Skip to main content
×
Home

Using Alcohol for Hand Antisepsis: Dispelling Old Myths

  • John M. Boyce (a1)
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Using Alcohol for Hand Antisepsis: Dispelling Old Myths
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Using Alcohol for Hand Antisepsis: Dispelling Old Myths
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Using Alcohol for Hand Antisepsis: Dispelling Old Myths
      Available formats
      ×
Abstract
Copyright
Corresponding author
Division of Infectious Diseases, Hospital of Saint Raphael, 1450 Chapel St, New Haven, CT 06511
References
Hide All
1. Price PB. Ethyl alcohol as a germicide. Arch Surg 1939;38:528542.
2. Harrington C, Walker H. The germicidal action of alcohol. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 1903;148:548552.
3. Grant DH. The antiseptic and bactericidal properties of isopropyl alcohol. Am J Med Sci 1923;166:261265.
4. Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry. New and Nonofficial Remedies. Isopropyl alcohol. JAMA 1935;105:16831684.
5. Coppage CM. Handwashing in Patient Care. Washington, DC: United States Public Health Service; 1961.
6. Walter CW. Disinfection of hands. Am J Surg 1965;109:691693.
7. Dineen P, Hildick-Smith G. Antiseptic care of the hands. In: Maibach HI, Hildick-Smith G, eds. Skin Bacteria and Their Role in Infection. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1965:291309.
8. Berman RE, Knight RA. Evaluation of hand antisepsis. Arch Environ Health 1969;18:781783.
9. Ayliffe GAJ, Babb JR, Quoraishi AH. A test for “hygienic” hand disinfection. J Clin Pathol 1978;31:923928.
10. Ojajarvi J. Effectiveness of hand washing and disinfection methods in removing transient bacteria after patient nursing. J Hyg (Camb) 1980;85:193203.
11. Rotter ML. Hygienic hand disinfection. Infect Control 1984;1:1822.
12. Larson EL, Eke PI, Laughon BE. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand rinses under frequent-use conditions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1986;30:542544.
13. Larson EL, Eke PI, Wilder MP, Laughon BE. Quantity of soap as a variable in handwashing. Infect Control 1987;8:371375.
14. Ayliffe GAJ, Babb JR, Davies JG, Lilly HA. Hand disinfection: a comparison of various agents in laboratory and ward studies. J Hosp Infect 1988;11:226243.
15. Zaragoza M, Salles M, Gomez J, Bayas JM, Trilla A Handwashing with soap or alcoholic solutions? A randomized clinical trial of its effectiveness. Am J Infect Control 1999;27:258261.
16. Rotter M. Hand washing and hand disinfection. In: Mayhall CG, ed. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control. Philadelphia, PA Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:13391355.
17. Bernard E, Knight RA. Evaluation of hand antisepsis. Arch Environ Health 1969;18:781783.
18. Gravens DL, Butcher HR Jr., Ballinger WF, Dewar NE. Septisol antiseptic foam for hands of operating room personnel: an effective antibacterial agent. Surgery 1973;73:360367.
19. Lowbury EJL, Lilly HA, Ayliffe GAJ. Preoperative disinfection of surgeon's hands: use of alcoholic solutions and effects of gloves on skin flora. BMJ 1974;4:369372.
20. Larson EL, Butz AM, Gullette DL, Laughon BA Alcohol for surgical scrubbing? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1990;11:139143.
21. Ehrenkranz NJ, Alfonso BC. Failure of bland soap handwash to prevent hand transfer of patient bacteria to urethral catheters. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991;12:654662.
22. Larson EL, Morton HE. Alcohols. In: Block SS, ed. Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1991:191203.
23. Wade JJ, Desai N, Casewell MW. Hygienic hand disinfection for the removal of epidemic vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and gentamicin-resistant Enterobacter cloacae . J Hosp Infect 1991;18:211218.
24. Kampf G, Hofer M, Wendt C. Efficacy of hand disinfectants against vancomycin-resistant enterococci in vitro. J Hosp Infect 1999;42:143150.
