procedures: a randomized controlled trial. Plast Reconstr Surg 2008;122(5):170e–171e.
22.Culligan PJ, Kubik K, Murphy M, Blackwell L, Snyder J. A randomized trial that compared povidone iodine and Chlorhexidine as antiseptics for vaginal hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192(2):422–425.
23.Ostrander RV, Botte MJ, Brage ME. Efficacy of surgical preparation solutions in foot and ankle surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005;87(5):980–985.
24.Bibbo C, Patel DV, Gehrmann RM, Lin SS. Chlorhexidine provides superior skin decontamination in foot and ankle surgery: a prospective randomized study. Clin Orthop 2005;438:204–208.
25.Brown TR, Ehrlich CE, Stehman FB, Golichowski AM, Madura JA, Eitzen HE. A clinical evaluation of Chlorhexidine gluconate spray as compared with iodophor scrub for preoperative skin preparation. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1984;158(4):363–366.
26.Chaiyakunapruk N, Veenstra DL, Lipsky BA, Saint S. Chlorhexidine compared with povidone-iodine solution for vascular catheter-site care: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2002;136(11):792–801.
27.Zamora JL, Price MF, Chuang P, Gentry LO. Inhibition of povidone-iodine's bactericidal activity by common organic substances: an experimental study. Surgery 1985;98(1):25–29.
28.Larson E, Bobo L. Effective hand degerming in the presence of blood. J Emerg Med 1992;10(1):7–11.
29.Ayliffe GA. Surgical scrub and skin disinfection. Infect Control 1984;5(1):23–27.
30.Gregoire G, Derderian F, Le Lorier J. Selecting the language of the publications included in a meta-analysis: is there a Tower of Babel bias? J Clin Epidemiol 1995;48(1):159–163.
31.Chalmers TC, Berrier J, Sacks HS, Levin H, Reitman D, Nagalingam R. Meta-analysis of clinical trials as a scientific discipline. II: Replicate variability and comparison of studies that agree and disagree. Stat Med 1987;6(7):733–744.
32.Chalmers TC, Levin H, Sacks HS, Reitman D, Berrier J, Nagalingam R. Meta-analysis of clinical trials as a scientific discipline. I: Control of bias and comparison with large co-operative trials. Stat Med 1987;6(3):315–328.
33.Pham B, Klassen TP, Lawson ML, Moher D. Language of publication restrictions in systematic reviews gave different results depending on whether the intervention was conventional or complementary. J Clin Epidemiol 2005;58(8):769–776.
34.Moher D, Fortin P, ladad AR, Juni P, Klassen T, Le Lorier J, et al.Completeness of reporting of trials published in languages other than English: implications for conduct and reporting of systematic reviews. Lancet 1996;347(8998):363–366.
35.Moher D, Pham B, Lawson ML, Klassen TP. The inclusion of reports of randomised trials published in languages other than English in systematic reviews. Health Technol Assess 2003;7(41):1–90.
36.Herwaldt LA, Cullen JJ, Scholz D, French P, Zimmerman MB, Pfaller MA, et al.A prospective study of outcomes, healthcare resource utilization, and costs associated with postoperative nosocomial infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006;27(12):1291–1298.
37.Dimick JB, Pronovost PJ, Cowan IA, Lipsett PA. Complications and costs after high-risk surgery: where should we focus quality improvement initiatives? J Am Coll Surg 2003;196(5):671–678.
38.Kirkland KB, Briggs JP, Trivette SL, Wilkinson WE, Sexton DI. The impact of surgical-site infections in the 1990s: attributable mortality, excess length of hospitalization, and extra costs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20(11):725–730.
39.Perencevich EN, Sands KE, Cosgrove SE, Guadagnoli E, Meara E, Piatt R. Health and economic impact of surgical site infections diagnosed after hospital discharge. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9(2):196–203.