Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-ndqjc Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-24T00:19:46.850Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Judging in lower courts: Conventional, procedural, therapeutic and feminist approaches

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 July 2016

Rosemary Hunter
Affiliation:
School of Law, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS, UK.
Sharyn Roach Anleu
Affiliation:
School of Social & Policy Studies, Flinders University, Adelaide 5001, South Australia, Australia.

Abstract

Recent theorising about feminist judging has concentrated on appellate courts and their judgments. This paper develops a conceptualisation of feminist judging in lower, first instance courts, which are dominated by high case volume and limited time for each matter, with decisions given orally and ex tempore rather than in elaborated written judgments. Through careful accounts of the philosophy, goals and practices of conventional as well as newer, more engaged approaches to judging, the paper compares and contrasts feminist judging with other approaches to judging in the lower courts. This entails considering dimensions such as the judicial officer's orientation to substantive law and practice in court, concepts of fairness, ethical commitments, the view of the defendant, and judicial qualities and capacities.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Acorn, A.E. (2004) Compulsory Compassion: A Critique of Restorative Justice. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
American Bar Association (2007) Model Code of Judicial Conduct. Available at: <http://www.abanet.org/judicialethics/ABA_MCJC_approved.pdf> (last accessed 15 April 2008).+(last+accessed+15+April+2008).>Google Scholar
Annison, H. (2014) ‘Interpreting the Politics of the Judiciary: The British Senior Judicial Tradition and the Pre-Emptive Turn in Criminal Justice’, Journal of Law and Society 41(3): 339366.Google Scholar
Australasian Institute of Judicial Administration (2002) Guide to Judicial Conduct. Carlton: Australian Institute of Judicial Administration.Google Scholar
Australasian Institute of Judicial Administration (2015) Judicial Gender Statistics. Available at: <http://www.aija.org.au/index.php/judicial-gender-statistics> (last accessed 20 March 2015).+(last+accessed+20+March+2015).>Google Scholar
Australian Government Productivity Commission (2015) Report on Government Services: Court Administration (Chapter 7). Canberra: Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision.Google Scholar
Australian Law Reform Commission (2000) Managing Justice: A Review of the Federal Civil Justice System, Report No. 89. Canberra: Australian Law Reform Commission.Google Scholar
Australian Law Reform Commission (2006) Same Crime, Same Time: Sentencing of Federal Offenders, Report No. 103. Sydney: Australian Law Reform Commission.Google Scholar
Auty, K. (2006) ‘We Teach All Hearts to Break but Can We Mend Them? Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Aboriginal Sentencing Courts’, Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, eLaw Journal (special series) 1: 101.Google Scholar
Avgoustinos, C. (2007) ‘The Compassionate Judge’, Journal of Law and Social Justice 1(Article 7): 141.Google Scholar
Baines, B. (2013) ‘Must Feminist Judges Self-Identify as Feminists?’ in Schultz, U. and Shaw, G. (eds) Gender and Judging. Oxford and Portland, OR: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
Baker, T.E. (1994) Rationing Justice on Appeal: The Problems of the U.S. Courts of Appeals. Eagan, MN.: West Publishing.Google Scholar
Bandes, S.A. (2009) ‘Empathetic Judging and the Rule of Law’, Cardozo Law Review De Novo: 133148.Google Scholar
Bartels, L. (2009) ‘Challenges in Mainstreaming Specialty Courts’, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
Bartlett, K.T. (1990) ‘Feminist Legal Methods’, Harvard Law Review 103(4): 829888.Google Scholar
