Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The Work of the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit: One Example of Technology Assessment in Perinatal Care

  • Lain Chalmers (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

This article describes one approach to assessing the effects of perinatal care–that adopted by the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit in Oxford, England. The unit's research has been based primarily on a combination of simple, descriptive analyses of observational data and statistically robust analyses of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The Work of the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit: One Example of Technology Assessment in Perinatal Care
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The Work of the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit: One Example of Technology Assessment in Perinatal Care
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The Work of the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit: One Example of Technology Assessment in Perinatal Care
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
1.Black N., & Macfarlane A. J. Methodological kit: Monitoring perinatal mortality statistics in a health district. Community Medicine, 1982, 4, 2533.
2.Botting B. J., MacDonald Davies I., & Macfarlane A. J. Recent trends in the incidence of multiple births and associated mortality. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1987, 62, 941–50.
3.Botting B., & Macfarlane A. J. Geographic variation in infant mortality in relation to birthweight 1983–1985. In Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Mortality and Geography. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1990, 4756.
4.Botting B. J., Macfarlane A. J., & Price F. V. Three, four and more. A study of triplet and higher order births. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1990.
5.British Association of Perinatal Medicine Working Group. Referrals for neonatal medical care in the United Kingdom over one year. British Medical Journal, 1989, 298, 169–72.
6.Brown I., Elbourne D., & Mutch L. Standard national perinatal data: A suggested minimum data set. Community Medicine, 1981, 3, 298306.
7.Campbell M. J., Rodrigues L., Macfarlane A. J., & Murphy M. F. G. Sudden infant deaths and cold weather: Was the rise in infant mortality in 1986 in England and Wales due to the weather? Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 1991, 5, 93100.
8.Campbell R., Davies I. M., & Macfarlane A. J. Perinatal mortality and place of delivery. Population Trends, 1982, 28, 912.
9.Campbell R., Macdonald Davies I., Macfarlane A. J., & Beral V. Home births in England and Wales 1979: Perinatal mortality according to intended place of delivery. British Medical Journal, 1984, 289, 721–24.
10.Campbell R., & Macfarlane A. J. Place of delivery: A review. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1986, 93, 675–83.
11.Campbell R., & Macfarlane A. J. Where to be born? The debate and the evidence. Oxford, U.K.: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, 1987.
12.Carmody F., Grant A., & Somchiwong M. Vacuum extraction: A randomized controlled comparison of the New Generation cup with the original BIRD cup. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 1986, 14, 95100.
13.Chalmers I. Perinatal epidemiology: Strengths, limitations and possible hazards. In Beard R. W. & Campbell S. (eds.), Current status of fetal monitoring and ultrasound. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 1978, 1225.
14.Chalmers I. Implications of the current debate on obstetric practice. In Kitzinger S. & Davis J. (eds.), The place of birth. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1978, 4453.
15.Chalmers I. Perinatal health: The search for indices. Lancet, 1979, ii, 1063–65.
16.Chalmers I. Intensive or extensive care in perinatal health services? Community Medicine, 1980, 2, 279–81.
17.Chalmers I. Evaluation of perinatal practice: The limitations of audit by death. In Chester R., Diggory P., & Sutherland M. B. (eds.), Changing patterns of childbearing and child rearing. London: Academic Press, 1981, 3956.
18.Chalmers I. Enquiry into perinatal death: A report on national perinatal surveillance. Report submitted to DHSS. Oxford, U.K.: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, 12 1984.
19.Chalmers I. Short, Black, Baird, Himsworth and social class differences in fetal and neonatal mortality rates. British Medical Journal, 1985, 291, 231–33.
20.Chalmers I. Minimizing harm and maximizing benefit during innovation in health care: Controlled or uncontrolled experimentation? Birth, 1986, 13, 155–64.
21.Chalmers I. Evaluating the effects of perinatal care. In Chalmers I., Enkin M., & Keirse M. J. N. C. (eds.), Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989, 338.
22.Chalmers I. Under-reporting research is scientific misconduct. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990, 263, 1405–08.
23.Chalmers I. (ed.). Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, version 1.2, disk issue 6. Oxford U.K.: Oxford University Press, 08 1991.
24.Chalmers I., Enkin M., & Keirse M. J. N. C. (eds.). Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989.
