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This article deals with the origins, development, and popularity of boycott fatwas. Born of the marriage of Islamic politics and Islamic economics in an age of digital communications, these fatwas targeted American, Israeli, and Danish commodities between 2000 and 2006. Muftis representing both mainstream and, surprisingly, radical tendencies argued that jihad can be accomplished through nonviolent consumer boycotts. Their argument marks a significant development in the history of jihad doctrine because boycotts, construed as jihadi acts, do not belong to the commonplace categories of jihad as a “military” or a “spiritual” struggle. The article also demonstrates that boycott fatwas emerged, to a large degree, from below. New media, in particular interconnected computer networks, made it easier for laypersons to drive the juridical discourse. They did so before September 11 as well as, more insistently, afterward. Their consumer jihad had some economic impact on targeted multinationals, and it provoked corporate reactions.

Corresponding author
Leor Halevi is an Associate Professor in the Department of History, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.; e-mail:
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Author's note: Fellowships from the NEH and the ACLS helped to fund my research. I presented preliminary conclusions at an international conference, “Rethinking Jihad: Ideas, Politics and Conflict in the Arab World and Beyond,” organized by the Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World and held at the University of Edinburgh from 7 to 9 September 2009. I thank the editor of IJMES, four anonymous readers, and my colleague David Wasserstein for valuable comments on a draft.

1 Lubnan Tajammuʿ al-ʿUlamaʾ al-Muslimin fi, Muʾtamar ʿUlamaʾ al-Islam: Inqadh al-Quds wa-Nusrat al-Shaʿb al-Filastini: Taklif Sharʿi wa-Wajib Jihadi (Beirut: Tajammuʿ al-ʿUlamaʾ al-Muslimin fi Lubnan, 2003).

2 al-Islamiyya Majmaʿ al-Buhuth, al-Bayan al-Khitami li-l-Muʾtamar al-Thani ʿAshar li-Majmaʿ al-Buhuth al-Islamiyya bi-l-Azhar al-Sharif (Cairo: Majallat al-Azhar, 2002), 39.

3 Professional standards for historical research of online sources are still in flux. In the hope of ensuring, for scholarly purposes, continued access to electronic sources I have, wherever possible, cited archived web pages. The Internet Archive's Wayback Machine ( facilitated my historical investigations. I typically cite the earliest archived copy from an authoritative website. The first six numbers of the URL following represent the year, month, and day (yyyymmdd) when the web page was archived. In addition, between May 2009 and January 2011, I archived many web pages through WebCite® (, an instant archiving service designed for scholars. Except where otherwise indicated, all URL links were active on 30 June 2010.

4 On 9 June 2010, ranked traffic to,, and at 5,619, 8,678, and 25,489, respectively.

5 Knudsen Kjell, Aggarwal Praveen, and Maamoun Ahmed, “The Burden of Identity: Responding to Product Boycotts in the Middle East,” Journal of Business and Economics Research 6 (2008): 1725; Farah Maya F. and Newman Andrew J., “Exploring Consumer Boycott Intelligence Using a Socio-Cognitive Approach,” Journal of Business Research 63 (2010): 347–55.

6 See, for example, Muir J. Dapray, “The Boycott in International Law,” in Economic Coercion and the New International Economic Order, ed. Lillich Richard B. (Charlottesville, Va.: Michie Co., 1976), 2138; and Bisisu Fuʾad Hamdi et al. , “al-Muqataʿa al-ʿArabiyya li-Israʾil,” Shuʾun ʿArabiyya 42 (1975): 795.

7 Mersky Roy M., ed., Conference on Transnational Economic Boycotts and Coercion, vol. 2, Materials on the Arab Oil-Producing Nations Boycott (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publ., 1978), 114.

8 Siniora Hanna, “An Analysis of the Current Revolt,” Journal of Palestine Studies 17 (1988): 313.

9 See, for example, Levitt Matthew, Hamas: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad (New Haven, Ct.: Yale University Press, 2006), 5279; Weimann Gabriel, Terror on the Internet: The New Arena, the New Challenges (Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2006), 134–41; and Alshech E., “‘The Battle . . . Is Economic Rather than Military’—An Economically Oriented Concept of Jihad Emerges in Islamist Discourse,” The Middle East Media Research Institute's Inquiry and Analysis 387 (11 September 2007). Cf. Warde Ibrahim, The Price of Fear: The Truth Behind the Financial War on Terror (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2007).