Bean, P. (2002) ‘Drug Courts, the Judge, and the Rehabilitative Ideal’ in Nolan, J.L. (ed.) Drug Courts in Theory and in Practice. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Berman, G. (2000) ‘What Is a Traditional Judge Anyway? Problem Solving in the State Courts’, Judicature 84(2): 7885.Google Scholar
Berman, G. and Feinblatt, J. (2001) ‘Problem-Solving Courts: A Brief Primer’, Law & Policy 23(2): 125140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bezdek, B. (1992) ‘Silence in the Court: Participation and Subordination of Poor Tenants’ Voices in Legal Process’, Hofstra Law Review 20(3): 533608.Google Scholar
Bolton, E. (2012) ‘The Magistrates Court Trial’ in Gray, T., Hinton, M. and Caruso, D. (eds) Essays in Advocacy. Adelaide: Barr Smith Press.Google Scholar
Borowski, A. (2013) ‘Whither Australia's Children's Courts? Findings of the National Assessment of Australia's Children's Courts’, Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 46(2): 268288.Google Scholar
Boyle, C. (1985) ‘Sexual Assault and the Feminist Judge’, Canadian Journal of Women and Law 1(1): 93107.Google Scholar
Braithwaite, J. (1989) ‘The State of Criminology: Theoretical Decay or Renaissance’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 22(3): 129135.Google Scholar
Brems, E. (ed.) (2013) Diversity and European Human Rights: Rewriting Judgments of the ECHR. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Burke, K. and Leben, S. (2007–2008) ‘Procedural Fairness: A Key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction’. Court Review 44(1/2): 45.Google Scholar
Burns, S.L. and Peyrot, M. (2003) ‘Tough Love: Nurturing and Coercing Responsibility and Recovery in California Drug Courts’, Social Problems 50(3): 416438.Google Scholar
Bybee, K.J. (2010) All Judges Are Political – except When They Are Not: Acceptable Hypocrisies and the Rule of Law. Stanford, CA: Stanford Law Books.Google Scholar
Cain, P.A. (1988) ‘Good and Bad Bias: A Comment on Feminist Theory and Judging’, Southern California Law Review 61: 19451955.Google Scholar
Carlen, P. (1976) Magistrates' Justice. London: Martin Robertson.Google Scholar
Casper, J.D., Tyler, T.R. and Fisher, B. (1988) ‘Procedural Justice in Felony Cases’, Law & Society Review 22(3): 483507.Google Scholar
Chriss, J.J. (2002) ‘The Drug Court Movement: An Analysis of Tacit Assumptions’ in Nolan, J.L. (ed.) Drug Courts in Theory and in Practice. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Cooper, D. (2001) ‘Against the Current: Social Pathways and the Pursuit of Enduring Change’, Feminist Legal Studies 9: 119148.Google Scholar
Courts and Tribunal Judiciary (UK) (2014) Judicial Diversity Statistics 2014. Available at: <https://www.judiciary.gov.uk/publications/judicial-diversity-statistics-2014/> (last accessed 20 March 2015).+(last+accessed+20+March+2015).>Google Scholar
Cowan, D. and Hitchings, E. (2007) ‘“Pretty Boring Stuff”: District Judges and Housing Possession Proceedings’, Social & Legal Studies 16(3): 363382.Google Scholar
Cowan, D., Blandy, S., Hitchings, E., Hunter, C. and Nixon, J. (2006) ‘District Judges and Possession Proceedings’, Journal of Law and Society 33(4): 547571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crawford, J. and Opeskin, B. (2004) Australian Courts of Law. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Crock, M. and Steer, C. (2014) ‘Re Minister for Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs; Ex Parte Applicants S134/2002 [2003] HCA 1’ in Douglas, H., Bartlett, F., Luker, T. and Hunter, R. (eds) Australian Feminist Judgments: Righting and Rewriting Law. Oxford and Portland, OR: Hart.Google Scholar
Daly, K. (1989) ‘Rethinking Judicial Paternalism: Gender, Work–Family Relations, and Sentencing’, Gender & Society 3(1): 936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, M. (2012) ‘The Law Becomes Us: Rediscovering Judgment’, Feminist Legal Studies 20(2): 167181.Google Scholar
