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GOVERNANCE STRATEGIES AND REFUGEE RESPONSE: LEBANON IN THE FACE OF SYRIAN DISPLACEMENT

  • Tamirace Fakhoury (a1)
Abstract

This article discusses how the Lebanese state has responded to displacement from Syria (2011–17), and how the resulting policy formulation processes and discourses have constructed the relationship between the hosting state and the refugee. It focuses especially on how this small state has negotiated its politics of reception and choice of policy tools amid dysfunctional institutions and political disputes. To this end, it uses the lens of Lebanon's model of sectarian power sharing to understand the polity's response to mass displacement. This process has been structured by the defining dynamics of the country's politics of sectarianism: slack governance, an elite fractured model, and a politics of dependence on external and domestic nonstate actors. The Lebanese model offers broader insights into types of coping mechanisms that emerge in the context of forced migration, notably when a formal refugee regime is absent. The article contends that states lacking a legal asylum framework and grappling with various governance hurdles are likely to draw on the repertoire of their political regime to deal with displacement.

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NOTES

Author's note: The author is grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their input and comments.

1 Ibrahim Awad, “Refugees in the Euro-Mediterranean Space: Issues in International Cooperation in Burden Sharing” (paper presented at the workshop “Migration and Refugees in the Middle East: Recent Regional and International Challenges,” University of Jordan, 24–25 April 2016).

2 For an account of states’ and international organizations’ divergent approaches to migration governance in the context of the Syrian refugee issue, see Ostrand, Nicole, “The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Comparison of Responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States,” Journal on Migration and Human Security 3 (2015): 255–79; and Sarah Wolff, “Migration and Refugee Governance in the Mediterranean: Europe and International Organisations at a Crossroads” (working paper, Istituto Affari Internazionali, Rome, October 2015), accessed 21 April 2016, http://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaiwp1542.pdf.

3 Betts, Alexander, “The Normative Terrain of the Global Refugee Regime,” Ethics & International Affairs 29 (2015), accessed 10 February 2016, https://www.ethicsandinternationalaffairs.org/2015/the-normative-terrain-of-the-global-refugee-regime/.

4 Ibid. See also Hardin, Garrett, “Lifeboat Ethics: The Case Against Helping the Poor,” Bioscience 24 (1974): 561–68.

5 There are currently 1,017,433 Syrians registered as refugees by UNHCR in Lebanon. See UNHCR, “Syrian Regional Refugee Response,” accessed 23 January 2017, http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/country.php?id=122.

6 Agnes Favier, “Increasing Vulnerability for the Syrian Refugees in Lebanon: What's Next?” (policy brief 2016/03, Middle East Directions, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, Florence, Italy, December 2016), accessed 20 December 2016, http://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/44444.

7 For statements praising Lebanon's generosity and resilience, see United Nations Security Council (S/PRST/2015/10), “Statement by the President of the Security Council,” 24 April 2015, accessed 15 April 2016, http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/PRST/2015/10. See also European Commission, “Lebanon: Syria Crisis,” ECHO Factsheet, May 2016, accessed 15 April 2016, http://ec.europa.eu/echo/files/aid/countries/factsheets/lebanon_syrian_crisis_en.pdf.

8 Sally Abi Khalil, “Lebanon Looking Ahead in Times of Crisis: Taking Stock of the Present to Urgently Build Sustainable Options for the Future” (discussion paper, Oxfam International, Oxford, UK, December 2015), accessed 28 February 2016, https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/file_attachments/dp-lebanon-looking-ahead-time-crisis-141215-en_0.pdf.

9 Aranki, Dalia and Kalis, Olivia, “Limited Legal Status for Refugees from Syria in Lebanon,” Forced Migration Review 47 (2014), accessed 20 April 2016, http://www.fmreview.org/sites/fmr/files/FMRdownloads/en/syria/aranki-kalis.pdf. See also Filippo Dionigi, “The Syrian Refugee Crisis in Lebanon, State Fragility and Social Resilience” (working paper, Middle East Centre Paper Series, 15, Middle East Centre, London School of Economics, London, February 2016), accessed 1 March 2016, http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/65565/.

