Skip to main content
×
Home

Peripheral governance: administering transnational health-care flows

  • Ruth Fletcher (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

This paper develops the concept of peripheral governance as a kind of legal transnationalism that is being generated by responses to outward travel for health care. I argue for a recuperation of the ‘peripheral’ in order to think through the ways in which marginal actors and marginal objects contribute to transnationalism. The paper draws on the idea of networked governance, nodal governance in particular, to capture governance mechanisms that have emerged in response to outward flows for health care. Peripheral governance comes into being through the cultivation of dependency on core provision of health care in other jurisdictions and by focusing domestic provision on those services (information, counselling, check-ups), which lie on the margins of health care. Peripheral governance has four key technologies: non-development, exit, use and return. These technologies illustrate how state agencies may actively mobilise the peripheral as they claim to address local needs through participation in the regulation of cross-border health care. In so doing they configure a conception of the peripheral that does not want to become core, participates in transnational networks on its own terms, and focuses on marginal objects of health care. I develop this account of peripheral governance through a critical reading of the strategies that the Irish Crisis Pregnancy Agency has adopted in response to women's practices of travelling for abortion care.

Copyright
Corresponding author
r.fletcher@keele.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Adshead Maureen, Kirby Peadar and Millar Michelle (eds) (2008) Contesting the State: Lessons from the Irish Case. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
All Party Oireachtas Committee on the Constitution (2000) Fifth Progress Report: Abortion. Dublin: Stationery Office; available at <http://www.constitution.ie/reports/5th-Report-Abortion.pdf>.
Anon (2007a) ‘Bishops Seek to Renegotiate Crisis Pregnancy Deal’, The Independent, 8 October; available at <http://www.independent.ie/national-news/bishops-seek-to-renegotiate-crisis-pregnancy-deal-1117341.html>.
Anon (2007b) ‘Girl Seeking Abortion Challenges HSE’, The Irish Times, 1 May.
Anon (2008) ‘New Legal Challenge to Abortion Law Looms’, The Sunday Business Post, 30 March.
Anon (2010) ‘Customs Seized 1,216 Packs of Illegal Abortion Drugs in 2009’, The Irish Times, 29 October; available at <http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/frontpage/2010/1026/1224282004957.html>.
Anon (2011) ‘Fall in Numbers Seeking Abortion’, The Irish Times, 24 May; available at <http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/breaking/2011/0524/breaking44.html>.
Appadurai Arjun (1990) ‘Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy’, Public Culture 2(2): 123.
Appadurai Arjun (1996) Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalisation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Bakhru Tanya (2008) ‘Migration, Development, and Reproductive Health: Selected Experiences of an NGO in Ireland’, Gender and Development 16(2): 301–12.
Barry Marguerite (2012) ‘Notes from the Semi-periphery: Ireland's Press Coverage of the Developing World and the Value of Small State Studies in International Communications Research’, International Communication Gazette 74(2): 124–44.
Bedford Kate (2009) Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality and the Reformed World Bank. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Behrmann Jason and Smith Elise (2010) ‘Top 7 Issues in Medical Tourism: Challenges, Knowledge Gaps, and Future Directions for Research and Policy Development’, Global Journal of Health Science 2(2): 8090; available at <http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/gjhs/article/download/6756/5873>.
Bell Mark and McHale Jean (2002) ‘Travellers Checks’, Health Service Journal 112(5806): 3941.
Benhabib Seyla (1996) ‘Toward a Deliberative Model of Democratic Legitimacy’, in Benhabib Seyla (ed.), Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 6794.
Bennett Belinda (2008) Health Law's Kaleidoscope: Health Law Rights in a Global Age. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Berer Marge (2000) ‘Making Abortions Safe: A Matter of Good Public Health Policy and Practice’, Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 78(5): 580–92; available at <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2560758/>.
Bignami Frances (2010) ‘From Expert Administration to Accountability Network: A New Paradigm for Comparative Administrative Law’, Jean Monnet Working Paper (no. 1/10); available at <http://centers.law.nyu.edu/jeanmonnet/papers/papers10.html>.
Black Julia (1998) ‘Regulation as Facilitation: Negotiating the Genetic Revolution’, Modern Law Review 61(5): 621–60.
Black Julia (2000) ‘Proceduralizing Regulation: Part IOxford Journal of Legal Studies 20: 597614.
Black Julia (2001a) ‘Decentring Regulation: Understanding the Role of Regulation and Self Regulation in a “Post-Regulatory” World’, Current Legal Problems 54: 103–47.
Black Julia (2001b) ‘Proceduralizing Regulation: Part II’, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 21: 3359.
Black Julia (2008) ‘Constructing and Contesting Legitimacy and Accountability in Polycentric Regulatory Regimes’, Regulation & Governance 2: 137–64.
