1.Semmelweis, I. The etiology, concept and prophylaxis of childbed fever [excerpts]. In: Buck, C, Llopis, A, Najera, E, Terris, M, eds. The Challenge of Epidemiology: Issues and Selected Readings. Washington, DC: PAHO Scientific Publication; 1988:46–59.
2.Rotter, ML. Hand washing and hand disinfection. In: Mayhall, G, ed. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1996:1052–1068.
3.Jarvis, WR. Handwashing: the Semmelweis lesson forgotten? Lancet 1994;344:1311–1312.
4.Pittet, D. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisci-plinary approach. Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7:234–240.
5.Pittet, D, Mourouga, P, Perneger, TV. Compliance with handwashing in a teaching hospital: infection control program. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:126–130.
6.Boyce, JM. It is time for action: improving hand hygiene in hospitals. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:153–155.
7.Albert, RK, Condie, F. Hand-washing patterns in medical intensive-care units. N Engl J Med 1981;304:1465–1466.
8.Dubbert, PM, Dolce, J, Richter, W, Miller, M, Chapman, SW. Increasing ICU staff handwashing: effects of education and group feedback. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1990;11:191–193.
9.Larson, E, Killien, M. Factors influencing handwashing behavior of patient care personnel. Am J Infect Control 1982;10:93–99.
10.Muto, CA, Sistrom, MG, Farr, BM. Hand hygiene rates unaffected by installation of dispensers of a rapidly acting hand antiseptic. Am J Infect Control 2000;28:273–276.
11.Khatib, M, Jamaleddine, G, Abdallah, A, Ibrahim, Y. Hand washing and use of gloves while managing patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ICU. Chest 1999;116:172–175.
12.McGuckin, M, Waterman, R, Porten L, et al.Patient education model for increasing handwashing compliance. Am J Infect Control 1999;27:309–314.
13.Preston, GA, Larson, EL, Stamm, WE. The effect of private isolation rooms on patient care practices, colonization and infection in an intensive care unit. Am J Med 1981;70:641–645.
14.Kaplan, LM, McGuckin, M. Increasing handwashing compliance with more accessible sinks. Infect Control 1986;7:408–410.
15.Harbarth, S, Pittet, D, Grady, L, et al.Interventional study to evaluate the impact of an alcohol-based hand gel in improving hand hygiene compliance. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:489–495.
16.Bischoff, WE, Reynolds, TM, Sessler, CN, Edmond, MB, Wenzel, RP. Handwashing compliance by health care workers: the impact of introducing an accessible, alcohol-based hand antiseptic. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1017–1021.
17.Graham, M. Frequency and duration of handwashing in an intensive care unit. Am J Infect Control 1990;18:77–81.
18.Conly, JM, Hill, S, Ross, J, Lertzman, J, Louie, TJ. Handwashing practices in an intensive care unit: the effects of an educational program and its relationship to infection rates. Am J Infect Control 1989;76:330–339.
19.Donowitz, LG. Handwashing technique in a pediatric intensive care unitam J Dis Child 1987;141:683–685.
20.Larson, E, McGeer, A, Quraishi, ZA, et al.Effect of an automated sink on handwashing practices and attitudes in high-risk units. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:422–428.
21.Wurtz, R, Moye, G, Jovanovic, B. Handwashing machines, handwashing compliance, and potential for cross-contamination. Am J Infect Control 1994;22:228–230.
22.Larson, EL, Early, E, Cloonan, P, Sugrue, S, Parides, M. An organizational climate intervention associated with increased handwashing and decreased nosocomial infections. Behav Med 2000;26:14–22.
23.Pittet, D. Improving compliance with hand hygiene in hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:381–386.
24.Larson, EL. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:251–269.
25.Garner, JS. Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals: The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:53–80.
26.Larson, EL, Eke, PI, Laughon, BE. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand rinses under frequent-use conditions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1986;30:542–544.
27.Meers, PD, Yeo, GA, Shedding of bacteria and skin squames after handwashing. Journal of Hygiene (London) 1978;81:99–105.
28.Rotter, ML. Hygienic hand disinfection. Infect Control 1984;5:18–22.
29.Larson, E. Skin hygiene and infection prevention: more of the same or different approaches? Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:1287–1294.
30.Boyce, JM. Using alcohol for hand antisepsis: dispelling old myths. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:438–441.
31.Rotter, ML. Arguments for alcoholic hand disinfection. J Hosp Infect 2001;48(suppl A):S4–S8.
32.Boyce, JM, Kelliher, S, Vallande, N. Skin irritation and dryness associated with two hand-hygiene regimens: soap-and-water hand washing versus hand antisepsis with an alcoholic hand gel. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:442–448.
