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  • Jennifer Johnson Onyedum


This article explores the vitally important yet often neglected role of medicine and health care in the conduct of the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62). Using French, Swiss, and recently opened Algerian archival materials, it demonstrates how Algerian nationalists developed a health-service infrastructure that targeted the domestic and international arenas. It argues that they employed the powerful language of health and healing to legitimize their claims for national sovereignty and used medical organizations to win local support, obtain financial and material aid from abroad, and recast themselves as humanitarians to an increasingly sympathetic international audience. This research aims to situate Algerian efforts into a broader history of decolonization and humanitarianism and contributes to rethinking the process through which political claims were made at the end of empire.


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Jennifer Johnson Onyedum is an Assistant Professor in the History Department of The City College of New York, New York, N.Y.; e-mail:


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Author's note: I thank Frederick Cooper, James McDougall, Philip Nord, and Helen Tilley for encouraging me to pursue this project and for commenting on earlier versions of the work. I am grateful for generous grants from the Princeton University History Department, the Princeton University Center for Health and Wellbeing, and the American Institute for Maghrib Studies that made this research possible. I am indebted to my interviewees for sharing their stories and to Clifford Rosenberg and Muriam Haleh Davis for reading earlier drafts. My argument was strengthened by presentations at the Middle East Studies Association annual meeting, the American Institutue for Maghrib Studies Public Health Conference, Columbia University's Seminar on Contemporary Africa, and the helpful comments of four anonymous IJMES reviewers and the editors.

1 Centre d'Archives Outre Mer (hereafter CAOM) 81f 528, Ministre d’État chargé d'Affaires Algériennes, Croissant Rouge Algérien, “Aspets de la Revolution Algérienne,” n.d.

2 Amrith, Sunil, Decolonizing International Health: India and Southeast Asia, 1930–65 (New York: Palgrave, 2006), 10. Prakash, Gyan makes a similar argument in Another Reason: Science and the Imagination of Modern India (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999), chap. 5.

3 Important scholarship analyzing the international diplomatic dimensions of the Algerian conflict includes Connelly, Matthew, A Diplomatic Revolution: Algeria's Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002); Elsenhans, Hartmut, La guerre d'Algérie 1954–62: La transition d'une France à une autre, le passage de la IVème à la Vème République (Paris: Éditions Publisud, 1999); Westad, Odd Arne, The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007); and Byrne, Jeffrey James, Pilot Nation: Revolutionary Algeria in the Third World's Vanguard (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming). Algerian literature on the war tends to stress the significance of the international arena to the nationalists’ political strategy. See, for example, Harbi, Mohammed, Aux origines du FLN (Paris: Christian Bourgois, 1975); idem, Le FLN: Mirage et réalite (Paris: Éditions Jeune Afrique, 1980); idem, Les archives de la révolution algérienne (Paris: Éditions Jeune Afrique, 1981); idem and Meynier, Gilbert, Le FLN, documents en histoire, 1954–1962 (Paris: Fayard, 2004); Haroun, Ali, La 7ème wilaya. La guerre du FLN en France, 1954–1962 (Paris: Seuil, 1986); and Meynier, Gilbert, Histoire intérieure du FLN, 1954–1962 (Algiers: Éditions Casbah, 2003). For recent French scholarship emphasizing the significance of military and judiciary abuses, see Branche, Raphaëlle, La torture et l'armée pendant la guerre d'Algérie (Paris: Gallimard, 2001) and Thénault, Sylvie, Une drôle de justice: Magistrats dans la guerre d'Algérie (Paris: Éditions La Decouverte, 2001).

4 The global context of the war remains crucial to understanding how the FLN diplomatically defeated the French and forced them to leave in 1962. Matthew Connelly's work has shown the strategic significance of the Cold War to the Algerian war, including in the domain of public health. Connelly, Matthew, “The Cold War in the Longue Durée: Global Migration, Public Health, and Population Control,” Cambridge History of the Cold War; Endings, ed. Leffler, Melvyn P. and Westad, Odd Arne (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 466–88. This article addresses the internationalization of the Algerian war through health care, but the full role of the Cold War is beyond its scope.