Blecher Michael (ed.) (2008) ‘Introduction to the Special Issue: Governance, Civil Society and Social Movements’, Law and Critique 19(3): 225–33.
Blyth Eric and Farrand Abigail (2005) ‘Reproductive Tourism – a Price Worth Paying for Reproductive Autonomy?’, Critical Social Policy 25(1): 91114.
Bookman Milica and Bookman Karla (2007) Medical Tourism and Developing Countries. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Boucher Gerry and Collins Grainne (2003) ‘Having One's Cake and Being Eaten too: Irish Neo-liberal Corporatism’, Review of Social Economy 61(3): 295316.
Brick Aoife, Nolan Anne, O'Reilly Jacqueline and Smith Samantha (2010) Resource Allocation, Financing and Sustainability in Healthcare: Evidence for the Expert Group on Resource Allocation and Financing in the Health Sector, vols 1 and 2. Dublin: Department of Health and Children and the Economic and Social Research Institute; available at <http://www.esri.ie/publications/search_for_a_publication/search_results/view/index.xml?id=3059>.
British Medical Association (BMA) (2007), First Trimester Abortion. A Briefing Paper by the BMA Medical Ethics Committee London: BMA; available at <http://www.bma.org.uk>.
Burke Sarah (2008) ‘Unequal in Life and Death: Women's Health – Gender and Inequality in the Irish Health System’, in Barry Ursula (ed.), Where Are We Now? New Feminist Perspectives on Women in Contemporary Ireland. Dublin: New Island/TASC, 5381.
Burris Scott, Drahos Peter and Shearing Clifford (2004) ‘Nodal Governance’ (Temple Law School Working Paper); available at <http://www.hostos.edu/downloads/coloquios/9no_coloquio/lecturas/nodal_governance.pdf>.
Carabine Jean (2007) ‘New Labour's Teenage Pregnancy Policy’, Cultural Studies 21(6): 952–73.
Carolan Mary, Houston Muiris and O'Brien Carl (2007), ‘AG Tells Court Girl Has Tight to Travel for Abortion’, The Irish Times, 2 May.
Carrera Percivil and Lunt Neil (2010) ‘A European Perspective on Medical Tourism: The Need for a Knowledge Base’, International Journal of Health Services 40(3): 469–84.
Carroll Steven (2007) ‘Cura Signs 2 Million Deal with Pregnancy Agency’, The Irish Times, 6 November; available at <http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/ireland/2007/1106/1194222693315.html>.
Chambers Donna and McIntosh Bryan (2008) ‘Using Authenticity to Achieve Competitive Advantage in Medical Tourism in the English-speaking Caribbean’, Third World Quarterly 29(5): 919–37.
Chelstowska Agata (2011) ‘Stigmatisation and Commercialisation of Abortion Services in Poland’, Reproductive Health Matters 19(37): 98106.
Chief Medical Officer (2005) An Investigation into the British Pregnancy Advisory Service Response to Requests for Late Abortions. London: Department of Health, England and Wales.
Clancy Paula and Murphy Grainne (2006) Outsourcing Government: Public Bodies and Accountability. Dublin: New Island.
Clifford Allison (2002) ‘Abortion in International Waters off the Coast of Ireland: Avoiding a Collision between Irish Moral Sovereignty and the European Community’, PACE International Law Review 14(2): 385433; available at <http://digitalcommons.pace.edu/>.
Connell John (2006) ‘Medical Tourism: Sea, Sun, Sand and … Surgery’, Tourism Management 27(6): 1093–100.
Connolly Linda (2003) The Irish Women's Movement. Dublin: The Lilliput Press.
Cook Rebecca (2009) ‘Transparency in the Delivery of Lawful Abortion Services’, Canadian Medical Association Journal 180(3); available at <http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/180/3/272#R4-7>.
Cooper Davina (1998) Governing out of Order: Space, Law, and the Politics of Belonging. London: Rivers Oram Press.
Cotterrell Roger (2008) ‘Ehrlich at the Edge of Empire: Centres and Peripheries in Legal Studies’, in Hertogh Marc (ed.), Living Law: Reconsidering Eugen Ehrlich Oxford: Hart, 7594.
Cotterrell Roger (2009) ‘Spectres of Transnationalism: Changing Terrains of Sociology of Law’, Journal of Law and Society 36(4): 481500.
Coultor Carol (2002) ‘A Yes Vote Will Protect Doctors’, The Irish Times, 28 February.
