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THE LOCATION OF PALESTINE IN GLOBAL COUNTERINSURGENCIES

  • Laleh Khalili
Extract

I begin with a pair of narratives:

[Jenin] itself showed signs of the Government's wrath. It was in a shocking state, having the appearance of a front-line town in a modern war. Huge gaps were visible between the blocks of buildings and houses, while piles of rubble lay across the streets. . . . Many men had been arrested and detained, while many buildings, including shops and offices, had been demolished as a punitive measure by the military.

On the fourth day, they managed to enter [the Jenin camp] because . . . this giant tank could simply run over booby traps, especially since they were very primitive booby traps. Once the army took over our street, they started shooting missiles from the air. On the fifth day they started shelling homes. A large number of people were killed or wounded. My neighbour's home was blown up by missiles . . . Close to us was a group of [detained] young men. They were handcuffed, naked, and lying on their stomachs . . . They would take each one of us and force us onto the ground, stomping on our backs and heads. One soldier would put his machine gun right on your head, and the other would tie you up.

The first narrative dates from 1939, when the British finally suppressed the Arab Revolt; the second is from the Israeli counterinsurgency against Palestinians during the second intifada in 2002. What is striking about the two narratives is not only the similarity of “control” measures and the targeting of politically mobilized towns and villages across time but also the persistence of these techniques across different administrative/colonial systems. Further, these practices—house demolitions, detention of all men of a certain age, and the targeting of civilian spaces and populations—are familiar from other counterinsurgency contexts, whether British and French colonial wars in the 20th century or the 21st-century wars of the United States in Iraq and Afghanistan.

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Corresponding author
Laleh Khalili is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Politics and International Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, London, U.K.; e-mail: lk4@soas.ac.uk
References
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NOTES

Author's Note: I thank the British Academy, the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation, and the School of Oriental and African Studies' research funds for generously providing necessary financial support for the research undertaken here. I am also sincerely grateful for the perceptive and thoughtful critiques of the four anonymous IJMES reviewers; for the questions and commentary by Beth Baron and Sara Pursley of IJMES; and to Ruth Blakeley, John Chalcraft, Rob Dover, Lisa Hajjar, Dan Neep, Sayres Rudy, Ted Swedenburg, and Lynn Welchman for their very useful comments and critiques, which even if I did not incorporate here, I hope to do so in the larger book project, of which this is a small part.

1 Martin, Robin H., Palestine Betrayed: A British Palestine Policeman's Memoirs (1936–1948) (Ringwood, U.K.: Seglawi Press, 2007), 89.

2 Nael Ammar quoted in Baroud, Ramzy, Searching Jenin: Eyewitness Accounts of the Israeli Invasion (Seattle, Wash.: Cune Press, 2003), 7779.

3 British counterinsurgency campaigns include the Boer War (1899–1902), Ireland (1919–21), Malaya (1948–60), Kenya (1952–60), Cyprus (1955–58), Aden (1960–67), and Northern Ireland (1969 onward). Newsinger, John, British Counter-Insurgency from Palestine to Northern Ireland (London: Palgrave, 2002).

4 Cooper, Frederick and Stoler, Ann Laura, eds., Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1997); Go, Julian and Foster, Anne, eds., The American Colonial State in the Philippines: Global Perspectives (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2003); Hall, Catherine and Rose, Sonya O., At Home with the Empire: Metropolitan Culture and the Imperial World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006); Kaplan, Amy, The Anarchy of Empire in the Making of U.S. Culture (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002); Mitchell, Timothy, Colonising Egypt (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); Rabinow, Paul, French Modern: Norms and Forms of the Social Environment (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989).

5 Brogden, Mike, “The Emergence of the Police: The Colonial Dimension,” British Journal of Criminology 27 (1987): 414; Sinclair, Georgina and Williams, Chris A., “‘Home and Away’: The Cross-Fertilization between ‘Colonial’ and ‘British’ Policing, 1921–85,” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 35 (2007): 221–38; Sinclair, Georgina, At the End of the Line: Colonial Police Forces and the Imperial Endgame, 1945–1980 (Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 2006); idem, “‘Get into a Crack Force and Earn £20 a Month and All Found . . .’: The Influence of the Palestine Police upon Colonial Policing 1922–1948,” European Review of History—Revue européenne d'histoire 13 (2006): 49–65.

