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The Arab Spring: Ideals of the Iranian Green Movement, Methods of the Iranian Revolution

  • Charles Kurzman (a1)
Extract

Which Iranian uprising does the Arab Spring bring to mind? The Green Movement of 2009, which challenged the pillars of the Islamic Republic of Iran, or the Iranian Revolution of 1979, which brought the Islamic Republic to power?

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NOTES

1 Mir Hossein Musavi, 29 January 2011, facebook.com/mousavi.

2 ʿAli Khameneʾi, 4 February 2011, leader.ir.

3 Many thanks to Zeynep Tufekci and Deen Freelon for their assistance with the Twitter dataset.

4 Pechter Middle East Polls, “Phone Survey of Cairo and Alexandria,” 5–10 February 2011, pechterpolls.com.

5 Bad_Way, Twitter, 24 January 2011.

6 GhadahG, Twitter, 25 January 2011.

7 “Egyptian Activist's Message to Iranians: Learn From Egyptians, and We Learned From You,” www.iranhumanrights, 10 February 2011.

8 Al-Ahram, 6 February 2011, ahram.org.eg.

9 Al-Masry al-Youm, 10 February 2011, almasryalyoum.com.

10 Kamal El-Helbawy, BBC Persian Service, 6 February 2011.

11 Al-Shuruq, 10 February 2011, shorouknews.com.

12 Carrie Rosefsky Wickham, “The Muslim Brotherhood after Mubarak,” Foreign Affairs, 3 February 2011; Asef Bayat, “Egypt and the Post-Islamist Middle East,” 8 February 2011, opendemocracy.net.

13 Sayyid Yusif [Sayed Yossif], “Man Sanaʿa al-Thawra al-Misriyya,” 31 May 2011, al-tahrer.com.

14 “Egyptian Activist's Message to Iranians.”

15 Kurzman, Charles, The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004), 111–14.

16 Hibou, Béatrice, The Force of Obedience: The Political Economy of Repression in Tunisia (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2011), 123–28.

17 Ifriqiyah, 31 December 2010, ifriqiyah.com; Turess, 11 January 2011, Turess.com; “al-Ittihad al-ʿAmm al-Tunsi li-l-Shughl,” 28 December 2010, 4 and 11 January 2011, ugtt.org.tn

18 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture (GIEWS), 13 September 2011, fao.org/giews.

19 Port Technology International, 1 February 2011, porttechnology.org; Reuters, 7 February 2011; Maersk Line, 11 February 2011, maerskline.com.

20 Mir-Hossein Musavi, 21 June 2009, facebook.com.

21 Kevan Harris, “Iran: Why Workers Aren't Joining the Protests,” Time, 22 February 2011, time.com. I thank Ali Kadivar as well for his insights on this point.

22 CyrusShares, Twitter, 7 February 2011.

23 Tomgara, Twitter, 29 January 2011.

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International Journal of Middle East Studies
  • ISSN: 0020-7438
  • EISSN: 1471-6380
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-middle-east-studies
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