10 Aranki and Kalis “Limited Legal Status”; Maja Janmyr, “The Legal Status of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon” (working paper, Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs, Beirut, Lebanon, 2016), accessed 18 April 2016, https://www.aub.edu.lb/ifi/publications/Documents/working_papers/20160331_Maja_Janmyr.pdf.

11 Melani Cammett, “Political and Sectarian Dimensions of Welfare Provision in Lebanon,” Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, November 2015, accessed 19 April 2016, http://www.lcps-lebanon.org/featuredArticle.php?id=57.

12 Meo, Leila M. T., Lebanon: Improbable Nation (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1965).

13 Lijphart, Arend, Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1977).

14 For an account of Lebanon's governance mode, see Clark, Janine and Salloukh, Bassel, “Elite Strategies, Civil Society, and Sectarian Identities in Postwar Lebanon,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 45 (2013): 731–49; and Hermez, Sami, “On Dignity and Clientelism: Lebanon in the Context of the 2011 Arab Revolutions,” Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism 11 (2011): 527–37.

15 Stel, Nora, “Governance and Government in the Arab Spring Hybridity: Reflections from Lebanon,” Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice 6 (2014): 4969 .

16 Dekmejian, R. Hrair, “Consociational Democracy in Crisis: The Case of Lebanon,” Comparative Politics 10 (1978): 251–66; Hudson, Michael, “The Lebanese Crisis: The Limits of Consociational Democracy,” Journal of Palestine Studies 5 (1976): 109–22; Lijphart, Democracy in Plural Societies.

17 Salamey, Imad, The Government and Politics of Lebanon (New York: Routledge, 2013).

18 Oktav, Özden Zeynep and Çelikaksoy, Aycan, “The Syrian Refugee Challenge and Turkey's Quest for Normative Power in the Middle East,” International Journal: Canada's Journal of Global Policy Analysis 70 (2015): 408–20.

19 Salam Kawakibi, “Migration Circulaire des Syriens: Etat et Perspectives” (research project report, Consortium of Applied Research on International Migration Analytic and Synthetic Notes, 16, Circular Migration Series, Migration Policy Centre, European University Institute, Florence, Italy, 2008), accessed 15 April 2015, http://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/8337.

20 Harris, William, Faces of Lebanon: Sects, Wars, and Global Extensions (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener Publishers, 1997).

21 Nasrallah, Fida, “The Treaty of Brotherhood, Co-operation and Co-Ordination,” in State and Society in Syria and Lebanon, ed. Choueiri, Youssef M. (Exeter: University of Exeter, 1993). See also Salloukh, Bassel, “Syria and Lebanon: A Brotherhood Transformed,” Middle East Research and Information Project 236 (2005), accessed 21 April 2016, http://www.merip.org/mer/mer236/syria-lebanon-brotherhood-transformed.

22 See Majdoline Hatoum, “Jumblatt Slams Karami over Syria Remarks,” The Daily Star, 26 February 2005, accessed 23 January 2017, http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2005/Feb-26/4968-jumblatt-slams-karami-over-syria-remarks.ashx.

23 Salloukh, “Syria and Lebanon.”

24 For an account of the porous Lebanese–Syrian border and its implications for security in the wake of Syrian displacement, see Nicholas Blanford, “Case Study: The Lebanon–Syria Border” (paper presented at the conference “Rethinking International Relations after the Arab Revolutions,” Université Saint Joseph, Beirut, 16 April 2016), accessed 22 December 2016, http://www.isp.usj.edu.lb/pdf/lebanon-syria%20border-case%20study%20Nicholas%20Blandford.pdf.

25 See “Khalil: We Will Seek New Avenues to Pass Draft Budget,” The Daily Star Lebanon, 27 November 2014, accessed 16 March 2016, http://www.dailystar.com.lb/Business/Local/2014/Nov-27/279026-khalil-we-will-seek-new-avenues-to-pass-draftbudget.ashx.