5 The internal leadership, which included influential figures such as Abane Ramdane (ʿAban Ramadan) and Amar Ouamrane (ʿAmmar ʿUmran), focused its efforts on military action within Algeria. Ahmed Ben Bella and Hocine Aït Ahmed (Husayn Ait Ahmad) headed the external leadership from Cairo and concentrated on international political outreach. For further explanation of various nationalist factions, see Services Historiques de l'Armée de Terre (hereafter SHAT), 1H/2582 Armée de Libération Nationale (ALN), “La Génèse et l'evolution du FLN/ALN,” no date [1956]; Harbi, Le FLN: Mirage et réalité, 96–107, 115, 389; Carlier, Omar, Entre nation et jihad: Histoire sociale des radicalismes algériens (Paris: FNSP, 1995); Collot, Claude and Henry, Jean-Robert, eds., Le mouvement national algérien: Textes 1912–1954 (Paris: L'Harmattan, 1978); Haroun, La 7ème wilaya, 5–27; McDougall, James, History and the Culture of Nationalism in Algeria (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006); and Stora, Benjamin, Messali Hadj, pionnier du nationalisme algérien, 1898–1974 (Paris: L'Harmattan, 1988).

6 Harbi, Le FLN: Mirage et réalité, 170.

7 Ageron, Charles-Robert, Histoire de l'Algérie contemporaine: Tome II, de l'insurrection de 1871 au déclenchement de la guerre de libération (1954) (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1979), 538–40.

8 Wounded ALN soldiers were often forced to improvise and treat themselves and each other with only alcohol and mercurochrome. Commandant Azzedine, Si, On nous appelait fellaghas (Paris: Éditions Stock, 1976), 78; Teguia, Mohamed, L'armée de libération nationale en Wilaya IV (Algiers: Éditions Casbah, 2002), 71.

9 Amir, Mohammed Benaïssa, Contribution à l’étude de l'histoire de la santé en Algérie: Autour d'une expérience vecue en ALN Wilaya V (Algiers: Office des Publications Universitaires, 1986), 109.

10 “Actes de la Journée Commémorative du 19 mai 1956: Journée de l’étudiant,” Bulletin d'Information de la Faculté de Médecine d'Alger, 19 May 2007, 3.

12 Benkhaled, Ahmed, Chroniques médicales algériennes: Les années de braise (Algiers: Editions Houma, 2004), 24.

13 Khiati, Mostefa, Histoire de la médecine en Algérie (Algiers: Editions Anep, 2000), 28.

14 Meynier, Histoire intérieure du FLN, 497.

15 Djamel-Eddine, Bensalem, Voyez nos armes, voyez nos médecins: Chroniques de la Zone 1, Wilaya III (Algiers: Entreprise National du Livre, 1984), 1724. In 1956, the FLN divided Algeria into six wilāyāt or provinces for organizational purposes; they were Wilaya I (Aurès region), Wilaya II (North Constantine region), Wilaya III (Kabylia region), Wilaya IV (Algiers region), Wilaya V (Oran region), and Wilaya VI (Sahara and the surrounding area).

16 Interview, Jeanine Belkhodja, 25 March 2007, Algiers. Between 2007 and 2009, I conducted interviews in Algiers with seven Algerian physicians (six men and one woman) who practiced medicine during the war. Some names have been changed.

17 “ALN forme ses cadres: Des infirmiers d’élite,” El Moudjahid 2, 15 January 1959, 130–31.

18 The sixteen men in attendance were Youcef Zighoud (Yusuf Zighud), Lakhdar Ben Tobbal (Lakhdar bin Tubbal), Mustafa Benaouda (Mustafa bin ʿAwda), Brahim Mezhoudi (Brahim Mazhudi), ʿAli Kafi, Rouibah Hocine (Ruwibah Husayn), Krim Belkacem (Karim Balqasim), Said Mohammedi, Colonel Amirouche (ʿAmirush), Kaci Hamai (Qasi Hamai), Amar Ouamrane, Saddek Dehilès (Sadiq Dihilas), M'Hamed Bouguerre (Muhammad Bukir), Ali Mellah, Abane Ramdane, and Larbi Ben M'Hidi (al-ʿArabi bin Mhidi). Meynier, Histoire intérieure du FLN, 1954–1962, 191.

