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Three Arenas for Interrogating Digital Politics in Middle East Affairs

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 April 2015

Muzammil M. Hussain
Department of Communication Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.; e-mail:
Sonia Jawaid Shaikh
Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, University of Southern California, Los Angeles; e-mail:


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Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

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1 Hussain, Muzammil M., “Digital Infrastructure Politics and Internet Freedom Stakeholders after the Arab Spring,” Journal of International Affairs 68 (2014): 3756Google Scholar.

2 Hussain, Muzammil M. and Howard, Philip N., “What Best Explains Successful Protest Cascades? ICTs and the Fuzzy Causes of the Arab Spring,” International Studies Review 15 (2013): 4866CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

3 Hussain, Muzammil M. and Howard, Philip N., State Power 2.0: Authoritarian Entrenchment and Political Engagement Worldwide (London: Ashgate, 2013)Google Scholar.

4 MacKinnon, Rebecca, Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom (New York: Basic Books, 2012)Google Scholar.

5 US Department of State, “Freedom Online Conference Launches Digital Defenders Partnership,” media note, Washington, D.C., 13 September 2012, accessed 9 January 2015,

6 “Digital Defenders Partnership,” Hivos, 7 September 2012, accessed 9 January 2015,