Council of Europe (2008) Commissioner for Human Rights (Hammarberg), Report on Ireland, CommDH (2008)9; available at <https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1283555&Site=CommDH&BackColorInternet=FEC65B&BackColorIntranet=FEC65B&BackColorLogged=FFC679>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) (2002) Annual Report 2002. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) (2003a) Strategy to Address the Issue of Crisis Pregnancy 2004–6. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) (2003b) Annual Report 2003. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) (2003c) Towards a Strategy to Address the Issue of Crisis Pregnancy. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) (2004a) Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Study. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) (2004b) Annual Report 2004. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) (2005a) Annual Report 2005. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) (2005b) Key Contact – Directory of Supported Accommodation for Women Experiencing Crisis Pregnancy. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) (2005c) Research on Crisis Pregnancy for Crisis Pregnancy Counsellors. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) (2006) Annual Report 2006. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) (2007a) Annual Report 2007. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) (2007b) Strategy 2007–2011: Leading an Integrated Approach to Reducing Crisis Pregnancy. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) (2008) Annual Report 2008. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) and Irish College of General Practitioners (ICGP) (2004) Primary Care Guidelines 2004. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) and Irish College of General Practitioners (ICGP) (2007a) Key Contact – Care of a Woman after an Abortion. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Agency (CPA) and Treoir (2005) Reproductive Health Information for Migrant Women. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Crisis Pregnancy Programme (CPP) (2010a) Annual Report 2010. Dublin: CPP; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications>.
Crisis Pregnancy Programme (CPP) (2010b) February Newsletter 7(7); available at <www.crisispregnancy.ie>.
Crisis Pregnancy Programme (CPP) (2011) Pregnancy at Work: A National Survey. Dublin: CPP; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications>.
Crisis Pregnancy Programme (CPP) (2012) Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Study 2010. Dublin: CPP; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications>.
Culley Lorraine and Hudson Nicky (2010) ‘Fertility Tourists or Global Consumers? A Sociological Agenda for Exploring Cross-border Reproductive Travel’, International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences 4(10): 139–50.
Culley Lorraine, Hudson Nicky, Blyth Eric, Norton Wendy, Pacey Allan and Rapport Frances (2011) Transnational Reproduction: An Exploratory Study of UK Residents Who Travel Abroad for Fertility Treatment (Summary Report); available at <www.transrep.co.uk>.
DALY Brenda (2011) ‘“Braxton's Hick's” or the Birth of a New Era? Tracing the Development of Ireland's Abortion Laws in Respect of European Court of Human Rights Jurisprudence’, European Journal of Health Law 18(4): 375–95.
Davies Celia, Wetherell Margaret and Barnett Elizabeth (2006) Citizens at the Centre: Deliberative Participation in Healthcare Decisions. Bristol: Policy Press.
De Arellano Annette (2007) ‘Patients Without Borders: The Emergence of Medical Tourism’, International Journal of Health Services 37(1): 193–98.
de Barra Deirdre (2002) Letter, The Irish Times, 25 February 2002; available at <http://safeandlegal.blogspot.co.uk/2007/03/fifth-anniversary-of-deirdre-debarras.html>.
Deech Ruth (2003) ‘Reproductive Tourism in Europe: Infertility and Human Rights’, Global Governance 9: 425–32.
Department of Health (DoH) (1999) Green Paper on Abortion. Dublin; available at <http://www.dohc.ie/publications/green_paper_on_abortion.html>.
Department of Health, England and Wales (2011) Abortion Statistics, England and Wales: 2010; available at <http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsStatistics/DH_126769>.
Department of Health and Children (DoHC) (2001) Quality and Fairness: A Health System for You. Dublin; available at <www.dohc.ie>.
Department of Justice and Law Reform (2007) National Women's Strategy 2007–2016. Dublin; available at <http://www.justice.ie/en/JELR/Pages/PB07000395>.
De Londras Fiona (2012) ‘The Fine Gael Revolt Against Abortion ‘Liberalisation’ Is Misguided. Here's Why’, The Journal. 19 July; available at http://www.thejournal.ie/readme/column-the-fine-gael-revolt-against-abortion-liberalisation-is-misguided-heres-why-526409-Jul2012/>.
Donchin Anne (2010) ‘Reproductive Tourism and the Quest for Global Gender Justice’, Bioethics 24(7): 323–32.
Dyer Clare (2005) ‘Charity Did Not Break Law in Giving Information about Late Abortions’, British Medical Journal 331: 716.
Eggertson Laura (2006) ‘Wait-list Weary Canadians Seek Treatment Abroad’, Canadian Medical Association Journal 174(9): 1247.
English Veronica, MUSWELL Rebecca, SHEATHER Julian and SOMMERVILLE Ann (2006) ‘Ethics Briefings: Medical Tourism’, Journal of Medical Ethics 32: 247–48.
Enright Mairead (2012) ‘Abortion, Resistance and the Politics of Life and Death’, Politico, 20 April; available at <http://politico.ie/social-issues/8488-abortion-resistance-and-the-politics-of-death-and-grief.html>.
