1. Lessa, FC, Mu, Y, Bamberg, WM, et al. Burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States. N Engl J Med 2015;372:825–834.
2. Guerrero, DM, Nerandzic, MM, Jury, LA, Chang, S, Jump, RL, Donskey, CJ.
Clostridium difficile infection in a Department of Veterans Affairs long-term care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:513–515.
3. Pawar, D, Tsay, R, Nelson, DS, Elumalai, MK, Lessa, FC, Clifford McDonald, L, Dumyati, G. Burden of Clostridium difficile infection in long-term care facilities in Monroe County, New York. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33:1107–1112.
4. Hunter, JC, Mu, Y, Dumyati, GK, et al. Burden of nursing home-onset Clostridium difficile infection in the United States: estimates of incidence and patient outcomes. Open Forum Infect Dis 2016;3:ofv196.
5. Kazakova, S, Ware, K, Baughman, B, et al. A hospital outbreak of diarrhea due to an emerging epidemic strain of Clostridium difficile
. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:2518–2524.
6. Riggs, MM, Sethi, AK, Zabarsky, TF, Eckstein, EC, Jump, RL, Donskey, CJ. Asymptomatic carriers are a potential source for transmission of epidemic and nonepidemic Clostridium difficile strains among long-term care facility residents. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:992–998.
7. Jinno, S, Kundrapu, S, Guerrero, DM, Jury, LA, Nerandzic, MM, Donskey, CJ. Potential for transmission of Clostridium difficile by asymptomatic acute care patients and long-term care facility residents with prior C. difficile infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33:638–639.
8. Dubberke, ER, Carling, P, Carrico, R, et al. Strategies to prevent Clostridium difficile infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 Update. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35:628–645.
9. Roup, B, Roche, J, Pass, M. Infection control program disparities between acute and long-term care facilities in Maryland. Am J Infect Control 2006;34:122–127.
10. Mylotte, J. Surveillance for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in long-term care facilities: what you get is not what you see. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:760–763.
11. Kim, JH, Toy, D, Muder, RR.
Clostridium difficile infection in a long-term care facility: hospital-associated illness compared with long-term care-associated illness. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011;32:656–660.
12. Curry, SR, Muto, CA, Schlackman, JL, Pasculle, AW, Shutt, KA, Marsh, JW, Harrison, LH. Use of multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis genotyping to determine the role of asymptomatic carriers in Clostridium difficile transmission. Clin Infect Dis 2013;57:1094–1102.
13. Longtin, Y, Paquet-Bolduc, B, Gilca, R, et al. Effect of detecting and isolating Clostridium difficile carriers at hospital admission on the incidence of C difficile infections: a quasi-experimental controlled study. JAMA Intern Med 2016;176:796–804.
14. Blixt, T, Gradel, KO, Homann, C, et al. Asymptomatic carriers contribute to nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection: a cohort study of 4508 patients. Gastroenterol 2017;152:1031–1041.
15. Donskey, CJ, Sunkesula, VC, Jencson, AL, et al. Utility of a commercial PCR assay and a clinical prediction rule for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in asymptomatic carriers. J Clin Microbiol 2014;52:315–318.
16. Sethi, AK, Al-Nassir, WN, Nerandzic, MM, et al. Persistence of skin contamination and environmental shedding of Clostridium difficile during and after treatment of C. difficile infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:21–27.
17. Ponnada, S, Guerrero, DM, Jury, LA, Nerandzic, MM, Cadnum, JL, Alam, MJ, Donskey, CJ. Acquisition of Clostridium difficile colonization and infection after transfer from a Veterans Affairs hospital to an affiliated long-term care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1070–1076.
18. Sitzlar, B, Deshpande, A, Fertelli, D, Kundrapu, S, Sethi, AK, Donskey, CJ. An environmental disinfection odyssey: evaluation of sequential interventions to improve disinfection of Clostridium difficile isolation rooms. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013;34:459–465.
19. Donskey, CJ, Kundrapu, S, Deshpande, A. Colonization versus carriage of Clostridium difficile
. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2015;29:13–28.
20. Clabots, CR, Johnson, S, Bettin, KM, et al. Development of a rapid and efficient restriction endonuclease analysis typing system for Clostridium difficile and correlation with other typing systems. J Clin Microbiol 1993;31:1870–1875.
21. Cox, MP, Peterson, DA, Biggs, PJ. SolexaQA: At-a-glance quality assessment of Illumina second-generation sequencing data. BMC Bioinformatics 2010;11:485.
22. Peng, Y, Leung, HC, Yiu, SM, Chin, FY. IDBA-UD: a de novo assembler for single-cell and metagenomic sequencing data with highly uneven depth. Bioinformatics 2012;28:1420–1428.
23. Darling, AE, Mau, B, Perna, NT. ProgressiveMauve: multiple genome alignment with gene gain, loss and rearrangement. PLoS One 2010;5:e11147.
24. Didelot, X, Wilson, DJ. ClonalFrameML: efficient inference of recombination in whole bacterial genomes. PLoS Comput Biol 2015;11:e1004041.
25. Guindon, S, Dufayard, JF, Lefort, V, Anisimova, M, Hordijk, W, Gascuel, O. New algorithms and methods to estimate maximum-likelihood phylogenies: assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0. Syst Biol 2010;59:307–321.
26. Eyre, DW, Cule, ML, Wilson, DJ, et al. Diverse sources of C. difficile infection identified on whole-genome sequencing. N Engl J Med 2013;369:1195–1205.
27. Johnson, S, Petrella, L, Siddiqui, F, et al. Emergence of a new C. difficile strain, REA group DQ related to REA group BI/ribotype 027. 13th Biennial Congress of the Anaerobe Society of the Americas. Nashville, TN, July 11–14, 2016. Abstract# PIII-3.
28. Guerrero, DM, Becker, JC, Eckstein, EC, et al. Asymptomatic carriage of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by hospitalized patients. J Hosp Infect 2013;85:155–158.
29. Jury, LA, Tomas, M, Kundrapu, S, Sitzlar, B, Donskey, CJ. A Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) stewardship initiative improves adherence to practice guidelines for management of CDI. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013;34:1222–1224.
30. Eyre, DW, Walker, AS, Griffiths, D, et al.
Clostridium difficile mixed infection and reinfection. J Clin Microbiol 2012;50:142–144.
31. Datta, R, Brown, S, Nguyen, VQ, et al. Quantifying the exposure to antibiotic-resistant pathogens among patients discharged from a single hospital across all California healthcare facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36:1275–1282.
32. Wiener, J, Quinn, JP, Bradford, PA, Goering, RV, Nathan, C, Bush, K, Weinstein, RA. Multiple antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella and Escherichia coli in nursing homes. JAMA 1999;281:517–523.
33. Pop-Vicas, AE, D’Agata, EM. The rising influx of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli into a tertiary care hospital. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:1792–1798.
34. D’Agata, EM, Habtemariam, D, Mitchell, S. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: inter- and intradissemination among nursing homes of residents with advanced dementia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36:930–935.
35. Harrison, EM, Ludden, C, Brodrick, HJ, et al. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in long-term care facilities and their related healthcare networks. Genome Med 2016;8:102.
36. Trick, WE, Kuehnert, MJ, Quirk, SB, et al. Regional dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci resulting from interfacility transfer of colonized patients. J Infect Dis 1999;180:391–396.
37. Brodrick, HJ, Raven, KE, Harrison, EM, et al. Whole-genome sequencing reveals transmission of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a healthcare network. Genome Med 2016;8:4.