19 Benkhaled, Chroniques médicales algériennes, 34–37.

20 Amir, Contribution à l’étude de l'histoire de la santé en Algérie, 118–27.

21 SHAT/1H 1681/2, FLN Service de Santé and SHAT/2582/1, Armée de Libération National contain letters and reports seized by the French military during tactical operations and from the bodies of dead Algerian combatants that indicate a level of precision in reporting the number of sick and wounded. ALN service directives dictated rudimentary skills it expected medical personnel to perform and issued instructions for how this information was to be sent from sectors, regions, and zones. Apart from these two files and statements in some Algerian memoirs that such a medical hierarchy existed, there is little evidence to suggest that the FLN–ALN medical division was able to operate this efficiently.

22 Interview, Khalid Khatib, 10 June 2009, Algiers.

23 Interview, Mustafa ʿAmirush, 23 June 2009, Algiers.

24 Interview, Khalid Khatib, 10 June 2009, Algiers.

25 Amir, Contribution à l’étude de l'histoire de la santé en Algérie, 109.

26 SHAT/1H 1691/2, FLN Service de Santé, Organisation du service de santé rebelle, Letter from French Army General, Raoul Salan, to the inter army Superior Command, 10ème Région Militaire, 1 June 1957, Algiers.

27 Sufian, Sandra, Healing the Land and the Nation: Malaria and the Zionist Project in Palestine, 1920–1947 (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2007). Sufian's study focuses on Palestine under the British Mandate (1920–47) and argues that the anti-malaria campaigns supported by the Zionist movement were a deliberate effort to reshape both the physical bodies of Jews and the physical landscape of the land.

28 SHAT/1H 1691/2, FLN Service de Santé, Organisation du service de santé rebelle, FLN–ALN service notice from zone 1 captain, Mr. Lakhdar, 8 December 1956, Wilaya IV.

29 SHAT/1H 1691/D2, FLN Service de Santé, Organisation du service de santé rebelle, 1957–1960, Report on social conditions written by ALN medical assistant in Wilaya IV, Zone 1, 7 February 1957.

30 SHAT/1H 2582/1, Armée de Libération, October 1956 Monthly report, Wilaya IV, no author.

31 Djamel-Eddine, Voyez nos armes, voyez nos médecins, 97.

32 Ibid., 98–99.

33 Historians of medicine have made similar arguments about Egypt and Zambia. See Shakry, Omnia El, The Great Social Laboratory: Subjects of Knowledge in Colonial and Postcolonial Egypt (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2007), 6, 17; and Ferguson, James, Expectations of Modernity: Myths and Meanings of Urban Life on the Zambian Copperbelt (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1999).

34 Meynier, Histoire intérieure du FLN, 497.

35 “Une promotion d'infirmières algériennes au Caire,” El Moudjahid 2, 8 December 1958, 98.

36 “Actualité et point to repère: Des blessés de l'ALN partent pour l'USSR et la Tchecoslovaquie,” El Moudjahid 2, 31 August 1959, 441; “Le Litva emporte nos blessés vers Odessa,” El Moudjahid 3, 73, and 24 November 1960, 319; “Actualité: Pour nos blessés,” El Moudjahid 3, 15 April 1961, 459.

37 Interview, Jeanine Belkhodja, 25 March 2007, Algiers.

38 “Actualité et point de repère,” 441.

39 Connelly, A Diplomatic Revolution; Westad, The Global Cold War.

40 “What is the ICRC's relationship with national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies?” (accessed 15 June 2012). Histories of the organization include Berry, Nicholas, War and the Red Cross: The Unspoken Mission (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997); Forsythe, David, The Humanitarians: The International Committee of the Red Cross (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005); and Ian Reid, The Evolution of the Red Cross (Geneva: Henry Dunant Institute, 1975).

41 CAOM/GGA/1K/678, French Red Cross reports, 1942–1957.

42 Archives Nationales d'Algérie (hereafter ANA) GPRA/78(i), “Plan du Travail du CRA établi à l'Intérieur de CCE,” Internal Algerian Red Crescent signed by Hadj Omar Boukli-Hacène, CRA President, Comité Centrale, Tunis, 26 September 1957.