ERDMAN Joanna (2011) ‘Access to Information on Safe Abortion: A Harm Reduction and Human Rights Approach’, Harvard Journal of Law and Gender 34: 414–62.
Erni John Nguyet (2009) ‘Human Rights in the Neoliberal Imagination: Mapping the “New Sovereignties”’, Cultural Studies 23(3): 417–36.
Fletcher Ruth (1995) ‘Silences: Irish Women and Abortion’, Feminist Review 50: 4466.
Fletcher Ruth (1998) ‘“Pro-Life” Absolutes, Feminist Challenges: The Fundamentalist Narrative of Irish Abortion Law 1986–92’, Osgoode Hall Law Journal 36: 162.
Fletcher Ruth (2000) ‘National Crisis, Supranational Opportunity: The Irish Construction of Abortion as a European Service’, Reproductive Health Matters 8: 3544.
Fletcher Ruth (2001) ‘Post-colonial Fragments: Representations of Abortion in Irish Law and Politics’, Journal of Law and Society 28(4): 568–89.
Fletcher Ruth (2005) ‘Reproducing Irishness: Race, Gender and Abortion Law’, Canadian Journal of Women and the Law 17(2): 365403.
Fletcher Ruth (2008) ‘Reproductive Justice and Article 40 3 3’, in Schweppe Jennifer (ed.), The Unborn Child, Article 40 3 3 and Abortion in Ireland: 25 Years of Protection? Dublin: Liffey Press, 319–48.
Franklin Sarah (2005) ‘Stem Cells R US: Emergent Life Forms and the Global Biological’, in Ong Aihwa and Collier Stephen (eds), Global Assemblages. Oxford: Blackwell, 5978.
Franklin Sarah, Lurey Celia and Stacey Judith (2000) Global Culture, Global Nature. London: Sage.
Fraser Nancy (2009) Scales of Justice: Reimagining Political Space in a Globalizing World. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gantly Dara (2010) ‘Substantial Changes Sought on Ethical Guide’, Irish Medical Times, March; available at <http://www.imt.ie/opinion/2010/03/substantial_changes_sought_on.html>.
Gilmartin Mary and White Allen (2011) ‘Interrogating Medical Tourism: Ireland, Abortion and Mobility Rights’, Signs 36(2): 275–85.
Ginsburg Faye and Rapp Rayna (eds) (1995) Conceiving the New World Order: The Global Politics of Reproduction. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Gottweis Herbert (2008) ‘Participation and the New Governance of Life’, BioSocieties 3: 265–86.
Grewal Inderpal and Kaplan Caren (eds) (1994) Scattered Hegemonies: Postmodernity and Transnational Feminist Practices. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Hanafin Patrick (2001) Constituting Identity. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Harrington John (2008) ‘Migration and Access to Health Care in English Medical Law: A Rhetorical Critique’, International Journal of Law in Context 4(4): 315–35.
Harrington John and Stuttaford Maria (2012) Global Health and Human Rights: Legal and Philosophical Perspectives. London: Routledge.
Harris Clodagh (ed.) (2005) The Report of the Democracy Commission: Engaging Citizens: The Case for Democratic Renewal in Ireland. Dublin: Tasc at New Island.
Herron Brian (2010) ‘Abortion Laws Criticised by Human Rights Group’, Irish Medical Times, 12 February; available at <http://www.imt.ie/opinion/2010/02/abortion_laws_criticised_by_hu.html>.
Hervey Tamara (2007) ‘EU Law and National Health Policies: Problem or Opportunity?’, Health Economics, Policy and Law 2(1): 16.
Hervey Tamara (2008) ‘The European Union's Governance of Health Care and the Welfare Modernisation Agenda’, Regulation and Governance 2: 103–20.
Hervey Tamara and MCHALE Jean (2004) Health Law and the European Union. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hewson Barbara (2007) ‘Ireland's Miss D: A Bizarre Dispute’, Abortion Review, 24 May; available at <http://www.abortionreview.org/index.php/site/article/186/>.
Hirshman Albert O. (1970) Exit, Voice and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hopkins Laura, Labonté Ronald, Runnels Vivien and Packer Corinne (2010) ‘Medical Tourism Today: What Is the State of Existing Knowledge?’, Journal of Public Health Policy 31: 185–98.
Hough Jennifer (2012) ‘Review Urged of Assisted Suicide Law’, Irish Examiner, 6 January; available at <http://www.irishexaminer.com/ireland/kfqlsncwmhql/rss2/>.
Houston Muiris (2011) ‘Over Half of Doctors Support Abortion’, The Irish Times, 25 November; available at <http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/ireland/2011/1125/1224308110256.html>.