6 Sodhi, G. S. and Kaur, Jasjeet, “The Forgotten Indian Pioneers of Fingerprint Science,” Current Science 88 (2005): 185.

7 Headrick, Daniel, “The Tools of Imperialism: Technology and the Expansion of European Colonial Empires in the Nineteenth Century,” Journal of Modern History 51 (1979): 256.

8 Go and Foster, eds., “Introduction,” in American Colonial State, 20–21. Also, Kramer, Paul, “Empires, Exceptions, and Anglo-Saxons: Race and Rule between the British and United States Empires, 1880–1910,” Journal of American History 88 (2002): 1315–53.

9 See annex to Philippine Commission (Schurman), “Report of the Philippine Commission to the President,” 56th Congress, 1st session, Senate Document 138 (31 January 1900).

10 Bentink, Marc, NATO's Out-of-Area Problem (London: IISS, Adelphi Series 211, 1986); Jasse, Richard L., “The Baghdad Pact: Cold War or Colonialism?Middle Eastern Studies 27 (1991): 140–56; McKnight, David, “Western Intelligence and SEATO's War on Subversion, 1956–63,” Intelligence and National Security 20 (2005): 288303.

11 Tung, Mao Tse, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Griffith, Samuel B. (Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 2000 [1937]), 93.

12 Downes, Alexander B., Targeting Civilians in War (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2008), 156–77; Kalyvas, Stathis, The Logic of Violence in Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 111–45. Nagl, Also John, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005); and Kilcullen, David, The Accidental Guerrilla: Fighting Small Wars in the Midst of a Big One (London: Hurst & Co., 2009).

13 Avant, Deborah, Political Institutions and Military Change: Lessons from Peripheral Wars (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1994).

14 CO 733/434/7, UK National Archives, Kew, London (hereafter UKNA).

15 CO 733/434/6, UKNA; Duff, Douglas V., Bailing with a Teaspoon (London: John Long Ltd., 1953), 168; Keith-Roach, Edward, Pasha of Jerusalem: Memoirs of a District Commissioner under the British Mandate (London: Radcliffe Press, 1994), 191.

16 Lambert, David and Lester, Alan, eds., Colonial Lives across the British Empire: Imperial Careering in the Long Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

17 On Tegart, see Segev, Tom, One Palestine Complete: Jews and Arabs under the British Mandate, trans. Watzman, Haim (London: Metropolitan Books, 2000), 428; CO 733/383/3, UKNA; and K. F. Tegart, “Charles Tegart: Memoir of an Indian Police Officer,” MSS Eur c.235, European Manuscripts, India Office Records, British Library. On Spicer, Bowden, Tom, The Breakdown of Public Security: The Case of Ireland 1916–1921 and Palestine 1936–1939 (London: Sage Publications, 1977), 229–30. On Dowbiggin, Eldad Harouvi, The Criminal Investigation Department of the Palestine Police Force, 1920–1948 (PhD diss., Haifa University, 2002) and Sinclair “‘Get into a Crack Force . . .’.” On Perrott, “Letter from A. F. Perrott,” O'Connor Files 3/2, Liddell–Hart Centre for Military Archives, Kings College London (hereafter LHCMA).

18 Robinson, J. B. Perry, Transformation in Malaya (London: Secker and Warburg, 1956), 128; Short, Anthony, The Communist Insurrection in Malaya 1948–1960 (London: Frederick Muller Ltd., 1975), 225, 268. Sinclair, At the End of the Line, 117.

19 Bierman, John and Smith, Colin, Fire in the Night: Wingate of Burma, Ethiopia and Zion (London: Pan Books, 1999).

20 Halliday, Fred, Mercenaries: “Counter-Insurgency” in the Gulf (London: Spokesman, 1979).

21 Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin, The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and Why (London: I. B. Tauris, 1987); Hunter, Jane, Israeli Foreign Policy: South Africa and Central America (Boston: South End Press, 1987); Yan, Captain Cimon, “Private Military Companies as Agents for the Transfer of Military Know-How: A Model,” The [Canadian] Army Doctrine and Training Bulletin 3 (2000): 1825.

22 Beit-Hallahmi, The Israeli Connection; Hunter, Israeli Foreign Policy.

23 Crosbie, Sylvia K., A Tacit Alliance: France and Israel from Suez to the Six Day War (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1974), 107.