43 CAOM/GGA/81F/1650, Aide médicale et sociale, Report on the “Conventions entre Délégation Régionale des Amitiés Africaines en Algérie et la Délégation Générale de la Croix-Rouge Française en Algérie,” 1953.

44 CAOM/GGA/1K/678, French Red Cross reports, 1942–57, Letter from the Prefect, Cabinet Director, Jacques Pernet, to the Algiers Prefecture, 21 April 1956, Algiers.

45 Archives de la Croix-Rouge Française (hereafter CRF), Rapports sur les activités de la Croix-Rouge Française en Algérie, 1954, 1955.

46 Vie et Bonté, Organe Officiel de la Croix-Rouge Française, no. 69, September-October 1955, 16–17.

47 CAOM/GGA/12CAB/150, Rapports sur les activités de la Croix-Rouge Française en Algérie, 1956, and CRF, Rapports sur les activités de la Croix-Rouge Française en Algérie, 1957.

48 CRF, Rapports sur les activités de la Croix-Rouge Française en Algérie, 1957.

49 CRF, Rapports sur les activités de la Croix-Rouge Française en Algérie, 1957 and 1958.

50 These news sources repeatedly published articles about CRF visits to French military and civilian hospitals. Often CRF nurses would pose alongside injured French soldiers, and the caption would describe the rejuvenating nature of their visits. Around Christmas, the CRF made an extra effort to visit hospitals around the country and hand out gifts to the French soldiers.

51 Makaci, Mustapha, Le Croissant Rouge Algérien (Algiers: Éditions Alpha, 2007), 82. This work draws on the author's experiences and on notes he took in the late 1950s and includes an annex with invaluable CRA documents, correspondence, and pictures from the war years.

52 Ibid., 82–83.

53 ANA/GPRA/78(i), “Plan du Travail du CRA établi à l'Intérieur de CCE.”

54 Algerian leaders in Tetouan, Morocco first contacted Boumediène Bensmaine and pharmacist Merad Abdellah (Murad ʿAbdallah) to compile a report entitled “The Algerian Red Crescent Organization.” This organization was modeled on the Tunisian Red Crescent. Benatia, Farouk, Les actions humanitaires pendant la lutte de libération (Algiers: Éditions Dahlab, 1997), 80.

55 Makaci, Le Croissant Rouge Algérien, 84.

56 International Committee of the Red Cross Archives (hereafter ICRC) BAG/210/008/001, Prisonniers français en mains rebelles, 1956–57, Report from ICRC representative, Pierre Gaillard, regarding his meeting with CRA representative and Geneva delegate, Dr. Bentami, Geneva, 15 October 1957.

57 El-Shakry, The Great Social Laboratory, 14. Frederick Cooper has shown how African laborers made effective claims by seizing “the new discourse of [French and British] administrators and [turning] assertions of control into demands for entitlements: if colonial officials wanted Africans to work like their idealized European workers, they should pay them on a similar scale and bargain with them in good faith.” Cooper, Frederick, Decolonization and African Society: The Labor Question in French and British Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 3.

58 Benatia, Les actions humanitaires pendant la lutte de libération, 255.

59 Ibid., 80. Morocco and Tunisia had already established emergency care committees in early 1957 to assist the massive influx of Algerian refugees into their respective territories. However, the committees’ funds were insufficient to meet the level of care and assistance the refugees required. ANA/GPRA/78(h), Rapport Général d'Activité du CRA, Cairo, 1957.

60 The international political dimension is also outlined in an early CRA work plan written by unnamed CCE members in 1957. ANA/GPRA/78(i), “Plan du Travail du CRA établi à l'Intérieur de CCE.”

61 Makaci, Le Croissant Rouge Algérien, 82.

62 ANA/GPRA/78(h), Rapport Général d'Activité du CRA, Cairo, 1957.

64 Benatia, Les actions humanitaires pendant la lutte de libération, 81.

65 Quoted in ibid., 265.

66 ICRC/BAG/210/008/003, Confidential report on the Algerian Red Crescent written by Claude Pilloud, Rabat, 18 March 1957.