Human rights watch (2010) A State of Isolation: Access to Abortion in Ireland; available at <http://www.hrw.org/news/2010/01/28/ireland-abortion-limits-violate-human-rights>.
Inhorn Marcia (2011) ‘Globalization and Gametes: Reproductive ‘Tourism’, Islamic Bioethics and Middle East Modernity’, Anthropology and Medicine 18(1): 87103; available at <http://www.marciainhorn.com/uploads/inhorn-article-Anthropology-and-Medicine.pdf>.
Inhorn Marcia and Patrizio Pasqual (2009) ‘Reproductive Tourism as Reproductive Exile’, Fertility and Sterility 92(3): 904–06.
Irish Family Planning Association (IFPA) (2000) ‘The Irish Journey – Women's Stories of Abortion’; available at <http://www.ifpa.ie/Doucments/Media/Publications/Irish-Journey>.
Jackson Pauline (1992) ‘Outside the Jurisdiction: Irish Women Seeking Abortion’, in Smyth Ailbhe (ed.), The Abortion Papers – Ireland. Dublin: Attic Press, 119–37.
Jacob Marie Andree (2012) Matching Organs with Donors: Legality and Kinship in Transplants. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Jacobson David and Kirby Peadar (2006) ‘Globalisation and Ireland’, in Jacobson David, Kirby Peadar and O'Broin Deiric (eds), Taming the Tiger: Social Exclusion and Globalised Ireland. Dublin: New Island, 2344.
Jacobson David, Kirby Peadar and O'Broin Deiric (eds) (2006) Taming the Tiger: Social Exclusion and Globalised Ireland. Dublin: New Island.
Jenner Elizabeth Anne (2008) ‘Unsettled Borders of Care: Medical Tourism as a New Dimension in America's Health Care Crisis’, Research in the Sociology of Health Care 26: 235–49.
Jost Timothy (2006) ‘The New Governance, the Open Method of Coordination and Social Health Insurance in Europe’, Medical Law International 7(3): 249–63.
Kangas Beth (2007) ‘Hope from Abroad in the International Medical Travel of Yemeni Patients’, Anthropology and Medicine 14(3): 293305.
Kangas Beth (2011) ‘Complicating Common Ideas about Medical Tourism: Gender, Class and Globality in YemenisMedical Travel', Signs 36(2): 327–32.
Kearney Richard (1997) Postnationalist Ireland: Politics, Culture, Philosophy. London: Routledge.
Kingston James and Whelan Anthony with Bacik Ivana (1997) Abortion and the Law. Dublin: Round Hall Sweet & Maxwell.
Kirby Peadar (2009) ‘The Competition State: Lessons from Ireland’, Limerick Papers in Politics and Public Administration; available at <http://www.ul.ie/ppa/content/files/Kirby_competition.pdf>.
Kirby Peadar (2010) Celtic Tiger in Collapse: Explaining the Weaknesses of the Irish Model. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Kirby Peadar and Murphy Mary (2008) ‘The Competition State’, in Adshead Maureen, Kirby Peadar and Millar Michelle (eds), Contesting the State. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 120–42.
Kreimer F. (1992) ‘The Law of Choice and Choice of Law: Abortion, The Right to Travel, and Extraterritorial Regulation in American Federalism’, New York University Law Review 67(3): 451519.
Lalor Joan, Devane Declan and Begley Cecily (2007) ‘Unexpected Diagnosis of Fetal Abnormality: Women's Encounters with Caregivers’, Birth 34(1): 8088.
Layte R., McGee H., Quail A., Rundle K., Cousins G., Donnelly C., Mulcahy F. and Conroy R. (2006) The Irish Study of Sexual Health and Relationships. A Crisis Pregnancy Agency and Department of Health and Children report. Dublin: CPA; available at <http://www.crisispregnancy.ie/publications/>.
Lee Ellie (2004) ‘Young Women, Pregnancy and Abortion in Britain: A Discussion of Law “in Practice”’, International Journal of Law, Policy and Family 18: 283304.
Lewis Jenny (2005) ‘A Network Approach for Researching Partnerships in Health’, Australian and New Zealand Health Policy 2: 2233; available at <http://archive.biomedcentral.com/1743-8462/2/22>.
Lewis Penny (2011) ‘Informal Legal Change on Assisted Suicide’, Legal Studies 31(1): 119–34.
LIEBERMAN Evan (2011) ‘The Perils of Polycentric Governance of Infectious Disease in South Africa’, Social Science and Medicine 73(5): 676–84.
Lindahl Hans (2010) ‘A-Legality: Postnationalism and the Question of Legal Boundaries’, Modern Law Review 73(1): 3056.
Lunt Neil (2010) ‘Medical Tourism: Assessing the Evidence on Treatment Abroad’, Maturitas, an International Journal of Midlife Health and Beyond 66(1): 2732.