Douglas, H., Bartlett, F., Luker, T. and Hunter, R. (eds) (2014a) Australian Feminist Judgments: Righting and Rewriting Law. Oxford and Portland, OR: Hart. Google Scholar
Douglas, H., Bartlett, F., Luker, T. and Hunter, R. (2014b) ‘Reflections on Rewriting the Law’ in Douglas, H., Bartlett, F., Luker, T. and Hunter, R. (eds) Australian Feminist Judgments: Righting and Rewriting Law. Oxford and Portland, OR: Hart.Google Scholar
Douglas, R.N. and Laster, K. (1992) ‘Reforming the People's Court: Victorian Magistrates’ Reactions to Change’, Criminology Research Council Grant 13/90.Google Scholar
Doyle, J. (2001) ‘The Judicial Role in a New Millennium’, Journal of Judicial Administration 10(3): 133148.Google Scholar
Easteal, P. (ed.) (1998) Balancing the Scales: Rape, Law Reform and Australian Culture. Sydney: Federation Press.Google Scholar
Eisenstein, J., Flemming, R.B. and Nardulli, P.F. (1988) The Contours of Justice: Communities and Their Courts. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
Elvin, J.D. (2010) ‘The Continuing Use of Problematic Sexual Stereotypes in Judicial Decision-Making’, Feminist Legal Studies 18: 275297.Google Scholar
Emerson, R. (1969) Judging Delinquents. Chicago, IL: Aldine.Google Scholar
Emerson, R.M. (1983) ‘Holistic Effects in Social Control Decision-Making’, Law and Society Review 17(3): 425455.Google Scholar
Enright, M., Mccandless, J. and O’donoghue, A. (eds) (2016) Northern/Irish Feminist Judgments: Judges' Troubles and the Gendered Politics of Identity. Oxford: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
Epstein, L., Landes, W.M. and Posner, R.A. (2013) The Behavior of Federal Judges: A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Rational Choice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Farole, D.J. (2009) ‘Problem Solving and the American Bench: A National Survey of Trial Court Judges’, The Justice System Journal 30(1): 5069.Google Scholar
Farole, D.J., Puffett, N., Rempel, M. and Byrne, F. (2005) ‘Applying the Problem-Solving Model Outside of Problem-Solving Courts’, Judicature 89(1): 4042.Google Scholar
Fielding, N.G. (2011) ‘Judges and Their Work’, Social & Legal Studies 20(1): 97115.Google Scholar
Fiss, O.M. (1983) ‘The Bureaucratization of the Judiciary’, Yale Law Journal 92(July): 14421468.Google Scholar
Freiberg, A. (2001) ‘Problem-Oriented Courts: Innovative Solutions to Intractable Problems’, Journal of Judicial Administration 11(1): 827.Google Scholar
Freiberg, A. (2007) ‘Non-Adversarial Approaches to Criminal Justice’, Journal of Judicial Administration 16: 205222.Google Scholar
Garfinkel, H. (1956) ‘Conditions of Successful Degradation Ceremonies’, American Journal of Sociology 61(5): 420424.Google Scholar
Gibson, J.L. (1980) ‘Environmental Constraints of the Behavior of Judges: A Representational Model of Judicial Decision Making’, Law & Society Review 14(2): 343370.Google Scholar
Gilligan, C. (1982) In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Gleeson, A.M. (1998) ‘Performing the Role of the Judge’, Judicial Officers Bulletin 10(8): 5760.Google Scholar
Gleeson, M. (2010) ‘The Judicial Method: Essentials and Inessentials’, Judicial Review 9(4): 377388.Google Scholar
Goffman, E. (1955) ‘On Face-Work: An Analysis of Ritual Elements in Social Interaction’, Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes 18(3): 213231.Google Scholar
Goldberg, S. (2005) Judging for the 21st Century: A Problem-Solving Approach. Ottowa: National Judicial Institute.Google Scholar
Graycar, R. (1995) ‘The Gender of Judgments: An Introduction’ in Thornton, M. (ed.) Public and Private: Feminist Legal Debates. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hale, B. (2001) ‘Equality and the Judiciary: Why Should We Want More Women Judges?’, Public Law [2001](Autumn): 489504.Google Scholar