24 Beit-Hallahmi, The Israeli Connection, 45.

25 “Israel Trains U.S. Troops on Iraq Tactics,” Jane's Foreign Report (27 November 2003); Chris McGreal, “Lessons from Jenin: What Israel Told Marines about Urban War,” The Guardian (2 April 2003).

26 Teveth, Shabtai, Moshe Dayan (London: Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1972), 316–17.

28 In 2005, the Palestinian Authority also obtained observer status at NATO. “Israel Becomes Member of NATO Assembly, PA Becomes Observer,” Jerusalem Post (31 May 2005); Yaakov Katz, “Israel Moves Closer to NATO Missions,” Jerusalem Post (25 June 2007).

29 Sinclair, At the End of the Line, 115–17.

30 Ben-Gurion, David, “Britain's Contribution to Arming the Haganah,” Jewish Observer and Middle East Review 12 (1936): 1214.

31 Dan Ram 21699/3, Imperial War Museum, London (hereafter IWM) Sound Archives; Ben-Gurion, David, “Our Friend: What Wingate Did for Us,” Jewish Observer and Middle East Review 12 (1963): 1517; Allon, Yigal, Shield of David: The Story of Israel's Armed Forces (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1970), 8291; Ben-Eliezer, Uri, The Making of Israeli Militarism (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1998), 2427.

32 Mosley, Leonard, Gideon Goes to War (London: Arthur Barker Ltd., 1955), 6364.

33 Ben-Eliezer, The Making of Israeli Militarism, 45–46.

34 Harouvi, Eldad, “Reuven Zaslany (Shiloah) and the Covert Cooperation with British Intelligence during the Second World War” in Intelligence for Peace: The Role of Intelligence in Times of Peace, ed. Carmel, Hesi (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003), 3048.

35 Laskier, Michael M., “Israel And Algeria Amid French Colonialism And The Arab–Israeli Conflict 1954–1978,” Israel Studies 6 (2001): 2.

36 Porter, Patrick, Military Orientalism: Eastern War through Western Eyes (London: Hurst & Co., 2009), 171–90.

37 “Israel Trains U.S. Troops on Iraq Tactics,” Jane's Foreign Report (27 November 2003); Nathan Hodge, “U.S. Military Looks to Israeli Facility for Urban Warfare Training,” Jane's Defence Weekly (30 January 2008).

38 On the development of doctrine a substantial body of literature exists, the most relevant of which are Birtle, Andrew J., U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1860–1941 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997); U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942–1976 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006); Farrell, Theo and Terriff, Terry, eds., The Sources of Military Change: Culture, Politics, Technology (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 2002); Goldman, Emily and Eliason, Leslie, eds., The Diffusion of Military Technology and Ideas (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2003); Handel, Michael I., Israel's Political-Military Doctrine (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973); and the classic, Posen, Barry, Sources of Military Doctrine: France, Britain, and Germany between the World Wars (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Unviversity Press, 1984).

39 Avant, Political Institutions.

40 Stone, Jay and Schmidl, Irwin, The Boer War and Military Reforms (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1988).

41 Sinclair, At the End of the Line, 112–13, 115–17.

42 Anglim, Simon, “Orde Wingate and the Special Night Squads: A Feasible Policy for Counter-Terrorism?Contemporary Security Policy 28 (2007): 2841; Kitson, Frank, Gangs and Counter-Gangs (London: Barrie & Rockliff, 1960). On Wingate's Special Night Squads as a precursor of British Special Air Service forces, see Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife, 194.

43 Washburn, John W., Joint Publication 3–0 and the Tension between the Attainment of Strategic and Tactical Objectives (Ft. Leavenworth, Tex.: Army Command and General Staff College; School of Advanced Military Studies, 2001); Weizman, Eyal, Hollow Land: Israel's Architecture of Occupation (London: Verso, 2007), 188.

44 See The United States Army: Commander's Appreciation and Campaign Design, Version 1.0, 28 January 2008—TRADOC PAMPHLET 525-5-500 (Fort Monroe, Va.: Department of the Army, Training and Doctrine Command, 2008).

45 Hammes, T. X., The Sling and the Stone: On War in the 21st Century (St. Paul, Minn.: Zenith Press, 2006).

46 Francart, Loup and Patry, Jean-Jacques, Maîtriser la violence: Une option stratégique (Paris: Economica, 2002).

48 A search of the RAND publications database reveals more than 200 items. See especially Galula, David, Pacification in Algeria, 1956–1958 (Santa Barbara, Calif.: RAND Corp., 1963); and Long, Austin G., On “Other War”: Lessons from Five Decades of RAND Counterinsurgency Research (Santa Barbara, Calif.: RAND Corp., 2006).