25.Chalmers I., Hetherington J., Newdick M., et al. The Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials: Developing a register of published reports of controlled trials. Controlled Clinical Trials,1986, 7, 306-24.
26.Chalmers I., & Macfarlane A. J. Interpretation of perinatal statistics. In Wharton B. (ed.), Topics in perinatal medicine. London: Pitman Medical, 1980, 111.
27.Chalmers I., & Macfarlane J. A. Towards defensive obstetrics [letter], Lancet, 1979, i, 53.
28.Chalmers I., & Mcllwaine G. (eds.). Perinatal audit and surveillance. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 1980.
29.Chalmers I., & Mutch L. Are current trends in perinatal practice associated with an increase or a decrease in handicapping conditions? Lancet, 1981, i, 1415.
30.Chalmers I., & Mutch L. Investment in neonatal intensive care and the “handicapped survivor bogey” [letter]. Lancet, 1984, ii, 469.
31.Chalmers I., Oakley A., & Macfarlane J. A. Perinatal health services: An immodest proposal. British Medical Journal, 1980, 1, 842–45.
32.CLASP Collaborative Group. MRC collaborative low-dose aspirin study in pregnancy (CLASP). Proceedings of Silver Jubilee British Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London, 07 4–7, 1989, 143.
33.Cochrane A. L. Effectiveness and efficiency: Random reflections on health services. London: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust, 1971 (republished 1989).
34.Committee on Child Health Services (chairman, Professor S. D. M. Court). Fit for the future, cmnd 6684. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1976.
35.Dennis J., & Chalmers I. Very early neonatal seizure rate: A possible epidemiological indicator of the quality of perinatal care. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1982, 89, 418–26.
36.Dickersin K., Hewitt P., Mutch L., et al. Comparison of MEDLINE searching with a perinatal trials database. Controlled Clinical Trials, 1985, 6, 306–17.
37.Elbourne D., & Mutch L. Archive of locally based perinatal surveys. Oxford, U.K.: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, 1981.
38.Elbourne D., & Mutch L. Archive of locally based perinatal surveys. Oxford, U.K.: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, 1984.
39.Elbourne D., Pritchard C., & Dauncey M. Perinatal outcomes and related factors: Social class differences within and between geographical areas. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 1986, 40, 301–08.
40.Elbourne D., Richardson M., Chalmers I., et al. The Newbury Maternity Care Study: A randomized controlled trial to assess a policy of women holding their own obstetric records. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1987, 94, 612–19.
41.Enkin M., & Chalmers I. (eds.). Effectiveness and satisfaction in antenatal care. Clinics in Developmental Medicine Nos. 81/82. London: Spastics International Medical Publications/William Heinemann Medical Books, 1982.
42.Enkin M., Keirse M. J. N. C., & Chalmers I. A guide to effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989.
43.Evans P., Johnson A., Mutch L., & Alberman E. Report of a meeting on the standardization of the recording and reporting of cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1986, 28, 547–48.
44.Evans P., Johnson A., Mutch L., & Alberman E. A standard form for recording clinical findings in children with a motor deficit of central origin. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1989, 31, 119–27.
45.Everett C. B., Ashurst H., & Chalmers I. Reported management of threatened miscarriage by general practitioners in Wessex. British Medical Journal, 1987, 295, 583–86.
46.Garcia J. Women's views on antenatal care. In Enkin M. & Chalmers I. (eds.), Effectiveness and satisfaction in antenatal care. Clinics in Developmental Medicine Nos. 81/82. London: Spastics International Medical Publications/William Heinemann Medical Books, 1982, 8191.
47.Garcia J. The role and structure of the Maternity Service Liaison Committee. Health Trends, 1987, 19, 1719.
48.Garcia J. Getting consumers’ views of maternity care: Examples of how the OPCS Survey manual can help. London: Department of Health, 1989.
49.Garcia J., Anderson J., Vacca A., et al. Views of women and their medical and midwifery attendants about instrumental delivery using vacuum extraction and forceps. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1985, 4, 19.
50.Garcia J., Blondel B., & Saurel-Cubizolles M. J. The needs of childbearing families: Social policies and the organization of health care. In Chalmers I., Enkin M., & Keirse M. J. N. C. (eds.), Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989, 205–20.