26 Hugh Eakin, “Hezbollah's Refugee Problem,” The New York Review of Books, 12 August 2013, accessed 29 January 2017, http://www.nybooks.com/daily/2013/08/12/hezbollahs-humanitarian-game.

27 Nicolas Blanford, “Refugees in Northern Bekaa Rely on Local Hospitality for Survival,” The Daily Star, 16 March 2012, accessed 3 March 2013, http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Politics/2012/Mar-16/166848-refugees-in-northern-bekaa-rely-on-local-hospitality-forsurvival.ashx.

28 Patrick Maigua, “Syrian Refugee Population in Lebanon to Reach 1.5 million,” United Nations Multimedia, 18 March 2014, accessed 14 April 2016, http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/english/2014/03/syrian-refugee-in-lebanon-to-reach-1-5-million/.

29 UNDP official, interview with the author, Byblos, 22 January 2017.

30 Turner, Lewis, “Explaining the (Non-)Encampment of Syrian Refugees: Security, Class and the Labour Market in Lebanon and Jordan,” Mediterranean Politics 20 (2015): 386404 .

31 See, for instance, Laila Bassam and Tom Perry, “Exclusive: Lebanon Army Chief Sees Growing Risk from Syrian Camps,” Reuters, 26 November 2015, accessed 20 April 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-lebanon-security-idUSKBN0TF1PG20151126.

32 Favier, “Increasing Vulnerability,” 2.

33 See “Jumblatt Calls for Syrian Refugee Camp, Slams Stances of Russia and Iran,” The Daily Star, 17 July 2012, accessed 7 March 2015, http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2012/Jul-17/180864-jumblatt-calls-for-syrian-refugee-camps-in-lebanonslams-stances-of-russia-and-iran.ashx.

34 See, for instance, Simona Sikimic, “Syrian Refugees Receive Warm Border Welcome,” The Daily Star, 18 May 2011, accessed 7 March 2015, http://www.dailystar.com.lb//News/Lebanon-News/2011/May-18/138927-syrian-refugees-receive-warm-border-welcome.ashx.

35 Dionigi, “The Syrian Refugee Crisis.” See also Hwaida Saad, Anne Barnard, and Christine Hauser, “Hezbollah Chief Urges Lebanon to Help in Syrian Crisis,” The New York Times, 3 January 2013, accessed 7 March 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/04/world/middleeast/syria-hezbollah-lebanon-Nasrallah-.html.

36 The author has carried out informal conversations with Lebanese policy makers and citizens in Beirut from 2011 until 2016. See also Nadia Massih, “The New Lens: The Arsal Crisis is Reshaping how Lebanon Views the Refugee Influx, and What to Do about It,” Executive Magazine, 29 October 2014, accessed 20 April 2016, http://www.executive-magazine.com/economics-policy/refugee-the-new-lens.

37 Abi Khalil, “Lebanon Looking Ahead.”

38 See European Commission, “Lebanon: Syria Crisis.” See also World Bank, “Lebanon: Economic and Social Impact Assessment of the Syrian Conflict,” Policy Report, September 2013, accessed 21 April 2016, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/925271468089385165/Lebanon-Economic-and-social-impact-assessment-of-the-Syrian-conflict.

39 See Beirut Research and Innovation Center and Lebanese Center for Studies and Research, “Citizens’ Perceptions of Security Threats Stemming from the Syrian Refugee Presence in Lebanon,” International Alert background paper, February 2015, accessed 10 April 2016, http://www.international-alert.org/publications/citizens-perceptions-security-threats-stemming-syrian-refugee-presence.

40 Blanford, “Case Study: The Lebanon–Syria Border.”

41 Abi Khalil, “Lebanon Looking Ahead.”

42 Hassan Lakkis, “Bassil: Lebanon, Not UN, Sets Refugee Policies,” The Daily Star, 11 November 2014, accessed 7 March 2015, http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2014/Nov-11/277234-bassil-lebanon-not-un-sets-refugee-policies.ashx.

43 See “Salam Urges Resettlement of Syrian refugees,” The Daily Star, 28 October 2014, accessed 7 March 2015, http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2014/Oct-28/275615-lebanon-needs-strong-support-in-refugee-crisissalam.ashx.