10 Esposito John L., Islam: The Straight Path, rev. 3rd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 34, 93; Denny Frederick Mathewson, An Introduction to Islam, 3rd ed. (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006), 126.

11 Skovgaard-Petersen Jakob, “Fatwas in Print,” Culture & History 16 (1997): 7388; Messick Brinkley, “Media Muftis: Radio Fatwas in Yemen,” in Islamic Legal Interpretation: Muftis and Their Fatwas, ed. Masud Muhammad Khalid et al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 310–20; Gräf Bettina, Medien-Fatwas@Yusuf al-Qaradawi: Die Popularisierung des islamischen Rechts (Berlin: Schwarz, 2010). Also see Anderson Jon W., “The Internet and Islam's New Interpreters,” in New Media in the Muslim World: The Emerging Public Sphere, 2nd ed., ed. Eickelman Dale F. and Anderson Jon W. (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2003), 4560; and Mandaville Peter, Transnational Muslim Politics: Reimagining the Umma (London: Routledge, 2001), Chap. 5.

12 A flyer distributed in the Gulf best captured this proposition: “O Muslim,” it urged Pepsi drinkers, “you will not die for not buying Jewish products.” Source: “Gulf Arabs Call for Boycott of U.S. Goods,” Associated Press, 1 December 2000.

13 Dina Ezzat, “Boycott Israel? Not So Simple,” Al-Ahram Weekly 581, 11–17 April 2002; Orly Halpern, “Arab Boycott Largely Reduced to ‘Lip Service,’” Jerusalem Post, 28 February 2006.

14 U.S. Representative, “The Arab League (Boycott of Israel),” 2003 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, released 1 April 2003; Robert B. Zoellick, Washington Post, 20 September 2001, page A35.

15 Cf. Dalacoura Katerina, “Islamist Movements as Non-State Actors and Their Relevance to International Relations,” in Non-State Actors in World Politics, ed. Josselin Daphné and Wallace William (New York: Palgrave, 2001), 235–48.

16 “Palestinian Support Group Calls for Boycott of American, Israeli Products,” Associated Press, 22 September 2001.

17 “Saudi Defense Minister Calls for Boycotting Companies Dealing with Israel,”, 18 June 2001; “Jordan Warns Against Boycott of U.S. Goods,” Agence France Presse, 19 June 2002.

18 Nizar Al-Aly, “Politics-Morocco: Call to Boycott U.S. Products Gains Momentum,” Inter Press Service, 20 May 2002; Mohamed Ali Saeed, “Anti-Israeli, Anti-U.S. Protest in Sudan Draws 1.5 Million People,” Agence France Presse, 8 April 2002.

19 “Muslim States Reactivate Economic Boycott of Israel,” AFX News, 27 June 2002.

20 Omar Al-Zobidy, “Positive Approach Urged as US Goods Boycott Begins to Bite; Demand Drops 25% After Campaign,” Middle East Newsfile, 30 December 2000; Howard Schneider, “Arab Boycott Taking a Bite Out of U.S. Firms,” Washington Post, 5 February 2001; Lachlan Carmichael, “Arab Boycott Campaign Worries U.S. Business,” Agence France Presse, 30 April 2002; Omar Hasan, “Businesses in Saudi Arabia Feel Pinch of ‘Boycott U.S.’ Campaign,” Agence France Presse, 8 May 2002.

21 “U.S. Trade: The Big Chill,” MEED Weekly Special Report, 23 August 2002; Rawhi Abeidoh, “Popular Boycott Hits U.S. Exports to Saudi Arabia,” Reuters, 20 June 2002.

22 John Tagliabue, “They Choke on Coke, But Savor Mecca-Cola,” New York Times, 31 December 2002; Jon Fasman, “Freedom Coke: The Arab World's Foolish Boycott of American Food,”, 25 March 2003.

23 Moaddel Mansoor, “Shiʿi Political Discourse and Class Mobilization in the Tobacco Movement of 1890–1892,” in A Century of Revolution: Social Movements in Iran, ed. Foran John (Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press, 1994), 15.

24 Afary Janet, The Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1906–1911: Grassroots Democracy, Social Democracy, and the Origins of Feminism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), 204, 332.

25 Bamford P. C., Histories of the Non-Co-operation and Khilafat Movements (Delhi: Government of India, Home Department, Intelligence Bureau, 1925; reprinted in Delhi by Deep Publications, 1974), Appendix G, 251–55.