49 See, inter alia, Alon, Hanan, Countering Palestinian Terrorism in Israel: Toward a Policy Analysis of Countermeasures (Santa Barbara, Calif.: RAND Corp., 1980); and Medby, Jamison Jo and Glenn, Russell W., Street Smart: Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield for Urban Operations (Santa Barbara, Calif.: RAND Corp., 2002).

50 Gil Zohar, “Lifting the Veil of Secrecy,” Tel Aviv University Review (Winter 2008/2009): 2–15. The item delineates research on poisoning of water supplies, “molecular explosives,” “four-legged surveillance” (next to a photograph of an Alsatian dog), the use of sweat residue for identification purposes (under the title of “sweating out the truth”), data mining “for suspicious activity,” optimizing the use of drones, and improvement of checkpoint technologies.

51 See http://www.rusi.org/ (accessed 2 July 2009).

52 See conference on “The Second Lebanon War: Lessons for Modern Militaries,” held on 20 June 2008, http://www.rusi.org/events/past/ref:E4833ECC39080C/info:public/infoID:E4864F69E634C5/ (accessed 2 July 2009).

53 Sari Horwitz, “Israeli Experts Teach Police On Terrorism,” in the Washington Post (12 June 2005); Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs, “JINSA Launches Law Enforcement Exchange,” 2002, http://www.jinsa.org/node/616 (accessed 12 February 2009).

54 John Lord Stevens, “Shooting to Kill Saves Lives: One Tragedy Will Not Change That,” The News of the World (25 July 2005).

55 Adam Fresco, “Officers Fired ‘Dumdum’ Bullets to Ensure Jean Charles de Menezes Died Instantly,” The Times (16 October 2007).

56 Andrew Exum, “Civilians Caught in Urban Combat: Interpret the Situation,” The New York Times online blog, 19 March 2009, http://roomfordebate.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/03/19/civilians-caught-in-urban-combat/ (accessed 17 June 2009).

57 “Letter from Buxton,” O'Connor Files, 3/4/44, LHCMA.

58 Castignani, Sergio, Israeli Counter-Insurgency and the Intifadas: Dilemmas of a Conventional Army (London: Routledge, 2008), 48.

59 Parsons, Nigel and Salter, Mark, “Israeli Biopolitics: Closure, Territorialisation and Governmentality in the Occupied Palestinian Territories,” Geopolitics 13 (2008): 701–23; Gregory, Derek, The Colonial Present: Afghanistan, Palestine, Iraq (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004).

60 CO 733/413/8, UKNA.

61 “Reports on the district of Ramallah,” O'Connor Files, 3/3/8, LHCMA.

62 For example, al-Bash, Ahmad Mustafa, Tirat Haifa: Karmiliyya al-Judhur, Filastiniyya al-Intimaʾ (Damascus: Dar al-Shajara, 2001), 173.

63 See, inter alia, Bierman and Smith, Fire in the Night, 77, 80, 84.

64 Ben-Gurion, “Our Friend,” 15–17; Bierman and Smith, Fire in the Night; Mosley, Gideon; Christopher Sykes, Orde Wingate (London: Collins 1959); Dan Ram's oral history, 21699/3, IWM Sound Archives; the private papers of Major General H. E. N. Bredin, 81/33/1, and Lt. Colonel R. King-Clark 83/10/1, IWM Document Archives; CO 967/96, UKNA.

65 Segev, One Palestine Complete; Tegart, “Charles Tegart.” For the use of barbed-wire fences in the Boer War, see Netz, Reviel, Barbed Wire: An Ecology of Modernity (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2004), 6469.

66 Keith-Roach, Pasha of Jerusalem, 191; Norris, Jacob, “Repression and Rebellion: Britain's Response to the Arab Revolt in Palestine of 1936–39,” The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 36 (2008): 33.

67 On Belfast walls and blockhouses, see Boal, F. W., “Belfast: Walls Within,” Political Geography 21 (2002): 687–94.

68 On Baghdad walls see Scranton, Roy, “Walls and Shadows,” City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action 11 (2007): 277–92.