44 See Morgan Winsor “New Visa Requirement for Syrians Entering Lebanon amid Worldwide Refugee Crisis,” International Business Times, 1 March 2015, accessed 8 March 2015, http://www.ibtimes.com/new-visa-requirement-syrians-entering-lebanon-amid-worldwide-refugee-crisis-1772680#.

45 For an account of the residency procedures, see Janmyr, “The Legal Status of Syrian Refugees,” 13–14.

46 See European Commission and High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, “Implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy in Lebanon Progress in 2014 and Recommendations for Actions,” Joint Staff Working Document, 25 March 2015, accessed 18 June 2016, http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/enp/pdf/2015/lebanon-enp-report-2015_en.pdf. See also Lebanon Support in Partnership with UNDP, “The Conflict Context in Beirut: The Social Question, Mobilisations Cycles, and the City's Securitisation” (report, Conflict Analysis Project, Lebanon Support, Beirut, November 2015), accessed 10 January 2017, http://dev.cskc.daleel-madani.org/resource/conflict-analysis-report-conflict-context-beirut-social-question-mobilisations-cycles-and.

47 See “Lebanon Army Detains 100 Syrians After Qaa Bombings,” BBC, 28 June 2016, accessed 15 December 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-36649779.

48 See Lebanon Support, “The Conflict Context in Beirut.”

49 Janmyr, “The Legal Status.” See also Lebanon Support, “Formal Informality, Brokering Mechanisms, and Illegality: The Impact of the Lebanese State's Policies on Syrian Refugees’ Daily Lives,” Research Report, September 2016, accessed 22 December 2016, http://civilsociety-centre.org/sites/default/files/resources/formal_informality-brokering_mechanisms-illegality-ls2016_0.pdf.

50 International Center for Human Sciences, Lebanese American University and International Alert, “Syrian Refugees’ Access to Formal and Informal Justice in Lebanon” (survey findings presented at the roundtable discussion on Syrian refugees’ access to justice in the framework of the project “Syrian Communities Justice Concerns” funded by a grant from WOTRO Science for Global Development, Lebanese American University, Beirut, 1 March 2016).

51 Lina Khatib, “Repercussions of the Syrian Refugee Crisis for Lebanon,” Carnegie Middle East Center, December 2014, accessed 20 March 2016, http://carnegie-mec.org/2014/12/10/repercussions-of-syrian-refugee-crisis-for-lebanon.

52 Miriam Younes, “Policy Measures, Coping Mechanisms and Coexistence: Social Challenges between the State, the Refugees and the Host Community” (paper presented at the conference “Lebanon and the Refugees and Displaced: Economic, Social and Security Challenges,” La Maison du Futur, Bikfaya, Lebanon, 30 March 2016).

53 Abi Khalil, “Lebanon Looking Ahead.”

54 Parliamentarian task forces have been urged to meet to review the legislation pertaining to the rights and obligations of displaced Syrians. See Karim El Mufti, “Official Response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis in Lebanon: The Disastrous Policy of No-Policy,” Dalil Madani, January 2014, accessed 18 April 2016, http://daleel-madani.org/story/official-response-syrian-refugee-crisis-lebanon-disastrous-policy-no-policy.

55 See “Hezbollah, FPM Boycott Cabinet Session,” NOW Lebanon, 14 January 2016, accessed 18 April 2016, https://now.mmedia.me/lb/en/NewsReports/566477-hezbollah-fpm-boycott-cabinet-session.

56 Annex to the identical letters dated 13 June 2012 from the Chargé d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Lebanon to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council, “Baabda Declaration Issued by the National Dialogue Committee on 11 June 2012,” United Nations General Assembly Security Council (A/66/849S/2012/477), 21 June 2012, accessed 18 April 2016, http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/Lebanon%20S%202012%20477.pdf.

57 “Lebanon Crisis Response Plan 2015–2016,” United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), 16 December 2014, accessed 8 April 2016, http://www.un.org.lb/library/assets/engbrochfullversion-065158.pdf.