68 Husayn Ait Ahmad, Rabah Bitat, Muhammad Khidir, and Muhammad Budiyaf.

69 See Alleg, Henri, La question (Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1958); Branche, La torture et l'armée pendant la guerre d'Algérie; and Lazreg, Marnia, Torture and the Twilight of Empire: From Algiers to Baghdad (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008).

70 Connelly, A Diplomatic Revolution, 4.

71 McDougall, James, “Savage Wars? Codes of Violence in Algeria, 1830s–1990s,” Third World Quarterly 26 (2005): 117. These caricatures of violence persisted through the 1990s and were invoked to explain the civil conflict in Algeria. See Roberts, Hugh, The Battlefield, Algeria, 1988–2002: Studies in a Broken Polity (London: Verso, 2003).

72 France-Soir, 12 May 1958, quoted in Thénault, L'histoire de la guerre d'indépendance algérienne, 160, see also 88.

73 Quoted in Alistair Horne, A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954–1962 (New York: New York Review of Books, 2006), 330.

74 Henry Alleg's 1958 publication of La question provided concrete evidence of French torture. Other personal accounts and observations of torture and general prison experiences in Algeria were published often in Le Monde and Libération from 1958 to 1960. One example is Dénis Berger's retelling of an encounter he had with an Algerian while detained. The Algerian prisoner told him he had been tortured with electricity, and Berger says he saw the long, thin scars covering the man's body. “Un nouveau témoignage sur ‘La Gangrène,’” Le Monde, 12 December 1959. For other accounts of torture, see Belkhodja, Amar, L'affaire Hamdani Adda (Tiaret, Algeria: Éditions Mekkloufi, n.d.); Branche, La torture et l'armée pendant la guerre d'Algérie; Einaudi, Jean-Luc, La ferme Améziane. Enquête sur un centre de torture pendant la guerre d'Algérie (Paris: L'Harmattan, 1991); Sylvie Thénault, Une drôle de justice; Vidal-Naquet, Pierre, La torture dans la République (Paris: Minuit, 1972); and Maran, Rita, Torture: The Role of Ideology in the French–Algerian War (New York: Praeger, 1989). Aussaresses, Général, Services Spéciaux: Algérie, 1955–1957 (Paris: Perrin, 2001) confirms many of the earlier accounts about torture.

75 International Red Cross Handbook (Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross, 1983), 551.

76 ICRC/BAG/210/008/001, Prisonniers en mains rebelles, 1956–57, Report by ICRC representative, I. Zreikat regarding a meeting with CRA delegate, Dr. Bentami, 14 June 1957, Geneva, ICRC/BAG/210/008/001, Prisonniers français en mains rebelles, 1956–57, Report by ICRC representative Pierre Gaillard regarding a meeting with CRA representative, Dr. Bentami, 10 July 1957, Geneva.

77 ANA/GPRA/83(5), “Libération de prisonniers français par l'ALN 1958,” Official notice from Ferhat Abbas, GPRA President, 14 October 1958, Cairo.

79 ANA/GPRA/83(5), “Libération de prisonniers français par l'ALN 1958,” letter written by “Nadir” who worked for the Minister of External Affairs, 1 December 1958, Cairo, Emphasis added.

81 The prisoners were Vincent Morales, Jacques Reléa, Jean Jacob, and Jean Vialaron.

82 Le Monde reported the release of these four French prisoners in the 19–20 October 1958 edition with an article titled “Le FLN annonce comme imminente la libération d'un groupe de prisonniers français: Deux délegués de la Croix-Rouge attendus à Tunis.” It published a follow-up front page story on 21 October 1958 titled “Libérés par le FLN à Tunis: Quatres prisonniers français sont attendus se soir à Paris.”

83 “Pour le respect des lois de la guerre,” El Moudjahid, 1 November 1958, 15. This article is accompanied by a picture of smiling French soldiers at the press conference.

84 Harbi, Le FLN: Mirage et réalite, 182–84, and Horne, A Savage War of Peace, 222.

85 ANA/GPRA/17(a), “Communiqué du M. I. Sous le titre: Libération des six prisonniers français par Amirouche,” Cairo, 9 November 1958.