Hale, B. (2007) ‘Maccabaean Lecture in Jurisprudence: A Minority Opinion?’ in Johnston, R. (ed.) Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. 154. London: British Academy.Google Scholar
Harwin, J., Alrouh, B., Ryan, M. and Tunnard, J. (2014) Changing Lifestyles, Keeping Children Safe: An Evaluation of the First Family Drug and Alcohol Court (FDAC) in Care Proceedings. London: Brunel University.Google Scholar
Heimer, C. A. (2001) ‘Cases and Biographies: An Essay on Routinization and the Nature of Comparison’, Annual Review of Sociology 27: 4776.Google Scholar
Henderson, L.N. (1987) ‘Legality and Empathy’, Michigan Law Review 85: 15741653.Google Scholar
Hennessy, A. (2007) ‘Reconnection to Community as a Sentencing Tool’ in Reinhardt, G. and Cannon, A. J. (eds) Transforming Legal Processes in Court and Beyond: A Collection of Refereed Papers from the 3rd International Conference on Therapeutic Jurisprudence. Perth: Australian Institute of Judicial Administration.Google Scholar
Heydon, J.D. (2012) ‘Varieties of Judicial Method in the Late 20th Century’, Judicial Review 10(4): 375398.Google Scholar
Hochschild, A.R. (1983) The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Hora, P.F., Schma, W.G. and Rosenthal, J.T.A. (1999) ‘Therapeutic Jurisprudence and the Drug Treatment Court Movement: Revolutionizing the Criminal Justice System's Response to Drug Abuse and Crime in America’, Notre Dame Law Review 74: 439537.Google Scholar
Hunter, C., Nixon, J. and Blandy, S. (2008) ‘Researching the Judiciary: Exploring the Invisible in Judicial Decision Making’, Journal of Law and Society 35(1): 7690.Google Scholar
Hunter, R. (2004) ‘Fear and Loathing in the Sunshine State’, Australian Feminist Studies 19(44): 145157.Google Scholar
Hunter, R. (2005) ‘Styles of Judging: How Magistrates Deal with Applications for Intervention Orders’, Alternative Law Journal 30(5): 231236, 246.Google Scholar
Hunter, R. (2008a) ‘Can Feminist Judges Make a Difference?’, International Journal of the Legal Profession 15(1–2): 736.Google Scholar
Hunter, R. (2008b) Domestic Violence Law Reform and Women's Experience in Court: The Implementation of Feminist Reforms in Civil Proceedings. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press.Google Scholar
Hunter, R. (2010) ‘An Account of Feminist Judging’ in Hunter, R., Mcglynn, C. and Rackley, E. (eds) Feminist Judgments: From Theory to Practice. Oxford and Portland, OR: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
Hunter, R. (2012a) ‘Feminist Judgments as Teaching Resources’, Oñati Socio-Legal Series 2(5): 4762.Google Scholar
Hunter, R. (2012b) ‘The Power of Feminist Judgments?’, Feminist Legal Studies 20(2): 135148.Google Scholar
Hunter, R. (2013) ‘Justice Marcia Neave: Case Study of a Feminist Judge’ in Schultz, U. and Shaw, G. (eds) Gender and Judging. Oxford and Portland, OR: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
Hunter, R. (2015a) ‘Feminist Judgments Projects: Legal Fiction as Critique and Praxis’, International Critical Thought 5: 501508.Google Scholar
Hunter, R. (2015b) ‘More than Just a Different Face? Judicial Diversity and Decision-Making’, Current Legal Problems 68: 119141.Google Scholar
Hunter, R., Mcglynn, C. and Rackley, E. (eds) (2010) Feminist Judgments: From Theory to Practice. Oxford: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
IntLawGrrls (2014) Invitation to Participate in the Feminist International Judgments Project. Available at: <http://ilg2.org/2014/01/16/invitation-to-participate-in-the-feminist-international-judgments-project/> (last accessed 1 April 2015).+(last+accessed+1+April+2015).>Google Scholar
Judicial Appointment Commission (UK) Recorder Competency Framework. Available at: <https://jac.judiciary.gov.uk/800-recorder-competency-framework> (last accessed 1 May 2015).+(last+accessed+1+May+2015).>Google Scholar
Judicial Appointments Board for Scotland Judicial Qualities. Available at: <http://www.judicialappointmentsscotland.org.uk/Guide_to_Appointment_Process/Judicial_Qualities> (last accessed 1 May 2015).+(last+accessed+1+May+2015).>Google Scholar