MacLaughlin Jim (1994) Ireland: The Emigrant Nursery and the World Economy. Cork: Cork University Press.
MacReady Norra (2007) ‘Developing Countries Court Medical Tourists’, The Lancet 369(9576): 1849–50; available at <http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(07)60833-2/fulltext>.
Mahon Evelyn, Conlon Catherine and Dillon Lucy (1998) Women and Crisis Pregnancy. Dublin: The Stationery Office.
Mazzaschi Andrew and MACDONALD Emily Anne (eds) (2011) ‘Comparative Perspectives Symposium: Gender and Medical Tourism’, Signs 36(2): 275332.
McAvoy Sandra (2004) ‘Before Cadden: Abortion in Mid-Twentieth Century Ireland’. in Keogh Dermot, O'Shea F. and Quinlan C. (eds), The Lost Decade: Ireland in the 1950s. Cork: Mercier Press, 147–64.
McAvoy Sandra (2008), ‘From Anti-Amendment Campaigns to Demanding Reproductive Justice: The Changing Landscape of Abortion Rights Activism in Ireland 1983–2008’, in Schweppe J. (ed.), The Unborn Child, Article 40 3 3 and Abortion in Ireland. Dublin: Liffey Press, 1545.
McCafferty Nell (2002) ‘Their Masters’ Voices Say “Yes,” Their “Best Practices” Say “No.”', The Sunday Tribune, 3 March.
McDonald Henry (2012) ‘Irish Pain over Abortion Law’, The Guardian, 6 July; available at <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jul/06/irish-pain-abortion-law-case-studies>.
McDonald Dearbhail (2009) ‘Doctors Fear Abortion Charge if they Direct Patients Abroad’, Irish Independent, 12 December.
McGuinness Sheilagh (2011) ‘A, B, and C Leads to D (for Delegation!) A, B and C v. Ireland 25579/05 [2010] ECHR 2032’, Medical Law Review 19(3): 476–91.
McHale Jean (2003) ‘Health Law in Europe – A Matter of Convergence?’, Medico-Legal Journal of Ireland 9(1): 1723.
McHale Jean (2007) ‘Framing a Right to Treatment in English Law? Watts in Retrospective’, Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law 14(3): 263–85.
McHale Jean (2013), ‘Organ Transplantation, the Criminal Law, and the Health Tourist: A Case for Extraterritorial Jurisdiction?’, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 22(1): 6476.
Medical Council (2004) A Guide to Ethical Conduct and Behaviour, 6th edn.Dublin
Medical Council (2009) Guide to Professional Conduct and Ethics for Registered Medical Practitioners, 7th edn.Dublin; available at <http://www.medicalcouncil.ie/Professional-Standards/Professional-Conduct-Ethics/>.
Menkel-Meadow Carrie (2011) ‘Why and How to Study Transnational Law’, UC Irvine Law Review 1(1): 97128.
Millar Michelle (2008) ‘Social Inclusion and the Welfare State: Who Cares?’, in Adshead Maureen, Kirby Peader and Millar Michelle (eds), Contesting the State: Lessons from the Irish Case. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 100–19.
Miller Peter and Rose Nikolas (2008) Governing the Present. Oxford: Polity.
Morriss Peter (2008) ‘The Statute Law on Abortion in Ireland’, in Schweppe Jennifer (ed.), The Unborn Child, Article 40 3 3 and Abortion in Ireland. Dublin: Liffey Press, 277300.
Mossialos Elias, Permanand Govin, Baeten Rita and Hervey Tamara K. (eds) (2010) Health Systems Governance in Europe: The Role of European Union Law and Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Murphy Mary (2006) ‘The Emerging Irish Workfare State and its Implications for Local Development’, in Jacobson David, Kirby Peadar and O'Broin Deiric (eds), Taming the Tiger: Social Exclusion and Globalised Ireland. Dublin: New Island, 85111.
National Economic and Social Council (NESC) (2005) The Developmental Welfare State. Dublin; available at <http://www.nesc.ie/en/publications/publications/nesc-reports/the-developmental-welfare-state/>.
Newdick Christopher (2006) ‘Citizenship, Free Movement and Health Care: Cementing Individual Rights by Corroding Social Solidarity’, Common Market Law Review 43: 1645–68.
Ni Riain Aine (2006) Women's Health Services in General Practice: 2004. Dublin: ICGP and CPA; available at <http://www.icgp.ie/go/courses/women_s_health/conferences/8AC154A1-96AC-7C8B-6ED14355F7DD3D57.html>.
Oaks Laury (2002) ‘“Abortion is Part of the Irish Experience, It Is Part of What We Are”: The Transformation of Public Discourses on Irish Abortion Policy’, Women's Studies International Forum 25(30): 315–33.
