This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1. LC McDonald , GE Killgore , A Thompson , et al. An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2433–2441.
2. RC Owens , CJ Donskey , RP Gaynes , VG Loo , CA Muto . Antimicrobial-associated risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46(suppl 1):S19–S31.
3. J Yee , CM Dixon , AP McLean , JL Meakins . Clostridium difficile disease in a department of surgery: the significance of prophylactic antibiotics. Arch Surg 1991;126:241–246.
4. ER Dubberke , KA Reske , Y Yan , MA Olsen , LC McDonald , VJ Fraser . Clostridium difficile-associated disease in a setting of endemicity: identification of novel risk factors. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:1543–1549.
6. CZ Bliss , S Johnson , K Savik , CR Clabots , K Willard , DN Gerding . Acquisition of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients receiving tube feeding. Ann Intern Med 1998;129:1012–1019.
7. S Johnson . Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: a review of risk factors, treatments, and outcomes. J Infect 2009;58:403–410.
9. R Gonzales , CA Camargo Jr, T MacKenzie , et al. Antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory infections in acute care settings. Acad Emerg Med 2006;13:288–294.
10. SG Vanderweil , CL Tsai , AJ Pelletier , et al. Inappropriate use of antibiotics for acute asthma in United States emergency departments. Acad Emerg Med 2008;15:736–743.
11. WJ Mclsaac , DE Low , A Biringer , N Pimlott , M Evans , R Glazier . The impact of empirical management of acute cystitis on unnecessary antibiotic use. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:600–605.
12. M Cope , ME Cevallos , RM Cadle , RO Darouiche , DM Musher , BW Trautner . Inappropriate treatment of catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria in a tertiary care hospital. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48:1182–1188.
14. MT Hecker , DC Aron , NP Patel , MK Lehmann , CJ Donskey . Unnecessary use of antimicrobials in hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:972–978.
15. DM Drekonja , WH Amundson , DD DeCarolis , MA Kuskowski , FA Lederle , JR Johnson . Antimicrobial use and risk for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Am J Med 2011;124(11):1081.e1–1081.e7.
16. KM Mullane , MA Miller , K Weiss , et al. Efficacy of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin as therapy for Clostridium difficile infection in individuals taking concomitant antibiotics for other concurrent infections. Clin Infect Dis 2011;53:440–447.
17. R Khatib , KM Riederer , J Ramanathan , J Baran Jr. Faecal fungal flora in healthy volunteers and inpatients. Mycoses 2001;44(5): 151–156.
18. AJ Nguyen , DB Nelson , JR Thurn . Pseudomembranous colitis after itraconazole therapy. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94(7):1971–1973.
19. JC Kwon , MK Kang , SH Kim , et al. A case of pseudomembranous colitis after voriconazole therapy. Yonsei Med J 2011; 52(5):863–865.
20. SD Horn , PD Sharkey , OA Bertram . Measuring severity of illness: homogenous case mix groups. Med Care 1983;21:14–30.
21. EP Dellinger , PA Gross , TL Barrett , et al. Quality standard for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgical procedures. Clin Infect Dis 1994;18:422–427.
22. LE Nicolle , S Bradley , R Colgan , et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:643–654.
23. TM Hooton , SF Bradley , DD Cardenas , et al. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in adults: 2009 international clinical practice guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2010;50:625–663.
24.American Thoracic Society. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;171:388–416.
29. VG Loo , L Poirier , MA Miller , et al. A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2442–2449.