King, M. (2003) ‘Applying Therapeutic Jurisprudence from the Bench’, Alternative Law Journal 28(4): 172175.Google Scholar
King, M. (2006) ‘The Therapeutic Dimensions of Judging: The Example of Sentencing’, Journal of Judicial Administration 16(2): 92105.Google Scholar
King, M. (2008) ‘Restorative Justice, Therapeutic Jurisprudence and the Rise of Emotionally Intelligent Justice’, Melbourne University Law Review 32: 10961126.Google Scholar
King, M. (2009) Solution-Focused Judging Bench Book. Melbourne: Australasian Institute of Judicial Administration.Google Scholar
King, M. and Auty, K. (2005) ‘Therapeutic Jurisprudence: An Emerging Trend in Courts of Summary Jurisdiction’, Alternative Law Journal 30(2): 6973.Google Scholar
King, M. and Ford, S. (2006) ‘Exploring the Concept of Wellbeing in Therapeutic Jurisprudence: The Example of the Geraldton Alternative Sentencing Regime’, Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, eLaw Journal (special series) 1: 9.Google Scholar
King, M. and Wager, J. (2005) ‘Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Problem-Solving Judicial Case Management’, Journal of Judicial Administration 15(1): 2836.Google Scholar
King, M., Freiberg, A., Batagol, B. and Hyams, R. (2009) Non-Adversarial Justice. Annandale, NSW: Federation Press.Google Scholar
King, M., Freiberg, A., Batagol, B. and Hyams, R. (2014) Non-Adversarial Justice. Annandale: Federation Press.Google Scholar
L'Heureux-Dubé, C. (1997) ‘Making a Difference: The Pursuit of a Compassionate Justice’, University of British Columbia Law Review 31(1): 115.Google Scholar
Lawrence, S. (2004) ‘Feminism, Counsequences, Accountability’, Osgoode Hall Law Journal 42(2): 583601.Google Scholar
Lee, H.P. and Campbell, E. (2013) The Australian Judiciary. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lens, V. (2012) ‘Judge or Bureaucrat? How Administrative Law Judges Exercise Discretion in Welfare Bureaucracies’, Social Service Review 86(2): 269293.Google Scholar
Lind, E.A. and Tyler, T.R. (1988) The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. New York, NY and London: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
Lipsky, M. (2010) Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Service. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
Lithwick, D. (2009) ‘What a Waste’, Slate. Available at: < http://slate.com/id/2222936/> (last updated 21 August 2009).+(last+updated+21+August+2009).>Google Scholar
Maccoun, R.J. (2005) ‘Voice, Control, and Belonging: The Double-Edged Sword of Procedural Fairness’, Annual Review of Law and Social Science 1(1): 171201.Google Scholar
Mack, K. and Roach Anleu, S. (2007) ‘“Getting through the List”: Judgecraft and Legitimacy in the Lower Courts’, Social & Legal Studies 16(3): 341361.Google Scholar
Mack, K. and Roach Anleu, S. (2010) ‘Performing Impartiality: Judicial Demeanor and Legitimacy’, Law & Social Inquiry 35(1): 137173.Google Scholar
Mack, K. and Roach Anleu, S. (2011) ‘Opportunities for New Approaches to Judging in a Conventional Context: Attitudes, Skills and Practices’, Monash University Law Review 37(1): 187215.Google Scholar
Mack, K. and Roach Anleu, S. (2012) ‘In-Court Judicial Behaviours, Gender and Legitimacy’, Griffith Law Review 21(3): 728751.Google Scholar
Mack, K., Wallace, A. and Roach Anleu, S. (2012) Judicial Workload: Time, Tasks and Work Organisation. Melbourne: Australasian Institute of Judicial Administration.Google Scholar
Mackenzie, G. (2005) How Judges Sentence. Annandale: Federation Press.Google Scholar
Mackenzie, G., Stobbs, N. and O'Leary, J. (2010) Principles of Sentencing. Sydney: Federation Press.Google Scholar
Majury, D. (2006) ‘Introducing the Women's Court of Canada’, Canadian Journal of Women and the Law 18: 1.Google Scholar
Malleson, K. (1999) The New Judiciary: The Effects of Expansion and Activism. Dartmouth: Aldershot.Google Scholar