69 Private papers of Lt. Colonel R. King-Clark, 83/10/1, IWM Document Archives, London; “Letter from Wetherall,” O'Connor Files, 3/4/35, LHCMA; Courtney, Roger, Palestine Policeman: An Account of Eighteen Dramatic Months in the Palestine Police Force during the Great Jew-Arab Troubles (London: Herbert Jenkins Limited, 1939), 79.

70 al-Hut, Bayan Nuwayhad, al-Qiyadat wa-l-Muʾassasat al-Siyasiyya fi Filastin 1917–1948 (Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1981), 382.

71 Khilla, Kamil Mahmud, Filastin wa-l-Intidab al-Baritani, 1922–1939 (Beirut: Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center, 1974), 405.

72 CO 733/366/4, UKNA.

73 “Letter to Pirie-Gordon,” O'Connor Files, 3/4/12, LHCMA.

74 On collective punishments, see CO 733/303/3; CO 733/376/8; CO 733/402/9; WO 191/70; WO 191/88, UKNA; Sonia Nimr, The Arab Revolt of 1936–1939 in Palestine: A Study Based on Oral Sources (PhD diss., Exeter, 1990), 204–206; Sykes, Orde Wingate, 177–78; Courtney, Palestine Policeman, 82–88; and Khilla, Filastin, 405–11.

75 “Response from Wetherall,” O'Connor Files 3/4/21, LHCMA.

76 al-ʿAli, Hajj ʿAbd al-Majid, Kwikat: Ahad al-Sharayin Filastin (Beirut: n.p., 2000), 6367; al-Bash, Tirat Haifa, 173–75; al-Shahabi, Muhammad Yahya, Lubiya: Shawka fi Khasira al-Mashruʿ al-Sahyuni (Damascus: Dar al-Shajara, 1994), 49; Munayyir, Isbir, al-Lid fi ʿAhday al-Intidab wa-l-Ihtilal (Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1997), 2629; al-Jishshi, al-Hajj Badr-al-Din, Qurya al-Kabri: Rawda min Riyad Filastin Mubaraka (Beirut: Maktabat Shaʾrawi, 2002), 217. Also see accounts by Palestine policemen, Courtney, Palestine Policeman, 22–23; CPM Binsley, Jack, Palestine Police Service (Montreaux, Switzerland: Minerva Press, 1996), 105; and Martin, Palestine Betrayed, 72–75; 89–91. On the Halhul case, where several Palestinian detainees died of sunstroke, see CO 733/413/3, UKNA. On other atrocities committed against civilians (including detainees) see the private papers of Major General H. E. N. Bredin, 81/33/1, IWM Documents Archive; CO 733/371/3; CO 733/371/4; CO 733/387/1; CO 733/413/1; CO 733/413/5; CO 733/434/7; CO 733/434/9; FO 371/21881, UKNA; the papers of Dr. Elliot Forster, GB165–0109, Middle East Centre Archives, St Antony's College, Oxford University (MEC); Courtney, Palestine Policeman, 214–15; Binsley, Palestine Police Service, 119–20; and Hughes, Matthew, “The Banality of Brutality: British Armed Forces and the Repression of the Arab Revolt in Palestine, 1936–39,” English Historical Review 124 (2009): 313–54.

77 Tegart, “Charles Tegart,” 258; Hughes, “The Banality of Brutality,” 325–26.

78 See Zuʿaytar, Akram, Yawmiyyat Akram Zuʿaytar: al-Haraka al-Wataniyya al-Filastiniyya 1935–1939 (Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1980), 129; Khalidi, Walid, “The ‘Town Planning of Jaffa,’” in From Haven to Conquest: Readings in Zionism and the Palestine Problem until 1948 (Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies 1971), 343–51; and John, Robert and Hadawi, Sami, The Palestine Diary: vol. 1, 1914–1945 (Beirut: Palestine Research Center, 1970), 261.

79 “Letter to Major-General B. L. Montogomery,” O'Connor Files 3/2/8, LHCMA; also al-Hut, al-Qiyadat, 353.

80 Duff, Bailing with a Teaspoon, 211.

81 Zuʿaytar, Yawmiyyat, 129, 133.

82 CO 733/302/3, WO 191/70, WO 191/75, WO 191/88, WO 191/89, UKNA; Nimr, The Arab Revolt, 207; Courtney, Palestine Policeman, 224; Duff, Bailing with a Teaspoon, 168; Keith-Roach, Pasha of Jerusalem, 191.

83 “Letter from A. F. Perrott,” O'Connor Files 3/2, LHCMA.

