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The Assyrian Affair Of 1933 (II)

  • Khaldun S. Husry (a1)
Extract

And as it often happens in Iraq in times of internal turbulence, a general wave of looting swept the north. Assyrian villages were looted by Kurdish and Arab tribesmen and by neighbouring villages, with the Yezidis joining the Kurds and Arabs in this general free-for-all. Sixty Assyrian villages, according to Stafford, were looted in this way and completely or partially destroyed, resulting in a total estimated loss to the Assyrians of at least £50,000. Stafford, however, also records that there was not a single act of aggression against any Assyrian village until 8 August, even the defenceless villages of the men who had gone to Syria with Yaqu not being touched before this date.1 Still, some of the acts committed by the Iraqis subsequent to the attack on them and to their discovery of the atrocities committed by the Assyrians are nothing but black and terrible. But even these were to pale beside what was to happen at Summayl.

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page 344 note 1 Stafford, p. 182.

page 344 note 2 Mr Ogilvie-Forbes to Sir John Simon, received 4 September 1933: F.O. 371/16888.

page 345 note 1 Ibid.

page 345 note 2 Hassani, , Cabinets, vol. III, pp. 286–7.

page 345 note 3 al-'Umari, Khair al-Din, Muqadamat wa Nata'ij (Beginnings and Consequences). Written in Mosul in 1941.

page 346 note 1 Stafford, p. 177.

page 346 note 2 al-Rawi, Ibrahim, Memoirs, p. 152.

page 346 note 3 F.O. 371/17864.

page 347 note 1 Stafford, p. 175.

page 348 note 1 F.O. 371/16882, E 3288;Simon, Sir John to MrOgilvie-Forbes, , 1 July 1933: F.O. 371/16922.

page 348 note 2 For text of the letters exchanged between Faysal and Rashid 'Ali, see Hassani, Cabinets, pp. iii, 262-5, 281-4.

page 348 note 3 MrOgilvie-Forbes to Sir John Simon, received 25 July 1933: F.O. 371/16883.

page 348 note 4 F.O. 371/16883, E 4188, E4189.

page 349 note 1 F.O. 371/20015, E 8113.

page 349 note 2 Khairi al-Din al-'Umari, Beginnings (unpublished).

page 349 note 3 F.O. 371/20015, E 8113.

page 349 note 4 F.O. 371/16887, E 4873; F.O. 371/16886, E 4726.

page 350 note 1 E.g. al-Durra, The Kurdish Question, p. 93.

page 350 note 2 Hassani, Cabinets, p. 164.

page 350 note 3 According to some Iraqis, it would seem that in 1933, Lawrence, like Kelroy, was everywhere in Iraq. He is reported to have been also in the south of Iraq early in winter, spying this time, in the disguise of a bedouin, on a secret communist meeting in the town of Nassiriya (al-Allah, al-Jarr, The Crack- Up of Humanity, pp. 98–100.

page 350 note 4 F.O. 371/16885, E 4581.

page 351 note 1 F.O. 371/16885, E 4587.

page 351 note 2 F.O. 371/16885, E 4603, E 4645.

page 351 note 3 F.O. 371/16886, E 4724.

page 351 note 4 F.O. 371/16889, E 5182.

page 351 note 5 F.O. 371/17871.

page 352 note 1 The Daily Mail, 5 September 1933.

page 352 note 2 F.O. 371/16889, E 5183.

page 352 note 3 For photographs of Baghdad's welcome to the army and to Ghazi, see Illustrated London News, 23 September 1933; for a description of these welcomes, see al-Istiqlal, 27 August 1933, 1 September 1933.

page 353 note 1 F.O. 371/20015, E 7625.

page 353 note 2 al-Rawi, Ibrahim, Memoirs, p. 168.

page 353 note 3 Stafford, p. 203.

page 353 note 4 F.O. 371/16890, E 5541.

page 353 note 5 Zodo, Louka, The Kurdish Question and Racial Nationalities in Mesopotamia (in Arabic) (Beirut, 1969), p. 99.

page 354 note 1 Stafford, p. 179.

page 354 note 2 F.O. 371/16895, E 6394.

page 354 note 3 F.O. 371/16885, E 4688.

page 355 note 1 ‘The Assyrian Crisis’, Rendel, G. W., 17 August 1933: F.O. 371/16886.

page 355 note 2 F.O. 371/16884, E 4557.

page 356 note 1 F.O. 371/16884, E 4402, E 4429.

page 356 note 2 F.O. 371/16885, E 4613.

page 357 note 1 F.O. 371/16889, E 5257.

page 357 note 2 F.O. 371/16889, E 5374.

page 357 note 3 al-Rawi, Ibrahim, p. 161.

page 357 note 4 F.O. 371/17834, E 5122.

page 358 note 1 F.O. 371/16913, E 5184, E 6540.

page 358 note 2 F.O. 371/16886, E 4817.

page 358 note 3 F.O. 371/16889, E 5177.

page 358 note 4 F.O. 371/16888, E 5064.

page 358 note 5 F.O. 371/16889, E 5179.

page 359 note 1 F.O. 371/17871.

page 359 note 2 Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, vol. XX (10, 1933), p. 667.

page 360 note 1 Humphrys to Secretary of State for Colonies, Baghdad, 30 June 1930: E 3471.

page 360 note 2 Bell, Letters, p. 485. For the text of the petition, see Hassani, , Cabinets, vol. I, pp. 7780.

page 360 note 3 The Middle East and India, vol. XXXVIII, p. 143.

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International Journal of Middle East Studies
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