26 Uri Kupferschmidt M., The Supreme Muslim Council: Islam Under the British Mandate for Palestine (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1987), 208, 244–45.

27 Mitchell Richard P., The Society of the Muslim Brothers (London: Oxford University Press, 1969), 4950.

28 Gerges Fawaz A., The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 78. At the time, Islamic Jihad and Hamas urged Palestinians to stop buying “Jewish products.” See Legrain Jean-François, “Mobilisation islamiste et soulèvement palestinien, 1987–1988,” in Intellectuels et militants de l'Islam contemporain, ed. Kepel Gilles and Richard Yann (Paris: Seuil, 1990), 138, 146.

29 “Full text of Pakistani paper's ‘exclusive’ interview with Usama Bin-Ladin,” BBC Monitoring South Asia, 29 September 2001.

30 Usama Bin Ladin, “Iʿlan al-Jihad ʿala al-Amrikan al-Muhtallin li-Bilad al-Haramayn,” issued August–October 1996, published by Minbar al-Tawhid wa-l-Jihad, (accessed 25 June 2010, archived at

31 For an illustration of this influential argument, see the archived page of Shabakat al-Muqataʿa al-Shaʿbiyya at

32 Cf. Gerges, The Far Enemy, 3.

33 Baron Beth, Egypt as a Woman: Nationalism, Gender, and Politics (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2005), 48, 54, 121, 168–69, 176, 200–201; Fleischmann Ellen L., The Nation and Its “New” Women: The Palestinian Women's Movement, 1920–1948 (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2003), 120–21, 200–201.

34 al-Qaradawi Yusuf, “Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Israʾiliyya wa-l-Amrikiyya,” in Fatawa min ajl Filastin (Cairo: Maktabat Wahba, 2003), 6977. For an online version, see (accessed 29 June 2009, archived at

35 Al-Qaradawi, “Khitab al-Qaradawi fi Muʾtamar al-Shaʿbi fi al-Qahira li-Nusrat al-Shaʿb al-Filastini” 22 April 2002, (archived at

36 B. Gräf, Medien-Fatwas, 327, dates the earliest appearance of the fatwa on, where it was initially categorized as a statement (maqāl), to 22 May 2002. News reports indicate that al-Qaradawi called for a boycott of American and Israeli commodities in mid-April, at the al-Azhar conference.

37 “Egypt: Mufti calls for ‘resisting war and aggression,’” BBC Worldwide Monitoring, 14 October 2000. Syria's grand mufti at the time, Ahmad Kuftaru, called for a boycott as well, according to Joshua Brilliant and Saud Abu Ramadan, “U.S. Role in Mideast Peace Talks Fuzzy,” United Press International, 13 October 2000.

38 Nasir al-Asʿad, “Samaha al-ʿAllama al-Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah: Hiwar hawla al-Fatwa wa-l-Marjiʿiyya wa-Iran wa-l-Masʾala al-ʿIraqiyya,” al-Safir (Lebanon), 2 December 2002. Also see Hussein Dakroub, “Despite U.S. Boycott Call, Shiite Muslim Cleric Opposes Violence,” Associated Press Worldstream, 16 May 2002.

39 Fahmi Huwaydi, “Min Durus al-Hamla al-Urubiyya ʿala Nabi al-Islam,” al-Sharq al-Awsat, 8 February 2006.

40 In reference to a 5 February 2006 appearance in the al-Jazeera program “al-Shariʿa wa-l-Haya,” see “al-Qaradawi Yadʿu li-Ghadab ʿAqil,” (accessed 14 August 2009, archived at

41 Hamud bin ʿUqlaʾ al-Shuʿaybi, “al-Radd ʿala Man Afta bi-ʿAdam Jawaz Muqataʿat al-Yahud wa-l-Nasara,” Mawqiʿ Bin ʿUqlaʾ al-Shuʿaybi, 26 June 2001, (accessed 1 July 2009 but now blocked). The website Sayd al-Fawaʾid posted the piece under the title “Fatwa ʿala Taʾkid Muqataʿat Aʿdaʾ al-Islam,” (archived at

42 Al-Qaradawi, “al-Muqataʿa wa-l-Muʿamalat al-Tijariyya maʿa al-Aʿdaʾ,” 3 August 2006, (archived at An earlier edition of this fatwa, dated 1 March 2005, is no longer accessible.