33.Larson, E, Silberger, M, Jakob, K, et al.Assessment of alternative hand hygiene regimens to improve skin health among neonatal intensive care unit nurses. Heart Lung 2000;29:136–142.
34.Paulson, DS, Fendler, EJ, Dolan, MJ, Williams, RA. A close look at alcohol gel as an antimicrobial sanitizing agent. Am J Infect Control 1999;27:332–338.
35.Maki, DG. The use of antiseptics for handwashing by medical personnel. J Chemother 1989;1(suppl 1):3–11.
36.Teare, EL, Cookson, B, French, GL, A et al.UK handwashing initiative. J Hosp Infect 1999;43:1–3.
37.Larson, E. Hygiene of the skin: when is clean too clean? Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7:225–230.
38.Boyce, JM, Rotter, ML. Hospital hygiene procedures: areas of consensus and ongoing controversies. J Hosp Infect 2001;48(suppl A):S1–S92.
39.Pittet, D, Hugonnet, S, Harbarth, S, et al.Effectiveness of a hospital-wide programme to improve compliance with hand hygiene: infection control programme. Lancet 2000;356:1307–1312.
40.Harbarth, S, Martin, Y, Rohner, P, Henry, N, Auckenthaler, R, Pittet, D. Effect of delayed infection control measures on a hospital outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Hosp Infect 2000;46:43–49.
41.Nettleman, MD, Mcintosh, SL, Mcintosh, TJ, Wenger, J, Geerdes, H. Infection control in the Russian Federation: review of a tertiary care hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:200–202.
42.DiCarlo, JV, Zaitseva, TA, Khodateleva, TV, et al.Comparative assessment of pediatric intensive care in Moscow, the Russian Federation: a prospective, multicenter study. Crit Care Med 1996;24:1403–1407.
43.Pittet, D, Dharan, S, Touveneau, S, Sauvan, V, Perneger, TV. Bacterial contamination of the hands of hospital staff during routine patient care. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:821–826.
44.Harbarth, S, Pittet, D, Grady, L, Goldmann, DA. Compliance with hand hygiene practice in pediatric intensive care. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2002;2:311–314.
45.Casewell, M, Phillips, I. Hands as route of transmission for Klebsiella species. Br Med J 1977;2:1315–1317.
46.Larson, EL, McGinley, KJ, Foglia, A, et al.Handwashing practices and resistance and density of bacterial hand flora on two pediatric units in Lima, Peru. Am J Infect Control 1992;20:65–72.
47.Robinton, ED, Mood, EW. A study of bacterial contaminants of cloth and paper towels. Am J Public Health 1968;58:1452–1459.
48.Haley, RW, Bregman, DA. The role of understaffing and overcrowding in recurrent outbreaks of staphylococcal infection in a neonatal special-care unit. J Infect Dis 1982;145:875–885.
49.Pettinger, A, Nettleman, MD. Epidemiology of isolation precautions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:303–307.
50.Larson, E, McGinley, KJ, Grove, GL, Leyden, JJ, Talbot, GH. Physiologic, microbiologic, and seasonal effects of handwashing on the skin of health care personnel. Am J Infect Control 1986;14:51–59.
51.de Carvalho, M, Lopes, JM, Pellitteri, M. Frequency and duration of handwashing in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1989;8:179–180.
52.Tenorio, AR, Badri, SM, Sahgal, NB, et al.Effectiveness of gloves in the prevention of hand carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus species by health care workers after patient care. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:826–829.
53.Freeman, J, Epstein, MF, Smith, NE, Platt, R, Sidebottom, DG, Goldmann, DA. Extra hospital stay and antibiotic usage with nosocomial coagu-lase-negative staphylococcal bacteremia in two neonatal intensive care unit populations. Am J Dis Child 1990;144:324–329.
54.Townsend, TR, Wenzel, RP. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in a newborn intensive care unit: a case-matched control study of morbidity, mortality and risk. Am J Epidemiol 1981;114:73–80.
55.Jarvis, WR, Selected aspects of the socioeconomic impact of nosocomial infections: morbidity, mortality, cost, and prevention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17:552–557.
56.Craig, CP, Connelly, S. Effect of intensive care unit nosocomial pneumonia on duration of stay and mortality. Am J Infect Control 1984;12:233–238.
57.Leu, HS, Kaiser, DL, Mori, M, Woolson, RF, Wenzel, RP. Hospital-acquired pneumonia: attributable mortality and morbidity. Am J Epidemiol 1989;129:1258–1267.