58 Ibid, 3.

59 Author's informal conversations with government officials between 2014 and 2016. See also “Syrian Refugees Could Pose Terrorist Threat: Lebanon Minister,” The Daily Star, 25 November 2014, accessed 7 March 2015, http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2014/Nov-25/278880-syrian-refugees-could-pose-terrorist-threat-lebanonminister.ashx.

60 See European Commission and High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, “Implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy.”

61 Stel, “Governance and Government,” 58.

62 For an account of securitized political rhetoric and its effect on policy making, see Abrahamsen, Rita, “Blair's Africa: The Politics of Securitization and Fear,” Alternatives 30 (2005): 5580 .

63 Lebanese professor, interview with the author, Beirut, 15 December 2016.

64 See “Gemayel: Syrian Refugees Have Become Threat to Lebanon,” Naharnet, 15 April 2013, accessed 7 March 2015, http://www.naharnet.com/stories/en/79584.

65 Bernard Selwan El-Khoury, “Exclusive Interview with Leader of the ‘Lebanese Forces,’ Samir Geagea: ‘We Are the West's Bastion Against ISIS,’” Center for Oriental Strategic Monitoring (Cosmonitor), 14 June 2015, accessed 20 April 2016, http://www.cosmonitor.com/site/2015/06/14/interview-lebanese-forces-samir-geagea/. See also “Geagea Calls for ‘Safe Areas’ in Syria for Refugees,” NOW Lebanon, 6 October 2013, accessed 7 March 2015, https://now.mmedia.me/lb/en/archive/geagea-calls-for-safe-areas-in-syria-for-refugees.

66 See Yazab al-Saadi, “The Diversion Strategy: Lebanese Racism, Classism, and the Refugees,” Al-Akhbar, 10 June 2014, accessed 7 March 2015, http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/20121.

67 Dionigi, “The Syrian Refugee Crisis in Lebanon.” See also Eakin, “Hezbollah's Refugee Problem.”

68 Lebanese professor, interview with the author, Beirut, 15 December 2016; Lebanese journalist, interview with the author, Qornet Chehwane, Lebanon, 21 December 2016.

69 See “Syrian Refugees are a ‘Time Bomb’: Hezbollah MP,” The Daily Star, 14 February 2016, accessed 15 December 2016, http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2016/Feb-14/337163-syrian-refugees-are-a-time-bomb-hezbollah-mp.ashx.

70 Firas Abou-Mosleh, “Syrian Refugees in Lebanon Held Hostage by the Future Movement,” Al Akhbar, 2 June 2014, accessed 22 April 2016, http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/19996.

71 Lebanese policy makers’ roundtable at the conference “Lebanon and the Refugees and Displaced: Economic, Social and Security Challenges,” La Maison du Futur, Bikfaya, Lebanon, 30 March 2016.

72 See “FPM Defends Bassil Over Naturalization Remarks as Mustaqbal Slams ‘Fabrications,’” Naharnet, 29 March 2016, accessed 16 April 2016, http://www.naharnet.com/stories/en/205805. See also “Machnouk Represents Salam at Arab Banking Conference: No to Naturalizing Syrians,” National News Agency, 30 March 2016, accessed 16 April 2016, http://nna-leb.gov.lb/en/show-news/59224/Machnouk-represents-Salam-at-Arab-Banking-Conference-No-to-naturalizing-Syrians.

73 See Antoine Klimos, “La Ligue Maronite à Hollande: La protection du Modèle Libanais requiert le respect des equilibres démographiques,” L'Orient Le Jour, 16 April 2016, accessed 16 April 2016, http://www.lorientlejour.com/article/981190/la-ligue-maronite-a-hollande-la-protection-du-modele-libanais-requiert-le-respect-des-equilibres-demographiques.html.

74 See website of the Presidency of the Republic of Lebanon, “Inaugural Address of his Excellency General Michel Aoun President of the Republic of Lebanon,” 31 October 2016, accessed 22 December 2016, http://www.presidency.gov.lb/English/News/Pages/Details.aspx?nid=23771.