Maroney, T.A. (2011a) ‘Emotional Regulation and Judicial Behavior’, California Law Review 99(2): 14851555.Google Scholar
Maroney, T.A. (2011b) ‘The Persistent Cultural Script of Judicial Dispassion’, California Law Review 99: 629–82.Google Scholar
Maroney, T.A. and Gross, J.J. (2014) ‘The Ideal of the Dispassionate Judge: An Emotion Regulation Perspective’, Emotion Review 6(2): 142151.Google Scholar
Martin, E. (1989) ‘Differences in Men and Women Judges: Perspectives on Gender’, Journal of Political Science 17: 7485.Google Scholar
Massaro, T.M. (1989) ‘Empathy, Legal Storytelling, and the Rule of Law: New Words, Old Wounds?’, Michigan Law Review 87(8): 20992127.Google Scholar
Mather, L.M. (1979) Plea Bargaining or Trial? The Process of Criminal-Case Disposition. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Mccoy, C. (1997) ‘Sentencing (and) the Underclass’, Law and Society Review 31(3): 589.Google Scholar
Mcivor, G. (2009) ‘Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Procedural Justice in Scottish Drug Courts’, Criminology & Criminal Justice 9(1): 2949.Google Scholar
Mcmahon, M. and Wexler, D. (2002) ‘Therapeutic Jurisprudence: Developments and Applications in Australia and New Zealand’, Law and Context Special Issue: Therapeutic Jurisprudence 20(2): 123.Google Scholar
Mileski, M. (1971) ‘Courtroom Encounters: An Observational Study of a Lower Criminal Court’, Law & Society Review 5(4): 473538.Google Scholar
Moore, D. (2007) ‘Translating Justice and Therapy: The Drug Treatment Court Networks’, British Journal of Criminology 47(1): 4260.Google Scholar
Moore, D., Freeman, L. and Krawczyk, M. (2011) ‘Spatio-Therapeutics: Drug Treatment Courts and Urban Space’, Social & Legal Studies 20(2): 157172.Google Scholar
Moorhead, R. (2007) ‘The Passive Arbiter: Litigants in Person and the Challenge to Neutrality’, Social and Legal Studies 16(3): 405424.Google Scholar
Moorhead, R. and Cowan, D. (2007) ‘Judgecraft: An Introduction’, Social & Legal Studies 16(3): 315320.Google Scholar
Moran, L.J. (2009) ‘Judging Pictures: A Case Study of Portraits of the Chief Justices, Supreme Court of New South Wales’, International Journal of Law in Context 5(3): 295314.Google Scholar
Moran, L.J. (2010) ‘In Conversation with Lord Justice Etherton: Judicial Legitimacy, Diversity and the Representation of Judicial Authority’, Public Law 4: 662671.Google Scholar
Mulcahy, L. (2007) ‘Architects of Justice: The Politics of Courtroom Design’, Social and Legal Studies 16(3): 383403.Google Scholar
Mulcahy, L. (2011) Legal Architecture: Justice, Due Process and the Place of Law. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
New Zealand Law Society (2015) ‘NZ Feminist Judgments Project Seeks Contributors’. Available at: <https://www.lawsociety.org.nz/news-and-communications/latest-news/news/nz-feminist-judgments-project-seeks-contributors> (last accessed 21 January 2016).+(last+accessed+21+January+2016).>Google Scholar
Nolan, J.L. (1998) The Therapeutic State: Justifying Government at Century's End. New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Nolan, J.L.J. (2003) ‘Redefining Criminal Courts: Problem-Solving and the Meaning of Justice’, American Criminal Law Review 40(4): 15411565.Google Scholar
Nussbaum, M. (1996) ‘Emotion in the Language of Judging’, St John's Law Review 70: 2330.Google Scholar
O'Barr, W.M. and Conley, J.M. (1985) ‘Litigant Satisfaction Versus Legal Adequacy in Small Claims Court Narratives’, Law & Society Review 19(4): 661702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O'Shane, P. (1994) ‘Launch of the Australian Feminist Law Journal’, Australian Feminist Law Journal 2(1): 312.Google Scholar
O'Sullivan, H. (2007) ‘The Right to Silence at Trial: A Critique and a Call for a New Approach’. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Griffith University.Google Scholar