O'Connell Paul (2005) ‘The Human Right to Health and the Privatization of Irish Health Care’, Medico-Legal Journal of Ireland 11(2): 7682.
O'Leary Siofra (1992) ‘Freedom of Establishment and Freedom to Provide Services: The Court of Justice as a Reluctant Constitutional Adjudicator: An Examination of the Abortion Information Case’, European Law Review 17(2): 138–57.
Ong Aihwa (1999) Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Transnationality. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Ong Aihwa (2006) Neoliberalism as Exception: Mutations in Citizenship and Sovereignty. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Ong Aihwa and Collier Stephen (eds) (2005) Global Assemblages: Technology, Politics and Ethics as Anthropological Problems. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
O'Riain Sean (2004) The Politics of High Tech Growth: Developmental Network States in the Global Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pennings Guido (2002) ‘Reproductive Tourism as Moral Pluralism in Motion’, Journal of Medical Ethics 28: 337–41.
Pennings Guido (2004) ‘Legal Harmonization and Reproductive Tourism in Europe’, Human Reproduction 19(12): 2689–94.
Pennings G, De Wert G, Shenfield F, Cohen J, Taralantzis B and Devroey P (2008) ‘ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 15: Cross-border Reproductive Care’, Human Reproduction 23(10): 2182–84.
Phelan Diarmuid Rossa (1992) ‘Right to Life of the Unborn v. Promotion of Trade in Services: The ECJ and the Normative Shaping of the European Union’, Modern Law Review 55(5): 670–89.
Pickard S, Sheaff R and Dowling B (2006) ‘Exit, Voice, Governance and User-responsiveness: The Case of English Primary Care Trusts’, Social Science and Medicine 63(2): 373–83.
Rawlings Richard and Harlow Carol (2007) ‘Promoting Accountability in Multi-Level Governance: A Network Approach’, European Law Journal 13: 542–62.
Rebouche Rachel (2011) ‘Parental Involvement Laws and New Governance’, Harvard Journal of Law and Gender 34: 175223.
Roberts Elizabeth F. S. and SCHEPER-HUGHES Nancy (2011) ‘Introduction: Medical Migrations’, Body and Society 17(2/3): 130.
Rose Nikolas and Miller Peter (1992) ‘Political Power Beyond the State: Problematics of Government’, British Journal of Sociology 43(2): 173205.
Rossiter Ann (2009) Ireland's Hidden Diaspora: The Abortion Trail and the Making of a ‘London-Irish’ Underground 1980–2000. London: IASC Publications.
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) (2010) Fetal Awareness. Review of Research and Recommendations for Practice: Report of a Working Party. London: RCOG Press; available at <http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/RCOGFetalAwarenessWPR0610.pdf>.
Ruane Medb (2010) ‘Why Turning to Abortion Care on the Internet Signals a Real Crisis in Healthcare for Women’, The Irish Independent, 20 October; available at <http://www.independent.ie/opinion/columnists/medb-ruane/medb-ruane-why-turning-to-abortion-care-on-the-internet-signals-a-real-crisis-in-healthcare-for-women-2400480.html>.
Sanger Carol (2008) ‘Seeing and Believing: Mandatory Ultrasound and the Path to a Protected Choice’, UCLA Law Review 56(2): 351408.
Sassen Saskia (2006) Territory. Authority. Rights. From Medieval to Global Assemblages. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Scambler David and Kelleher Graham (2006) ‘New Social and Health Movements: Issues of Representation and Change’, Critical Public Health 16(3): 219–31.
Schweppe Jennifer (ed.) (2008) The Unborn Child, Article 40 3 3 and Abortion in Ireland: 25 years of Protection? Dublin: Liffey Press.
Scott Joanne and De Burca Grainne (eds) (2006) Law and New Approaches to Governance in the EU and US. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Sethna Christabelle and Doull Marion (2009) ‘Journeys of Choice? Abortion, Travel and Women's Autonomy’, in Murray S. and Holmes D. (eds), Critical Interventions in the Ethics of Healthcare: Challenging the Principle of Autonomy in Bioethics. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 163–79.
Sethna Christabelle and Doull Marion (2012) ‘Accidental Tourists: Canadian Women, Abortion Tourism, and Travel’, Women's Studies 41(4): 457–75.
Sheldon Sally (1997) Beyond Control: Medical Power and Abortion Law. London, Pluto Press.
Sheldon Sally and Wilkinson Stephen (2001) ‘Termination of Pregnancy for Reasons of Fetal Abnormality: Are there Grounds for a Special Exception in Law?’, Medical Law Review 9(2): 85109.
Sheller Mimi (2011) ‘Mobility’, Sociopedia.isa; available at <http://www.sagepub.net/isa/resources/pdf/Mobility.pdf>.
