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Transfer from High-Acuity Long-Term Care Facilities Is Associated with Carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase–Producing Enterobacteriaceae: A Multihospital Study

  • Kavitha Prabaker (a1) (a2), Michael Y. Lin (a1), Margaret McNally (a3), Kartikeya Cherabuddi (a4), Sana Ahmed (a5), Andrea Norris (a5), Karen Lolans (a1), Ruba Odeh (a5), Vishnu Chundi (a6), Robert A. Weinstein (a1) (a2), Mary K. Hayden (a1) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Epicenters Program...

To determine whether transfer from a long-term care facility (LTCF) is a risk factor for colonization with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing Enterobacteriaceae upon acute care hospital admission.


Microbiologic survey and nested case-control study.


Four hospitals in a metropolitan area (Chicago) with an early KPC epidemic.


Hospitalized adults.


Patients transferred from LTCFs were matched 1 : 1 to patients admitted from the community by age (± 10 years), admitting clinical service, and admission date (± 2 weeks). Rectal swab specimens were collected within 3 days after admission and tested for KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Demographic and clinical information was extracted from medical records.


One hundred eighty patients from LTCFs were matched to 180 community patients. KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonization was detected in 15 (8.3%) of the LTCF patients and 0 (0%) of the community patients (P<.001). Prevalence of carriage differed by LTCF subtype: 2 of 135 (1.5%) patients from skilled nursing facilities without ventilator care (SNFs) were colonized upon admission, compared to 9 of 33 (27.3%) patients from skilled nursing facilities with ventilator care (VSNFs) and 4 of 12 (33.3%) patients from long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs; P<.001). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for a propensity score that predicted LTCF subtype, patients admitted from VSNFs or LTACHs had 7.0-fold greater odds of colonization (ie, odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–42; P = .022) with KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae than patients from an SNF.


Patients admitted to acute care hospitals from high-acuity LTCFs (ie, VSNFs and LTACHs) were more likely to be colonized with KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae than were patients admitted from the community. Identification of healthcare facilities with a high prevalence of colonized patients presents an opportunity for focused interventions that may aid regional control efforts.

Corresponding author
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Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
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  • EISSN: 1559-6834
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