84 Nimr, The Arab Revolt, 207; CO 733/413/7, UKNA; “Letter to Wetherall,” O'Connor Files 3/4/20, LHCMA.

85 Ben-Eliezer, Israeli Militarism, 23–27; Allon, Shield of David, 72–88.

86 On peace bands see Nimr, Arab Revolt, 210–16; Swedenburg, Ted, Memories of Revolt: The 1936–1939 Rebellion and the Palestinian National Past (Fayettville, Ark.: University of Arkansas Press, 2003), 103, 151; and Sarhan, Nimr and Kabaha, Mustafa, ʿAbd al-Rahim Haj-Muhammad: al-Qaʾid al-ʿAm li-Thawrat 1936–1939 (Ramallah: Markaz al-Qastar al-Thaqafi, 2000), 7881. On collaborators and spies see Cohen, Hillel, Army of Shadows: Palestinian Collaboration with Zionism, 1917–1948, trans. Watzman, Haim (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2008), 95170; and H. M. Wilson paper, GB165–0302, MEC, p. 34.

87 Norris, “Repression and Rebellion,” 28–29.

88 Abu-Gharbiyya, Bahjat, Fi Khidam al-Nidal al-ʿArabi al-Filastini: Mudhakkirat al-Munadil Bahjat Abu-Gharbiyya, 1916–1949 (Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1993), 113–18.

89 CO 530/440, CO 530/473, CO 733/352/3, FO 371/23245, UKNA. Also al-Hut, al-Qiyadat, 373.

90 Saltman, Mark, “The Use of Mandatory Emergency Laws by the Israeli Government,” International Journal of the Sociology of Law 10 (1982): 385–94; Moffett, Martha Roadstrum, Perpetual Emergency: A Legal Analysis of Israel's Use of the British Defence (Emergency) Regulations, 1945, in the Occupied Territories (Ramallah: al-Haq, 1989).

91 Playfair, Emma, Administrative Detention in the West Bank (Ramallah: al-Haq, 1986).

92 Jiryis, Sabri, The Arabs in Israel, trans. Bushnaq, Inea (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1976), 974.

93 Jiryis, The Arabs in Israel, 19–20.

94 Shira Robinson, Occupied Citizens in a Liberal State: Palestinians under Military Rule and the Colonial Formation of Israeli Society, 1948–1966 (PhD diss., Stanford University, 2005), 97, 117.

95 Robinson, Shira, “Local Struggle, National Struggle: Palestinian Responses to the Kafr Qasim Massacre and Its Aftermath: 1956–66,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 35 (2003): 393416.

96 Schwarz, Walter, The Arabs in Israel (London: Faber, 1959), 89. On temporary residence permits, see Robinson, Occupied Citizens, 117–93.

97 Frisch, Hillel, “The Druze Minority in the Israeli Military: Traditionalizing an Ethnic Policing Role,” Armed Forces & Society 20 (1993): 5167; Kanaaneh, Rhoda, Surrounded: Palestinian Soldiers in the Israeli Military (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008).

98 Robinson, Occupied Citizens, 69 (n. 61), 71 (n. 65), 100, 205.

99 Jiryis, The Arabs in Israel, 66.

100 Gordon, Neve, Israel's Occupation (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2008); Ron, James, Frontiers and Ghettos: State Violence in Serbia and Israel (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2003).

101 Welchman, Lynn, A Thousand and One Homes: Israel's Demolition and Sealing of Houses in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (Ramallah: al-Haq, 1993); Darcy, Shane, Israel's Punitive House Demolition Policy: Collective Punishment in Violation of International Law (Ramallah: al-Haq, 2003).

102 An article in al-Mustaqbal (22 May 2007), reprinted in Maʿlumat Magazine no. 46, shows persuasively that some 700,000 Palestinians have been detained since 1967. On prisoners see Nashif, Esmail, Palestinian Political Prisoners: Identity and Community (London: Routledge, 2008); and Cook, Catherine, Hanieh, Adam, and Kay, Adah, Stolen Youth: The Politics of Israel's Detention of Palestinian Children (London: Pluto Press, 2004).

103 Gordon, Israel's Occupation, 60–61.

104 The number of regulations is from Hanieh, Adam, “The Politics of Curfew in the Occupied Territories,” in The Struggle for Sovereignty: Palestine and Israel, 1993–2005, ed. Beinin, Joel and Stein, Rebecca L. (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2006), 325. On military courts see Hajjar, Lisa, Courting Conflict: The Israeli Military Court System in the West Bank and Gaza (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2005).