43 Al-Qaradawi, “Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Israʾiliyya wa-l-Amrikiyya,” 71.

44 Sabahi Mujahid, “al-Qaradawi: Qatiʿu Badaʾiʿ Amrika wa-Israʾil,” 16 April 2002,–04/17/article09.shtml (archived at

45 Lajna Tahrir al-Fatwa bi-l-Mawqiʿ, “Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Amrikiyya wa-l-Yahudiyya,” 3 October 2001, (archived at The Muslim Brotherhood published this fatwa on its website on 7 October 2001; see (archived at IslamOnline reposted the original question, as well as the answers, on 1 April 2002 (fatwa no. 1122528610400, archived at, reincarnating an old fatwa without giving any indication of its previous existence.

46 Bonner Michael, Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practice (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2006), 12, 50, 100.

47 Shabaka Sahab al-Salafiyya, “Hukm Muqataʿat al-Muntajat al-Danmarkiyya li-Shaykh Salih al-Fawzan,” (accessed 2 June 2010, archived at The text transcribed apparently derives from minute 56:53 of a lecture, “Usul Talaqqi al-ʿIlm wa-Dawabituhu,” delivered in Riyadh's Turki Bin ʿAbdallah mosque, 9 February 2006.

48 On diverse tendencies within Salafism, see Wiktorowicz Quintan, “Anatomy of the Salafi Movement,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29 (2006): 207–39; and Meijer Roel, ed., Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009). Al-Shuʿaybi's disciples circulated his boycotting fatwas. See, for example, Muhammad Bin Ahmad al-Salim, “39 Wasila li-Khidmat al-Jihad wa-l-Musharaka fihi,” 18 July 2003, (archived at, no. 38. On this radicalized group, see Hegghammer Thomas, Jihad in Saudi Arabia: Violence and Pan-Islamism since 1979 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 97, 140, 148–55.

49 See Mujahid, “al-Qaradawi: Qatiʿu Badaʾiʿ Amrika wa-Israʾil.” For an earlier statement by Tantawi, see “Sheikh of al-Azhar Calls for Boycott on Products Favouring Israel,” Agence France Presse, 1 December 2000.

50 On the reform of al-Azhar that led to this split, see Zeghal Malika, “Religion and Politics in Egypt: The Ulema of Al-Azhar, Radical Islam, and the State (1952–94),” International Journal of Middle East Studies 31 (1999): 371–99.

51 Lynch Marc, “Islam Divided Between Salafi-jihad and the Ikhwan,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 33 (2010): 467–87.

52 Al-Jazeera, “al-Mahawir al-Asasiyya fi Khitab Bin Ladin,” 23 April 2006, (archived at

53 Faysal Mawlawi, “Fatawa hawla Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Amrikiyya wa-l-Sahyuniyya” (31 August 2002)

54 [Jamaʿat ʿUlamaʾ al-Sudan], “Fatwa bi-Wujub Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Amrikiyya wa-l-Israʾiliyya,” al-Markaz al-Filistini li-l-Iʿlam, in (archived at This fatwa seems to date from 2 June 2002. Source: “Sudan: Muslim Scholars Urge Boycott of U.S., Israeli Goods,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, Khartoum Monitor, 4 June 2002.

55 “Islamic Jurists Issue ‘Fatwa’ To Boycott Anglo-American Goods,” Press Trust of India, 20 October 2001.

56 Al-Shuʿaybi, “al-Muqataʿa,” 22 February 2001, (accessed 1 July 2009 and archived at, but now inaccessible due to the Roberts Exclusion Protocol. For slight variants of the tradition attributed to Anas ibn Malik, see al-Sijistani Abu Dawud, Sunan, vol. 2, no. 2504, ed. al-Hut Kamal Yusuf (Beirut: Dar al-Jinan, 1988), 13; and Hanbal Ahmad ibn, al-Musnad, 2nd ed., vol. 4, no. 12556 (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1994), 307.

57 Qurʾan 9:41 and 8:72; also see verses 9:44, 9:81, and 49:15.

58 Bonner, Jihad in Islamic History, 30–34, 51–53, 104, 173.

59 ʿAbdallah ʿAzzam, Ilhaq bi-l-Qafila (Peshawar, 1987), Section 3 and conclusion.