86 ANA/GPRA/83(5), “Libération de prisonniers français par l'ALN, 1958,” Note from External Affairs representative, “Nadir,” 1 December 1958, Cairo.

87 “Premier Décret du Gouvernement Provisoire de la République Algérienne,” El Moudjahid 2, 10 October 1958, 15.

88 Bourdieu, Pierre and Sayad, Abdelmalek, Le déracinement: La crise de l'agriculture traditionnelle en Algérie (Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1964), 13; Sutton, Keith, “Army Administration Tensions over Algeria's Centres de Regroupement, 1954–1962,” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 26 (1999): 257. Sylvie Thénault estimates that nearly 400,000 Algerians lived in regroupement centers by early 1958. Thénault, Histoire de la guerre d'indépendance algérienne, 99. Also see Cornaton, Michael, Les camps de la guerre d'Algérie (Paris: Harmattan, 1998); Sutton, Keith, “Population Resettlement—Traumatic Upheavals and the Algerian Experience,” Journal of Modern African Studies 15 (1977): 279300; and idem, “Algeria's Socialist Villages—A Reassessment,” Journal of Modern African Studies 22 (1984): 223–48.

89 CAOM/81f/528, Algerian Red Crescent Pamphlet, exact date unknown but likely published after spring 1959.

90 ANA/GPRA/78(j), Croissant Rouge Algérien, 1958–1962, “Appel du CRA aux pays Arabes,” letter from Minister of Social Affairs, M. Benkhedda, to Minister of External Affairs, 10 November 1958.

91 ANA/GPRA/78(d), Croissant Rouge Algérien, 1958–1962, “Besoins des Réfugiés Algériens,” letter from Libyan Red Crescent, n.d. [late 1958].

92 ICRC/BAG/280/008/002, Secours demandés par le CRA, CICR, 1957–1963, Letter from ICRC representative, Pierre Gaillard, to ICRC delegate, de Traz, 23 January 1958, Geneva.

93 Makaci, Le Croissant Rouge Algérien, 163.

94 ANA/GPRA/98(a), Croissant Rouge Algérien, 1960–1961, Report on “Dons en nature reçus au CRA pendant la première quinzaine du mois janvier, 1961.”

95 ANA/GPRA/53(3), Croissant Rouge Algérien, Letter to the Minister of External Affairs regarding donations for refugees, 1 October 1959, Cairo.

96 ANA/GPRA/34, “Éxpédition de médicaments de Beyrouth, 1961,” Note d'Ait Chaalal, chef de la mission diplomatique au Liban, adressé au Ministre des Affaires extérieures au Caire, portant l'expédition des médicaments au profit du CRA, 5 June 1961, Beirut.

97 Makaci, Le Croissant Rouge Algérien, 163.

98 ANA/GPRA/107, Mission de Lakhal (CRA) en Turquie, 1961, Compte rendu de la mission de Mostapha LAKHAL vice président du CRA relatif à son voyage effectue en Turquie, 1961, Ankara, 3 September 1961.

99 ANA/GPRA/53(1c), MAE/MAS, Telegram from the Minister of External Affairs to CRA delegate in Rabat, 19 September 1959.

100 ICRC/BAG/280/008/002, “Secours demandés par le CRA, 1957–1963,” Letter from ICRC delegate in Tunisia, J. P. Robert-Tissot, to the Director of the Assistance Bureau, Edward Windhall, 15 February 1958.

101 SHAT/1H 1755/1, Croissant Rouge Algérien, French report on CRA activity, 18 March 1958.

102 See Benatia, Les actions humanitaires pendant la lutte de libération.

103 ANA/GPRA/98(a), CRA report, “Dons en Nature Reçus par le Croissant Rouge Algérien pendant la première quinzaine du mois de Novembre 1960.”

104 ANA/GPRA/78(m), Correspondance émanant du Croisant Rouge Algérien, 1959–1962, Letter from CRA President, Benbahmed to the President of the National Committee, U.N. Dhebar, 11 January 1961, Tunis.

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