Price PB. Ethyl alcohol as a germicide. Arch Surg
Harrington C, Walker H. The germicidal action of alcohol. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal
Grant DH. The antiseptic and bactericidal properties of isopropyl alcohol. Am J Med Sci
Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry. New and Nonofficial Remedies. Isopropyl alcohol. JAMA
Coppage CM. Handwashing in Patient Care. Washington, DC: United States Public Health Service; 1961.
Walter CW. Disinfection of hands. Am J Surg
Dineen P, Hildick-Smith G. Antiseptic care of the hands. In: Maibach HI, Hildick-Smith G, eds. Skin Bacteria and Their Role in Infection. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1965:291–309.
Berman RE, Knight RA. Evaluation of hand antisepsis. Arch Environ Health
Ayliffe GAJ, Babb JR, Quoraishi AH. A test for “hygienic” hand disinfection. J Clin Pathol
Ojajarvi J. Effectiveness of hand washing and disinfection methods in removing transient bacteria after patient nursing. J Hyg (Camb)
Rotter ML. Hygienic hand disinfection. Infect Control
Larson EL, Eke PI, Laughon BE. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand rinses under frequent-use conditions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother
Larson EL, Eke PI, Wilder MP, Laughon BE. Quantity of soap as a variable in handwashing. Infect Control
Ayliffe GAJ, Babb JR, Davies JG, Lilly HA. Hand disinfection: a comparison of various agents in laboratory and ward studies. J Hosp Infect
Zaragoza M, Salles M, Gomez J, Bayas JM, Trilla A Handwashing with soap or alcoholic solutions? A randomized clinical trial of its effectiveness. Am J Infect Control
Rotter M. Hand washing and hand disinfection. In: Mayhall CG, ed. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control. Philadelphia, PA
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:1339–1355.
Bernard E, Knight RA. Evaluation of hand antisepsis. Arch Environ Health
Gravens DL, Butcher HR Jr., Ballinger WF, Dewar NE. Septisol antiseptic foam for hands of operating room personnel: an effective antibacterial agent. Surgery
Lowbury EJL, Lilly HA, Ayliffe GAJ. Preoperative disinfection of surgeon's hands: use of alcoholic solutions and effects of gloves on skin flora. BMJ
Larson EL, Butz AM, Gullette DL, Laughon BA Alcohol for surgical scrubbing?
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Ehrenkranz NJ, Alfonso BC. Failure of bland soap handwash to prevent hand transfer of patient bacteria to urethral catheters. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Larson EL, Morton HE. Alcohols. In: Block SS, ed. Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1991:191–203.
Wade JJ, Desai N, Casewell MW. Hygienic hand disinfection for the removal of epidemic vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and gentamicin-resistant Enterobacter cloacae
. J Hosp Infect
Kampf G, Hofer M, Wendt C. Efficacy of hand disinfectants against vancomycin-resistant enterococci in vitro. J Hosp Infect
Kampf G, Jarosch R, Ruden H. Limited effectiveness of chlorhexidine based hand disinfectants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). J Hosp Infect
Steere AC, Mallison GF. Handwashing practices for the prevention of nosocomial infections. Ann Intern Med
Ojajarvi J, Makela P, Rantasalo I. Failure of hand disinfection with frequent hand washing: a need for prolonged field studies. J Hyg
Morrison AJ Jr, Gratz J, Cabezudo I, Wenzel RP. The efficacy of several new handwashing agents for removing non-transient bacterial flora from hands. Infect Control
Ojajarvi J. Handwashing in Finland. J Hosp Infect
Newman JL, Seitz JC. Intermittent use of an antimicrobial hand gel for reducing soap-induced irritation of health care personnel. Am J Infect Control
Rotter ML, Koller W, Neumann R. The influence of cosmetic additives on the acceptability of alcohol-based hand disinfectants. J Hosp Infect
Boyce JM, Kelliher S, Vallande N. Skin irritation and dryness associated with two hand-hygiene regimens: soap-and-water hand washing versus hand antisepsis with an alcoholic hand gel. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Simion FA, Rhein LD, Morrison BM Jr, Scala DD, Salko DM, Kligman AM, et al. Self-perceived sensory responses to soap and synthetic detergent bars correlate with clinical signs of irritation. J Am Acad Dermatol
Ollmar S, Nyren M, Nicander I, Lemtestam L. Electrical impedance compared with other non-invasive bioengineering techniques and visual scoring for detection in irritation in human skin. Br J Dermatol
Wilhelm K-P, Freitag G, Wolff HH. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair: evaluation of a cumulative human irritation model by noninvasive techniques. J Am Acad Dermatol
Wilhelm K-P, Cua AB, Wolff HH, Maibach HI. Surfactant-induced stratum corneum hydration in vivo: prediction of the irritation potential of anionic surfactants. J Invest Dermatol
Nicander I, Ollmar S, Lundh Rozell B, Eek A, Emtestam L. Electrical impedance measured to five skin depths in mild irritant dermatitis induced by sodium lauryl sulphate. Br J Dermatol
Voss A, Widmer AF. No time for handwashing!? Handwashing versus alcoholic rub: can we afford 100% compliance?
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Larson E, Killien M. Factors influencing handwashing behavior of patient care personnel. Am J Infect Control
Zimakoff J, Kjelsberg AB, Larsen SO, Holstein B. A multicenter questionnaire investigation of attitudes toward hand hygiene, assessed by the staff in fifteen hospitals in Denmark and Norway. Am J Infect Control
Pittet D, Mourouga P, Perneger TV, members of the Infection Control Program. Compliance with handwashing in a teaching hospital. Ann Intern Med
Pittet D, Sauvan V, Perneger TV, and members of the Infection Control Program. Improving compliance with hand hygiene in hospital. In: Program of the Ninth Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. April 18-20, 1999; San Francisco, CA Abstract 77.
Bischoff WE, Reynolds TM, Sessler CN, Edmond MB, Wenzel RP. Handwashing compliance by health care workers. Arch Intern Med
Larson EL, APIC Guidelines Committee. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control
Mackintosh CA, Hoffman PN. An extended model for transfer of microorganisms via the hands: differences between organisms and the effect of alcohol disinfection. J Hyg
Taylor LJ. An evaluation of handwashing techniques—1. Nursing Times 1978;54–55.
Boyce JM. Antiseptic techology: access, affordability and acceptance. Presented at the 4th Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections; March 5-9, 2000; Atlanta, GA.