75 Policy makers’ discussion in the panel on “Reconstituting States and Societies: The Politics of the Refugee Crisis,” Carnegie Conference on “Seasons of Migration from the South: Refugees in a Changing World,” Beirut, 22–33 March 2016.

76 Annalisa Fedelino, “From Resilience to Inaction: Lebanon Must Fight for a Better Future,” Executive Magazine, 5 December 2014, accessed 15 March 2016, http://www.executive-magazine.com/economics-policy/resilience-inaction.

77 Sarah Bidinger, Aaron Lang, Danielle Hites, Yoana Kuzmova, Elena Noureddine, and Susan M. Akram, “Protecting Syrian Refugees: Laws, Policies, and Global Responsibility Sharing,” (research report, Boston University School of Law, July 2015, 33), accessed 14 March 2016, http://www.bu.edu/law/files/2015/07/FINALFullReport.pdf.

78 Nasser Chararah, “Hezbollah Plans Aid for Syrian Refugees,” Al Monitor, 17 December 2012, accessed 12 April 2016, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2012/al-monitor/lebanon-hezbollah-syrian-refugee.html#.

79 Rupen Das, “Humanitarianism in Highly Religious Contexts: Responding to Syrian Refugees in Lebanon,” Middle East Institute, 15 March 2016, accessed 20 March 2016, http://www.mei.edu/content/map/humanitarianism-highly-religious-contexts-responding-syrian-refugees-lebanon.

80 See, for instance, Amel Association International, “One Year of Humanitarian Action with Syrian Refugees,” Amel Emergency Response, April 2012–April 2013, accessed 24 January 2017, https://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/download.php?id=1891.

81 Mercy Corps senior consultant, interview with the author, Beirut, 15 March 2016.

82 Marianne Madoré, “The Peaceful Settlement of Syrian Refugees in the Eastern Suburbs of Beirut: Understanding the Causes of Social Stability,” Lebanon Support, March 2016, accessed 19 April 2016, http://dev.cskc.daleel-madani.org/edit-rac-paper-peaceful-settlement-syrian-refugees-eastern-suburbs-beirut-understanding-causes.

83 Nora Stel, “Mukhtars in the Middle: Connecting State, Citizens and Refugees,” Jadaliyya, 4 December 2015, accessed 15 December 2015, http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/23290/mukhtars-in-the-middle_connecting-state-citizens-a.

84 See Laurie A. Brand and Marc Lynch, “How the Refugee Crisis is Transforming the Middle East.” The Washington Post, 30 March 2017, accessed 17 June 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2017/03/30/how-the-refugee-crisis-is-transforming-the-middle-east/?utm_term=.c364be15aa4a.

85 Bidinger et al, “Protecting Syrian Refugees,” 3.

86 Hana A. El-Ghali, Nadine Ghalayini, and Ghida Ismail, “Responding to Crisis: Syrian Refugee Education in Lebanon,” AUB Policy Institute, March 2016, accessed 19 April 2016, https://www.aub.edu.lb/ifi/publications/Documents/policy_memos/2015-2016/20160406_responding_to_crisis.pdf.

87 Estella Carpi, “The Everyday Experience of Humanitarianism in Akkar Villages,” Lebanon Support, 24 March 2014, accessed 19 April 2016, http://daleel-madani.org/story/everyday-experience-humanitarianism-akkar-villages.

88 Das, “Humanitarianism in Highly Religious Contexts.”

89 Carmen Geha, “The Syrian Refugee Crisis and Lebanon's Endemic Deadlocks: Trading Reform for Resilience,” Middle East Institute, 17 March 2016, accessed 17 March 2016, http://www.mei.edu/content/map/syrian-refugee-crisis-and-lebanon%E2%80%99s-endemic-deadlocks-trading-reform-resilience.

90 UN Committee on Elimination of Racial Discrimination, “Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 9 of the Convention: Lebanon,” 31 August 2015, accessed 22 December 2016, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5790d78d4.html.