Phelan, A. (2003) ‘Solving Human Problems or Deciding Cases? Judicial Innovation in New York and Its Relevance to Australia: Part I’, Journal of Judicial Administration 13(2): 98130.Google Scholar
Phelan, A. (2004) ‘Solving Human Problems or Deciding Cases? Judicial Innovation in New York and Its Relevance to Australia: Part II’, Journal of Judicial Administration 13(3): 137181.Google Scholar
Popovic, J. (2002) ‘Judicial Officers: Complementing Conventional Law and Changing the Culture of the Judiciary’, Law in Context 20: 121136.Google Scholar
Previtera, T. (2006) ‘Responsibilities of TJ Team Members v Rights of Offenders’, Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, eLaw Journal (special series) 1: 51.Google Scholar
Ptacek, J. (1999) Battered Women in the Courtroom: The Power of Judicial Responses. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
Rabinow, P. and Rose, N. (2006) ‘Biopower Today’, BioSocieties 1: 195217.Google Scholar
Rackley, E. (2012) ‘Why Feminist Legal Scholars Should Write Judgments: Reflections on the Feminist Judgments Project in England and Wales’, Canadian Journal of Women and the Law 24(2): 389413.Google Scholar
Resnik, J. (1988) ‘On the Bias: Feminist Reconsiderations of the Aspirations for Our Judges’, Southern California Law Review 61: 18771944.Google Scholar
Resnik, J. and Curtis, D.E. (2011) Representing Justice : Invention, Controversy, and Rights in City-States and Democratic Courtrooms. New Haven, CT. ; London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Rieff, P. (1966) The Triumph of the Therapeutic. London: Chatto & Windus.Google Scholar
Roach Anleu, S. and Mack, K. (2005) ‘Magistrates’ Everyday Work and Emotional Labour’, Journal of Law and Society 32(4): 590614.Google Scholar
Roach Anleu, S. and Mack, K. (2007) ‘Magistrates, Magistrates Courts and Social Change’, Law & Policy 29(2): 183209.Google Scholar
Roach Anleu, S. and Mack, K. (2008) ‘The Professionalization of Australian Magistrates: Autonomy, Credentials and Prestige’, Journal of Sociology 44(2): 185203.Google Scholar
Roach Anleu, S. and Mack, K. (2009) ‘Intersections between In-Court Procedures and the Production of Guilty Pleas’, Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 42(1): 123.Google Scholar
Roach Anleu, S. and Mack, K. (2013a) ‘Judicial Authority and Emotion Work’, Judicial Review 11: 329347.Google Scholar
Roach Anleu, S. and Mack, K. (2013b) ‘Performing Authority: Communicating Judicial Decisions in Lower Criminal Courts’, Journal of Sociology. DOI: 10.1177/1440783313495765.Google Scholar
Roach Anleu, S. and Mack, K. (2014) ‘Judicial Performance and Experiences of Judicial Work: Findings from Socio-Legal Research’, Oñati Socio-Legal Series 4(5): 10151040.Google Scholar
Rose, N. (1993) ‘Government, Authority and Expertise in Advanced Liberalism’, Economy and Society 22(3): 283299.Google Scholar
Rose, N. and Miller, P. (1992) ‘Political Power Beyond the State: Problematics of Government’, British Journal of Sociology 43(2): 173205.Google Scholar
Rose, N., O'Malley, P. and Valverde, M. (2006) ‘Governmentality’, Annual Review of Law and Social Science 2: 83104.Google Scholar
Rottman, D.B. and Tyler, T.R. (2014) ‘Thinking About Judges and Judicial Performance: Perspective of the Public and Court Users’, Oñati Socio-Legal Series 4(5): 10461070.Google Scholar
Satel, S.L. (1998) ‘Observational Study of Courtroom Dynamics in Selected Drug Courts’, National Drug Court Institute Review 1(1): 5685.Google Scholar
Schultz, J. (2001) ‘Can Women Judges Help Make Civil Sexual Assault Trials More Therapeutic?’, Wisconsin Women's Law Journal 16: 5366.Google Scholar
Sevenhuijsen, S. (1998) Citizenship and the Ethics of Care: Feminist Considerations on Justice, Morality, and Politics. London and New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Shaman, J.M. (1996) ‘The Impartial Judge: Detachment or Passion?’, DePaul Law Review 45: 605632.Google Scholar