60 Takruri Nawwaf Hayil, al-Jihad bi-l-Mal fi Sabil Allah, 2nd ed., Silsila al-Binaʾ wa-l-Tarshid 31 (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 2005), 97100.

61 Mustafa Sitt Maryam Nassar (Abu Musʿab al-Suri), Daʿwat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya al-ʿAlamiyya, published online in December 2004 or January 2005. Given the length of the treatise (over 1,600 pages) and the lack of a standard edition, it is best to refer to subsections by title. See Pt. II, Section 8, Ch. 7, entitled “Nazariyyat al-Tamwil li-Saraya al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya al-ʿAlamiyya”; Part II, Section 8, Ch. 8, entitled “Nazariyyat al-Iʿlam wa-l-Tahrid,” under the subheading “al-Jihad bi-l-Mal.” What I cite here is a CD-ROM copy (publisher unknown) graciously given to me by Brynjar Lia, author of the book Architect of Global Jihad: The Life of al-Qaida Strategist Abu Musʿab al-Suri (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008).

62 For a virtual tour of Mecca Mall, located in Amman, visit (accessed 28 June 2010).

63 Al-ʿUlamaʾ al-Muslimin fi Lubnan, Muʾtamar ʿUlamaʾ al-Islam, 677–78.

64 Khalid bin ʿAbdallah al-Shamrani, “al-Muqataʿa al-Iqtisadiyya,” Mawqiʿ al-Muslim, 14 February 2006, (archived at

65 Hisham Ibn, al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, 3rd ed., vol. 1 (Beirut: Dar Ihyaʾ al-Turath al-ʿArabi, 2000), 388–89.

66 [Safwat Hijazi], “‘Surat al-Tawba’ wa-l-Dalil al-Sharʿi al-Awwal ʿala al-Muqataʿa,” Dar al-Ansar, (archived at

68 Yusuf al-Qaradawi, “Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Israʾiliyya wa-l-Amrikiyya.” For a classical narration, see al-Bukhari Muhammad ibn Ismaʿil, Sahih, vol. 5, no. 4372, ed. Khan Muhammad Muhsin (Riyadh: Dar al-Salam, 1997), 401402. On this embargo, see Donner Fred McGraw, “Mecca's Food Supplies and Muhammad's Boycott,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 20 (1977): 249–66.

69 For an audio recording of the interview with Shaykh Ahmad bin Hamad al-Khalili, see “Grand Mufti of Oman on the Ethics of Boycotting,” (created 1 June 2010). I archived the audio file at The interview, recorded with permission, took place in Muscat at the Iftaʾ Office on 1 February 2010. I thank Dr. Nasser Ahmed al-Azri, who initiated me into reading several Arabic websites, for presenting my questions to the Grand Mufti.

71 Faysal Mawlawi, “Fatawa hawla Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Amrikiyya wa-l-Sahyuniyya,” 31 August 2002, (archived at

72 Mawlawi, “Ayyuhuma Ula bi-l-Muqataʿa.”

73 Mawlawi, “Fatawa hawla Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Amrikiyya wa-l-Sahyuniyya.” Launched three months after this fatwa session, Mecca-Cola would boast on its website a gallery of fatwas endorsing its product; see (archived at

74 Husayn Shahata, “al-Muqataʿa al-Iqtisadiyya: Shubhat wa-Rudud,” 10 February 2007, (accessed 20 October 2009, archived at The website posted an earlier edition of the fatwa, in May 2006.

75 Al-Jazeera, “al-Darba al-Amrikiyya li-l-ʿIraq,” 20 December 1998. Transcript available at (archived at

76 Shabaka al-Muqataʿa al-Shaʿbiyya, “Fatwa al-Saʿudiyya Tuharrimu Tawzif al-Amrikan aw Shiraʾ Muntajatihim,” 11 November 2002, (archived at

77 Kevin Sullivan, “E-Mail, Blogs, Text Messages Propel Anger Over Images: In Hours, Rumors in Denmark Galvanize Opinion Elsewhere,” Washington Post, 9 February 2006, A14.