SHENFIELD Francoise, MOUZON Jacques, PENNINGS Guido, FERRARETTI Anna, PIA Nyobe, ANDERSEN Anders, DE WERT Guido, GOOSSENS Veerle and the ESHRE TASKFORCE ON CROSS BORDER REPRODUCTIVE CARE (2010) ‘Cross Border Reproductive Care in Six European Countries’, Human Reproduction 25(6): 1361–68.
Sheridan Kathy (2012) ‘I Believe in a Loving God and That I Won't Be Damned for What I Did’, The Irish Times, 17 April; available at <http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/features/2012/0417/1224314815319.html>.
Skelcher Chris and Torfing Jacob (2010) ‘Improving Democratic Governance through Institutional Design: Civic Participation and Democratic Ownership in Europe’, Regulation & Governance 4: 7191.
Smith Samantha (2010) ‘Equity in Irish Health Care Financing: Measurement Issues’, Health Economics, Policy and Law 5(2): 149–69.
Smyth Ailbhe (ed.) (1992) The Abortion Papers. Dublin: Attic Press.
Smyth Lisa (2005) Abortion and Nation. Aldershot: Ashgate.
SMYTH Lisa (2008) ‘From Rights to Compassion: The D Case and Contemporary Abortion Politics’, in Jennifer Schweppe (ed.), The Unborn Child, Article 40 3 3 and Abortion in Ireland: 25 years of Protection? Dublin: Liffey Press, 4764.
Solomons Michael (1993) Pro-Life? The Irish Question. Dublin: Lilliput Press.
Sterling Abigail Mary E. W. (1997) ‘The European Union and Abortion Tourism: Liberalizing Ireland's Abortion Law’, Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 20(2): 385406.
Storrow R. F. (2005) ‘Quests for Conception: Fertility Tourists, Globalization, and Feminist Legal Theory’, Hastings Law Journal 57: 295330.
Thompson Melissa (2006) Like a Ship in the Night [DVD, 30 mins]; excerpt available as an ‘Abortion Tourism’ video piece at <http://current.com/groups/on-current-tv/89620851_abortion-tourism.htm> (last accessed 4 April 2012).
Todd Maria (2011) Medical Tourism Facilitator's Handbook. London: Routledge- Cavendish.
Trubek David and Trubek Louise (2007) ‘New Governance and Legal Regulation: Complementarity, Rivalry and Transformation’, Columbia Journal of European Law 13: 539–64.
Turner Leigh (2007) ‘First World Health Care at Third World Prices: Globalization, Bioethics and Medical Tourism’, BioSocieties 2(3): 303–25.
Turner Leigh (2010) ‘“Medical Tourism” and the Global Marketplace in Health Services: U.S. Patients, International Hospitals, and the Search for Affordable Health Care’, International Journal of Health Services 40(3): 443–67.
United Nations Committee Against Torture (2011) Concluding Observations (Ireland); available at <http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cat/cats46.htm>.
Waldby Catherine and Cooper Melinda (2008) ‘The Biopolitics of Reproduction: Post-Fordist Biotechnology and Women's Clinical Labour’, Australian Feminist Studies 23(55): 5773.
WALDBY Catherine and COOPER Melinda (2010) ‘From Reproductive Work to Regenerative Labour: The Female Body and the Stem Cell Industries’, Feminist Theory 11(1): 322.
Walker Neil (ed.) (2003) Sovereignty in Transition. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Wallerstein Immanuel (1976) The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. New York: Academic Press.
Whittaker Andrea. (2008) ‘Pleasure and Pain: Medical Travel in Asia’, Global Public Health 3(3): 271–90.
Wilson Ara (2011) ‘Foreign Bodies and National Scales: Medical Tourism in Thailand’, Body and Society 17(2/3): 121–37.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2004a) ‘Sexual Health – A New Focus for the WHO’, Progress in Reproductive Health Research 67: 18.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2004b) Unsafe Abortion: Global and Regional Estimates of the Incidence of Unsafe Abortion and Associated Mortality in 2000, 4th edn.Geneva: World Health Organization; available at <http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/unsafe_abortion_estimates_04/estimates.pdf>.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2012) Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems; available at <http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/unsafe_abortion/en/index.html>.
Yap Jason (2007) ‘Medical Tourism: Risks and Rewards’, AARP International: The Journal 5863.
Yeung Karen (2005) ‘Government by Publicity Management: Sunlight or Spin’, Public Law 360–83.
York Diane (2008) ‘Medical Tourism: The Trend toward Outsourcing Medical Procedures to Foreign Countries’, Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 28(2): 99102.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Law in Context
  • ISSN: 1744-5523
  • EISSN: 1744-5531
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-law-in-context
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 17 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 260 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.