Bayly C. and Harper T. (2007) Forgotten Wars: The End of Britain's Asian Empire. London: Allen Lane.
Bergsmo M., Cheah W.L. and Yi P. (eds) (2014) Historical Origins of International Criminal Law, Volumes 1 and 2. Brussels: Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher.
Charlesworth L. (2008) ‘Forgotten Justice: Forgetting Law's History and Victims’ Justice in British “Minor” War Crimes Trials in Germany 1945–8’, Amicus Curiae
Combs N. (2010) Fact-Finding without Facts: The Uncertain Evidentiary Foundations in International Criminal Convictions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Darley J.M., Carlsmith K.M. and Robinson P.H. (2001) ‘The Ex Ante Function of the Criminal Law’, Law and Society Review
Donnison F.S.V. (1956) British Military Administration in the Far East 1943–1946. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Dower J.W. (1999) Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Aftermath of World War II. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Doyle P. (2013) World War II in Numbers. London: A & C Black.
Drea E.J. (1989) ‘In the Army Barracks of Imperial Japan’, Armed Forces & Society
Drea E.J. (1998) In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Drea E.J. (2009) Japan's Imperial Army: Its Rise and Fall, 1853–1945. Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 68.
Ferris J. (2003) ‘Double-Edged Estimates: Japan in the Eyes of the British Army and the Royal Air Force, 1900–1939’ in Gow Ian, Hirama Yôichi and Chapman John (eds) The History of Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1600–2000: Volume III, The Military Dimension, 1800–2000. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Funk D.A. (1990) ‘Traditional Japanese Jurisprudence: Justifying Loyalty and Law’, Southern University Law Review
Geertz C. (1977) The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.
Hackett R.F. (1965) ‘The Meiji Leaders and Modernization: The Case of Yamagata Arimoto’ in Jansen Marius B. (ed.) Changing Japanese attitudes Toward Modernization. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Haley J.O. (1994) Authority without Power: Law and the Japanese Paradox. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harries M. and Harries S. (1991) Soldiers of the Sun: The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. London: Heinemann Ltd.
Jia B.B. (2013) ‘The Plea of Superior Orders in the Hong Kong Trials’ in Linton Suzannah (ed.) Hong Kong's War Crimes Trials. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kelsall T. (2009) Culture under Cross-Examination: International Justice and the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kita Y. (2003) ‘The Japanese Military's Attitude towards International Law and the Treatment of Prisoners of War’ in Gow I., Yôichi Hirama and Chapman John (eds) The History of Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1600–2000: Volume III, The Military Dimension, 1800–2000. Basingstoke, UK and New York: Palgrave Macmillan
Kushner B. (2007) The Thought War: Japanese Imperial Propaganda. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.
Kushner B. (2015) Men to Devils, Devils to Men: Japanese War Crimes and Chinese Justice. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
Lacey N. (2014) ‘Community, Culture, and Criminalization’ in Will Kymlicka, Claes Lernestedt and Matt Matravers (eds) Criminal Law and Cultural Diversity. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lory H. (1943) Japan's Military Masters: The Army in Japanese Life. New York: The Viking Press.
Moore A.W. (2013) Writing War: Soldiers Record the Japanese Empire. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
Morimoto I. and Hirata K. (1992) ‘A Decapitated Human Skull from Medieval Kamakura’, Japanese Anthropology Society Nippon
Ohnuki-Tierney E. (1991) ‘The Emperor of Japan as Deity (Kami)’, Ethnology
Ohnuki-Tierney E. (2005) ‘Japanese Monarchy in Historical and Comparative Perspective’ in Quigley Declan (ed.) The Character of Kingship. Oxford: Berg.
Osiel M. (2000) ‘Why Prosecute? Critics of Punishment for Mass Atrocity’, Human Rights Quarterly
Parker R.B. (1988) ‘Law, Language, and the Individual in Japan and the United States’, Wisconsin International Law Journal
Piccigallo P. (1979) The Japanese on Trial: Allied War Crimes Operations in the East, 1945–1951. Austin, TX and London, UK: University of Texas Press.
Pike F. (2015) Hirohito's War: The Pacific War, 1941–1945. London and New York: Bloomsbury.
Pritchard R.J. (2006) ‘The Parameters of Justice: The Evolution of British Civil and Military Perspectives on War Crimes Trials and Their Legal Context (1942–1956)’ in Carey John, Dunlap William V. and Pritchard R. John (eds) International Humanitarian Law: Origins, Challenges, Prospects. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, Inc.
Renteiln A.D. (2004) The Cultural Defense. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sewell W.H. (1999) ‘The Concept(s) of Culture’ in Bonnell Victoria E., Hunt Lynn Avery and Biernacki Richard (eds) Beyond the Cultural Turn: New Directions in the Study of Society and Culture. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
Sleeman C. (ed.) (1948), The Gozawa Trial. London, UK: William Hodge and Company.
Swidler A. (1986) ‘Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies’, American Sociological Review
Totani Y. (2008) The Tokyo War Crimes Trial: The Pursuit of Justice in the Wake of World War II. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center.
Turnbull M.C. (1977) A History of Singapore, 1819–1975. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
Tusa A. and Tusa J. (2010) The Nuremberg Trial. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.