78 Ahmed Shokeir, “Hakawi Akhir al-Layl,” 29 January 2006, (accessed 14 August 2009, archived at

79 Facebook's Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Amrikiyya, “60 Tariqa Jadida fi Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Amrikiyya wa-Hulafaʾiha,” 5 January 2009, (accessed 13 August 2009); Shabakat Ana al-Muslim li-l-Hiwar al-Islami, “Hamla Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Siniyya li-Nusrat Ikhwanina al-Muslimina fi Gharbi al-Sin,” (accessed 4 June 2010; archived at

80 Experts on uṣūl al-fiqh readily acknowledge that fatwas are “rooted in real situations,” as Wael B. Hallaq remarks in Authority, Continuity and Change in Islamic Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 178. Yet the theoretical disquisitions on which they base themselves in no way reveal how mustaftis contribute to the development of Islamic legal thought.

81 Muhammad ʿAbd al-Karim, “Fatwa Mufassala hawla Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Amrikiyya wa-l-Israʾiliyya,” al-Shabaka al-Nisaʾiyya al-ʿAlamiyya, (archived at

83 See Ahmad Hafez, “Muslim Brotherhood Websites,” 13 December 2008, (no longer accessible but archived at

84 For the first snapshot of, see To get a sense of the website's history, see*/ (accessed 26 May 2010). For the demographic profile of readers, I used data provided by on 13 May 2009. Google Trends also provides an important indicator. By far most searches for the word muqāṭaʿa (boycott) occurred at the beginning of 2006, at the height of the boycott of Danish goods, and they largely originated in Riyadh, Jiddah, Amman, Cairo, Rabat, and Casa Blanca. Palestinians and Kuwaitis also googled the word with some frequency. Source:, consulted 30 June 2010.

85 Al-Qaradawi, “Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Israʾiliyya wa-l-Amrikiyya,” 76–77; Mawlawi, “Fatawa hawla Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Amrikiyya wa-l-Sahyuniyya”; al-Shamrani, “al-Muqataʿa al-Iqtisadiyya.”

86 Fuʾad ʿAli Mukhaymar, “Fatawa Fiqhiyya ʿAmma,” 21 October 2000, (archived at On Islamist thought on economic development, see Utvik Bjørn Ulav, Islamist Economics in Egypt: The Pious Road to Development (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 2006).

87 For a medieval example of this dynamic, see Halevi Leor, “Christian Impurity Versus Economic Necessity: A Fifteenth-Century Fatwa on European Paper,” Speculum 83 (2008): 917–45, at 944.

88 ʿAli Hattar, “Sin Jim fi Masʾala Muqataʿat al-Badaʾiʿ al-Amrikiyya,” published in three installments by For the first, see (archived at

89 Barber Benjamin R., Con$umed: How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2007), 210–11; Erik Kirschbaum (Reuters), “U.S. Goods Boycotted Over War: Consumer Fury Hits McDonald's, Coke, Whisky, and Beer,” Globe and Mail, 26 March 2003.

90 Lewis Bernard, The Political Language of Islam (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 72; Cook David, Understanding Jihad (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2005), 165–66.

91 Kehrer Michaela, “Transnational Consumer Goods Corporations in Egypt: Reaching Toward the Mass Market,” Research in Economic Anthropology 25 (2006): 151–72, at 162–63.

92 Starbucks, “Haqaʾiq ʿan ‘Starbaks Kafih’ fi al-Sharq al-Awsat,” released 31 March 2009, (accessed 24 June 2009 but no longer available). For an English translation, see (archived 24 June 2009).

94 Knudsen et al., “Burden of Identity,” 22–23; Tomi Soetjipto, “McDonald's Embraces Islam,” Toronto Star, 14 October 2001; William A. Orme, Jr., “A Grocer Amid Mideast Outrage; Sainsbury Becomes Target of Rumors and Israel Boycott,” New York Times, 25 January 2001.

95 Al-Lajna al-ʿAlamiyya li-Nusrat Khatim al-Anbiyaʾ, “al-Muʾtamar al-ʿAlami li-Nusrat al-Nabi Yusi bi-Inhaʾ al-Muqataʿa al-Shaʿbiyya ʿan Sharikat Arla al-Danmarkiyya,” 28 March 2006, (accessed 11 June 2010, archived at

96 El-Fadl Khaled Abou, “9/11 and the Muslim Transformation,” in September 11 in History: A Watershed Moment?, ed. Dudziak Mary L. (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2003), 7111, at 72.

97 Cf. Jackson Sherman A., “Jihad and the Modern World,” Journal of Islamic Law and Culture 7 (2002): 126, at 25.

98 Hatina Meir, “The ʿUlamaʾ and the Cult of Death in Palestine,” Israel Affairs 12 (2006): 2951.

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