51.Garcia J., Corry M., MacDonald D., et al. Mothers’ views of continuous electronic fetal heart monitoring and intermittent auscultation in a randomized controlled trial. Birth, 1985, 12, 7985.
52.Garcia J., & Elbourne D. Future research on work in pregnancy. In Chamberlain G. (ed.), Pregnant women at work. London: Royal Society of Medicine/Macmillan Press, 1984, 273–87.
53.Garcia J., & Garforth S. Labour and delivery routines in English consultant maternity units. Midwifery, 1989, 5, 155–62.
54.Garcia J., Garforth S., & Ayers S. The policy and practice of midwifery study: Introduction and methods. Midwifery, 1987, 3, 29.
55.Garcia J., Kilpatrick R., & Richards M. (eds.). The politics of maternity care. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1990.
56.Garforth S., & Garcia J. Admitting — A weakness or a strength? Routine admission of a woman in labour. Midwifery, 1987, 3, 1024.
57.Garforth S., & Garcia J. Breastfeeding policies in practice — “No wonder they get con fused.” Midwifery, 1989, 5, 7583.
58.Graham H., & Oakley A. Competing ideologies of reproduction: Medical and maternal perspectives on pregnancy. In Roberts H. (ed.), Women, health and reproduction. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981, 5074.
59.Grant A. Equipment and services. In Chamberlain G. V. P. & Gunn P. (eds.), Birthplace. Chichester, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1987, 50100.
60.Grant A. European collaborative trials in perinatal medicine. The need for a ‘Perinatal Trials Service.’ In Breart G. & Buekens P. (eds.), Evaluation of perinatal care. Methodology and research proposals. Paris: Copedith, 1987, 6168.
61.Grant A. The relationship between obstetrically preventable intrapartum asphyxia, abnormal neonatal neurological signs and subsequent motor impairment in babies born at or after term. In Kubli F. & Patel N. (eds.), International Workshop on Perinatal Events and Cerebral Handicap. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1987, 149–59.
62.Grant A. Collaborative randomized trial of dexamethasone in neonatal chronic lung disease. In Hot Topics ‘89 in Neonatology. Report of Ross Laboratories Special Conference, Washington, DC, 1989.
63.Grant A., Elbourne D., Valentin L., & Alexander S. The effect of a policy of formal fetal movement counting on the risk of antepartum late death among normally-formed singleton fetuses. Lancet, 1989, ii, 345–49.
64.Grant A., Elbourne D., Mireh L., & Krog J. Osiris Surfactant Trial. First Osiris News letter. No. 1. Osiris Trials Office. Oxford, U.K.: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, 07 1990.
65.Grant A., & Hepburn M. Merits of an individualized approach to fetal movement counting compared with fixed–time and fixed–number methods. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1984, 91, 1087–90.
66.Grant A., O'Brien N., Joy M., et al. Cerebral palsy among children born during the Dublin randomized trial of intrapartum monitoring. Lancet, 1989, ii, 1233–36.
67.Grant A., Sleep J., Ashurst H., & Spencer J. A. D. Dyspareunia associated with the use of glycerol–impregnated catgut to repair perineal — trauma Report of a three year followup study. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1989, 96, 741–43.
68.Grant A., Sleep J., Mclntosh J., & Ashurst H. Ultrasound and pulsed electromagnetic energy treatment for perineal trauma. A randomized placebo-controlled trial. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1989, 96, 434–39.
69.Harding J. E., Elbourne D. R., & Prendiville W. J. Views of mothers and midwives participating in the Bristol randomized, controlled trial of active management of the third stage of labor. Birth, 1989, 16, 16.
70.Hare E. H., Moran P. A. P., & Macfarlane A. J. The changing seasonality of infant deaths in England and Wales 1912–1978 and its relation to seasonal temperature. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 1981, 35, 7782.
71.Hetherington J., Dickersin K., Chalmers I., & Meinert C. L. Retrospective and prospective identification of unpublished controlled trials: Lessons from a survey of obstetricians and pediatricians. Pediatrics, 1989, 84, 374–80.
72.House of Commons Official Report (Hansard), 1978, 07 5.
73.Houston M. J. R., & Field P. A. Practices and policies of the initiation of breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecological and Neonatal Nursing, 1988, 17, 418–24.