Sherry, S. (1986) ‘The Gender of Judges’, Law and Inequality 4: 159169.Google Scholar
Smith, A.B. and Blumberg, A.S. (1967) ‘The Problem of Objectivity in Judicial Decision-Making’, Social Forces 46(1): 96105.Google Scholar
Stanchi, K.M., Berger, L.L. and Crawford, B.J. (eds) (2016) Feminist Judgments: Rewritten Opinions of the United States Supreme Court. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Tait, D. (2002) ‘Sentencing and Performance: Restoring Drama to the Courtroom’ in Tata, C. and Hutton, N. (eds) Sentencing and Society: International Perspectives. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Tamanaha, B.Z. (2010) Beyond the Formalist-Realist Divide: The Role of Politics in Judging. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Tata, C. (2007) ‘Sentencing as Craftwork and the Binary Epistemologies of the Discretionary Decision Process’, Social and Legal Studies 16(3): 425447.Google Scholar
Thomas, D.A. (1963) ‘Sentencing – the Case for Reasoned Decisions’, Criminal Law Review 10: 243253.Google Scholar
Thomas, J.B. (1997) Judicial Ethics in Australia. Sydney: LBC Information Services.Google Scholar
Tyler, T.R. (1984) ‘The Role of Perceived Injustice in Defendants’ Evaluations of Their Courtroom Experiences’, Law and Society Review 18(1): 5174.Google Scholar
Tyler, T.R. (1988) ‘What Is Procedural Justice? Criteria Used by Citizens to Assess the Fairness of Legal Procedures’, Law and Society Review 22(1): 103135.Google Scholar
Tyler, T.R. (1990) Why People Obey the Law. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Tyler, T.R. (2000) ‘Social Justice: Outcome and Procedure’, International Journal of Psychology 35(2): 117125.Google Scholar
Tyler, T.R. (2003) ‘Procedural Justice, Legitimacy and the Effective Rule of Law’, Crime and Justice 30: 283357.Google Scholar
Tyler, T.R. (2007–2008) ‘Procedural Justice and the Courts’, Court Review 44(1/2): 2631.Google Scholar
United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary (2009) ‘Confirmation Hearing on the Nomination of Hon Sonia Sotomayor, to Be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States’, Committee on the Judiciary.Google Scholar
Valverde, M. (2015) Chronotopes of Law: Jurisdiction, Scale and Governance. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Wexler, D.B. (2000) ‘Therapeutic Jurisprudence: An Overview’, Thomas M. Cooley Law Review 17(1): 125134.Google Scholar
Wexler, D.B. and Winick, B.J. (1991) ‘Therapeutic Jurisprudence as a New Approach to Mental Health Law Policy Analysis and Research’, University of Miami Law Review 45: 9791004.Google Scholar
Wexler, D.B. and Winick, B.J. (2003) ‘Putting Therapeutic Jurisprudence to Work’, ABA Journal, May: 5457.Google Scholar
Wiener, R.L., Winick, B.J., Georges, L.S. and Castro, A. (2010) ‘A Testable Theory of Problem-Solving Courts: Avoiding Past Empirical and Legal Failures’, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 33: 417427.Google Scholar
Winick, B.J. (2002–2003) ‘Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Problem Solving Courts’, Fordham Urban Law Journal 30: 10551090.Google Scholar
Winick, B.J. (2008–2009) ‘Foreword: Therapeutic Jurisprudence Perspectives on Dealing with Victims of Crime’, Nova Law Review 33: 535543.Google Scholar
Winick, B.J. and Wexler, D.B. (2003) ‘Introduction’ in Winick, B.J. and Wexler, D.B. (eds) Judging in a Therapeutic Key: Therapeutic Jurisprudence and the Courts. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
Women's Court of Canada ‘Rewriting Equality’, online: <http://womenscourt.ca/home/> (last accessed 2 March 2015). (last accessed 2 March 2015).' href=https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Women's+Court+of+Canada+‘Rewriting+Equality’,+online:++(last+accessed+2+March+2015).>Google Scholar
Wright, K. (2010) The Rise of the Therapeutic Society: Psychological Knowledge and the Contradictions of Cultural Change. Washington DC: New Academia.Google Scholar