25. Kampf G, Jarosch R, Ruden H. Limited effectiveness of chlorhexidine based hand disinfectants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). J Hosp Infect 1998;38:297303.
26. Steere AC, Mallison GF. Handwashing practices for the prevention of nosocomial infections. Ann Intern Med 1975;83:683690.
27. Ojajarvi J, Makela P, Rantasalo I. Failure of hand disinfection with frequent hand washing: a need for prolonged field studies. J Hyg 1977;79:107119.
28. Morrison AJ Jr, Gratz J, Cabezudo I, Wenzel RP. The efficacy of several new handwashing agents for removing non-transient bacterial flora from hands. Infect Control 1986;7:268272.
29. Ojajarvi J. Handwashing in Finland. J Hosp Infect 1991;18:3540.
30. Newman JL, Seitz JC. Intermittent use of an antimicrobial hand gel for reducing soap-induced irritation of health care personnel. Am J Infect Control 1990;18:194200.
31. Rotter ML, Koller W, Neumann R. The influence of cosmetic additives on the acceptability of alcohol-based hand disinfectants. J Hosp Infect 1991;18(suppl B):5763.
32. Boyce JM, Kelliher S, Vallande N. Skin irritation and dryness associated with two hand-hygiene regimens: soap-and-water hand washing versus hand antisepsis with an alcoholic hand gel. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:442448.
33. Simion FA, Rhein LD, Morrison BM Jr, Scala DD, Salko DM, Kligman AM, et al. Self-perceived sensory responses to soap and synthetic detergent bars correlate with clinical signs of irritation. J Am Acad Dermatol 1995;32:205211.
34. Ollmar S, Nyren M, Nicander I, Lemtestam L. Electrical impedance compared with other non-invasive bioengineering techniques and visual scoring for detection in irritation in human skin. Br J Dermatol 1994;130:2936.
35. Wilhelm K-P, Freitag G, Wolff HH. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair: evaluation of a cumulative human irritation model by noninvasive techniques. J Am Acad Dermatol 1994;31:981987.
36. Wilhelm K-P, Cua AB, Wolff HH, Maibach HI. Surfactant-induced stratum corneum hydration in vivo: prediction of the irritation potential of anionic surfactants. J Invest Dermatol 1993;101:310315.
37. Nicander I, Ollmar S, Lundh Rozell B, Eek A, Emtestam L. Electrical impedance measured to five skin depths in mild irritant dermatitis induced by sodium lauryl sulphate. Br J Dermatol 1995;132:718724.
38. Voss A, Widmer AF. No time for handwashing!? Handwashing versus alcoholic rub: can we afford 100% compliance? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:205208.
39. Larson E, Killien M. Factors influencing handwashing behavior of patient care personnel. Am J Infect Control 1982;10:9399.
40. Zimakoff J, Kjelsberg AB, Larsen SO, Holstein B. A multicenter questionnaire investigation of attitudes toward hand hygiene, assessed by the staff in fifteen hospitals in Denmark and Norway. Am J Infect Control 1992;20:5864.
41. Pittet D, Mourouga P, Perneger TV, members of the Infection Control Program. Compliance with handwashing in a teaching hospital. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:126130.
42. Pittet D, Sauvan V, Perneger TV, and members of the Infection Control Program. Improving compliance with hand hygiene in hospital. In: Program of the Ninth Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. April 18-20, 1999; San Francisco, CA Abstract 77.
43. Bischoff WE, Reynolds TM, Sessler CN, Edmond MB, Wenzel RP. Handwashing compliance by health care workers. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:10171021.
44. Larson EL, APIC Guidelines Committee. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:251269.
45. Mackintosh CA, Hoffman PN. An extended model for transfer of microorganisms via the hands: differences between organisms and the effect of alcohol disinfection. J Hyg 1984;92:345355.
46. Taylor LJ. An evaluation of handwashing techniques—1. Nursing Times 1978;5455.
47. Boyce JM. Antiseptic techology: access, affordability and acceptance. Presented at the 4th Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections; March 5-9, 2000; Atlanta, GA.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 233 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 307 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 14th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.