105 Hiltermann, Joost, Israel's Deportation Policy in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza (Ramallah: al-Haq, 1986).

106 On curfews see Hanieh, “The Politics of Curfew.”

107 Ibid., 329.

108 Stein, Yael, Human Shield: Use of Palestinian Civilians as Human Shields in Violation of High Court of Justice Order (Jerusalem: B'Tselem, 2002).

109 Pseudo-gangs originally were groups of white settlers disguised in blackface fighting against Mau Mau rebels in Kenya; see Kitson, Gangs. On Israeli Duvdovan units see Vitullo, Anita, “Yitzhak Rabin and Israel's Death Squads,” Middle East Report 178 (1992): 4042; and Palestine Human Rights Information Center, Targeting to Kill: Israel's Undercover Units (Jerusalem: Palestine Human Rights Information Center, 1992); on local collaborators see Rigby, Andrew, The Legacy of the Past: The Problem of Collaborators and the Palestinian Case (Jerusalem: Passia, 1997).

110 The testimony of Colonel Itai Virob in a military court, May 2009, http://www.btselem.org/english/beating_and_abuse/20090521_investigate_officers_testimonies_on_routine_use_of_violence.asp (accessed 10 July 2009).

111 On Malaya, see Harper, T. N., The End of Empire and the Making of Malaya (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 149–94; and Short, The Communist Insurrection in Malaya, 391–415; on Kenya, Elkins, Caroline, Britain's Gulags: The Brutal End of Empire in Kenya (London: Jonathan Cape, 2005), 238–50.

112 Cornaton, Michel, Les camps de regroupement de la guerre d'Algérie (Paris: L'Harmattan, 1998).

113 Thompson, Sir Robert, Defeating Communist Insurgency (London: Chatto and Windus, 1966), 121–40.

114 Jiryis, The Arabs in Israel, 17–18; Schwarz, The Arabs in Israel, 84.

115 Falah, Ghazi-Walid, “The Geopolitics of ‘Enclavisation’ and the Demise of a Two-State Solution to the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict,” Third World Quarterly 26 (2005): 1341–372.

116 Zureik, Elia, “Constructing Palestine through Surveillance Practices,” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 28 (2001): 205–27; Tawil-Suri, Helga, “Orange, Green, and Blue: Palestinian ID Cards as Media and Material Artifacts,” in Surveillance and State of Exception: The Case of Israel/Palestine, ed. Lyon, David, Zureik, Elia, and Abu-Laban, Yasmeen (New York: Routledge, forthcoming).

117 Rory McCarthy, “Palestinian Woman Gets 20 Years' Hard Labour for Helping Israel,” The Guardian (25 June 2009); Yaron, Ron, Holding Health to Ransom: GSS Interrogation and Extortion of Palestinian Patients at Erez Crossing (Tel Aviv–Jaffa: Physicians for Human Rights–Israel, 2008).

118 Dexter Filkins, “Tough New Tactics by U.S. Tighten Grip on Iraq Towns,” New York Times (7 December 2003); Anne Barnard, “Returning Fallujans Will Face Clampdown,” The Boston Globe (5 December 2004).

119 Castignani, Israeli Counterinsurgency, 167.

120 Peres, Shimon, David's Sling (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1970), 24; Ben-Gurion, David, “When Bevin Helped Us,” Jewish Observer and Middle East Review 12 (1963): 1821.

121 Weizman, Hollow Land, 111–38; Zertal, Idith and Eldar, Akiva, Lords of the Land: The War over Israel's Settlements in the Occupied Territories, 1967–2007, trans. Eden, Vivian (New York: Nation Books, 2007).

122 Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife, 192.

123 McClintock, Michael, Instruments of Statecraft: US Guerrilla Warfare, Counterinsurgency, and Counter-terrorism, 1940–1990 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1992), 201202.

124 Foucault, Michel, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Sheridan, Alan (New York: Vintage Books 1979), 268.

125 Ze'ev Jabotinsky, “The Iron Wall: We and the Arabs,” 26 November 1937, http://www.marxists.de/middleast/ironwall/ironwall.htm (accessed 3 December 2009).

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International Journal of Middle East Studies
  • ISSN: 0020-7438
  • EISSN: 1471-6380
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-middle-east-studies
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