91 European External Action Service, “Managing the Refugee Crisis: EU Support to Lebanon,” 8 September 2016, accessed 15 December 2016, https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/8_lebanon_3pg.pdf.

92 Belloni, Roberto, “Civil Society in War-to-Democracy Transitions,” in From War to Democracy: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding, ed. Jarstad, Anna K. and Sisk, Timothy D. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

93 See Favier, “Increasing Vulnerability.”

94 Dalya Mitri, “Challenges of Aid Coordination in a Complex Crisis: An Overview of Funding Policies and Conditions Regarding Aid Provision to Syrian Refugees in Lebanon,” Lebanon Support, May 2014, accessed 15 March 2016, http://civilsociety-centre.org/paper/challenges-aid-coordination-complex-crisis.

95 Leila Zakharia and Sonya Knox, “The International Aid Community and Local Actors: Experiences and Testimonies from the Ground,” Lebanon Support, May 2014, accessed 19 April 2016, http://daleel-madani.org/story/international-aid-community-and-local-actors-experiences-and-testimonies-ground.

96 See “Gemayel Urges International Assistance for Syrian Refugees,” Now Media, 11 May 2013, accessed 15 March 2015, https://now.mmedia.me/lb/en/archive/gemayel-urges-international-assistance-for-syrian-refugees.

97 Cited in Hala Naufal, “Syrian Refugees in Lebanon: The Humanitarian Approach under Political Divisions,” Migration Policy Centre Research Report 13 (2012), accessed 15 March 2016, http://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/24835.

98 Panel discussion “Reconstituting States and Societies: The Politics of the Refugee Crisis” at the Carnegie Conference “Seasons of Migration from the South: Refugees in a Changing World,” Beirut, 22–23 March 2016; The Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, “Tackling the Refugee Crisis at the Local Level: Building Capacity and Strengthening Dialogue,” 22 April 2016, accessed 7 January 2017, http://www.lcps-lebanon.org/agendaArticle.php?id=62.

99 Lebanon Humanitarian INGO Forum, “Lebanon Considerations for the ‘Supporting Syria and the Region’ Conference,” Briefing Note for London Conference, February 2016, accessed 10 April 2016, https://www.bond.org.uk/sites/default/files/resource-documents/lhif_briefing_note_for_london_conference_1-feb-16_update.pdf.

100 Fakhoury, Tamirace, “Lebanon's Perilous Balancing Act,” Current History 114 (2015): 352 .

101 Eakin, “Hezbollah's Refugee Problem.”

102 Bidinger et al., “Protecting Syrian Refugees,” 30.

103 Abou-Mosleh, “Syrian Refugees in Lebanon.”

104 Hassan Lakis, “Mikati: March 14 Exploiting Refugee File,” The Daily Star, 11 November 2011, accessed 7 March 2015, http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Politics/2011/Nov-11/153722-mikati-march-14-exploiting-refugee-file.ashx.

105 Lebanese journalist, interview with the author, Qornet Chehwane, 21 December 2016.

106 Elzbieta Kaca, “European Neighborhood Policy Will Not Solve the Refugee Crisis,” The Polish Institute of International Affairs, October 2015, accessed 22 March 2016, https://www.pism.pl/publications/bulletin/no-93-825.

107 Simone Tholens, “Security Cooperation or Engineering the European Borderlands? Promoting EU Integrated Border Management in Lebanon” (paper presented at the British International Studies Association Annual Conference, Edinburgh, 15–17 June 2016).

108 For an account of how Jordan and Turkey have responded to Syrian displacement flows, see Luigi Achilli, “Syrian Refugees in Jordan: A Reality Check,” Migration Policy Center Policy Briefs, February 2015, accessed 22 April 2016, https://doi.org/10.2870/821248; and Oktav and Çelikaksoy, “The Syrian Refugee Challenge.”

109 Ahsan Ullah, A. K. M., Refugee Politics in the Middle East and North Africa: Human Rights, Safety and Identity (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).

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International Journal of Middle East Studies
  • ISSN: 0020-7438
  • EISSN: 1471-6380
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-middle-east-studies
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