74.Johnson A. Screening tests for hearing and visual impairment: How and when are they done? Health Visitor, 1986, 59, 140–42.
75.Johnson A., & Ashurst H. Is popliteal angle measurement useful in early identification of cerebral palsy? Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1989, 31, 457–65.
76.Johnson A., & Ashurst H. Screening for sensrineural deafness by health visitors. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1990, 65, 841–45
77.Johnson A., Goddard O., & Ashurst H. Is late walking a marker of morbidity? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1990, 65, 486–88.
78.Johnson A., & King R. A regional register of early childhood impairments: A discussion paper. Community Medicine, 1989, 11, 352–63.
79.Johnson M. A., & Macfarlane A. J. Neonatal intensive care: Trends in morbidity. Lancet, 1988, ii, 168.
80.Johnson A., Stayte M., & Wortham C. Vision screening at 8 and 18 months. British Medical Journal, 1989, 299, 545–49.
81.Kaufman K. J., & Houston M. J. R. Midwives, nurses, and clinical excellence. Recent Advances in Nursing, 1988, 21, 6381.
82.Klein M., Elbourne D., & Lloyd I. A prospective study comparing the experiences of low risk women booked for delivery in 2 systems of maternity care. Royal College of General Practitioners Occasional Paper 31, 04 1985.
83.Levin J. B., Macfarlane A. J., & Bennett S. The comparison of trends in perinatal mortality in small areas. International Journal of Epidemiology, 1990, 19, 7889.
84.MacDonald D., Grant A., Sheridan-Pereira M., et al. The Dublin randomized controlled trial of intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1985, 152, 524–39.
85.Macfarlane A. J. Birth, death and handicap: Saving money, spending lives. Science for People, 1981, 48, 913.
86.Macfarlane A. J. Seasonal variation in postneonatal mortality. In Studies in sudden infant deaths. Studies on medical and population subjects no. 45. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1982, 917.
87.Macfarlane A. J. A time to die? International Journal of Epidemiology, 1984,13, 3844.
88.Macfarlane A. J. Trends in maternity care. In OPCS, DHSS, Welsh Office, Hospital inpatient enquiry maternity tables 1977–1981. Series MB4 no. 19. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1986, 925.
89.Macfarlane A. J., & Chalmers I. Birth and infant mortality statistics. Paper presented at the Statistics Users Conference, 12 1980.
90.Macfarlane A. J., & Chalmers I. Problems in the interpretation of perinatal mortality statistics. In Hull D. (ed.), Recent advances in paediatrics. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1981, 112.
91.Macfarlane A. J., Chalmers I., & Adelstein A. M. The role of standardization in the interpretation of perinatal mortality rates. Health Trends, 1980, 3, 4550.
92.Macfarlane A. J., Cole S., & Hey E. Comparisons of data from regional perinatal mortality surveys. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1986, 93, 1224–32.
93.Macfarlane A., Cole S., Johnson A., & Botting B. Epidemiology of birth before 28 weeks of gestation. British Medical Bulletin, 1988, 44, 861–93.
94.Macfarlane A. J., & McPherson C. K. The quality of official health statistics. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 1988, 151, 342–54.
95.Macfarlane A. J., & Mugford M. Birth counts: Statistics of pregnancy and childbirth. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1984.
96.Macfarlane A. J., & Mugford M. Framework for information systems: Comments on Working Paper II and accompanying documents. Oxford, U.K.: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, 1990.
97.Medical Research Council Working Party on Cervical Cerclage. Interim report of the Medical Research Council/Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists multicentre randomised controlled trial of cervical cerclage. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1988, 95, 437–45.
98.Minchom P., Niswander K., Chalmers I., et al. Antecedents and outcome of very early neonatal seizures in infants born at or after term. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1987, 94, 431–39.
99.MIRIAD. Annual report of the Midwifery Research Database (MIRIAD). Oxford, U.K.: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, 1990.
100.Mohamed K., Grant A., Ashurst H., & James D. The Southmead perineal suture study: A randomized comparison of suture materials and suturing techniques for repair of perineal trauma. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1989, 96, 1272–80.
101.Mugford M. A comparison of reported differences in definitions of vital events and statistics. WHO Statistics Quarterly, WHO Geneva, 1983, 36, 201–12.
102.Mugford M. Maternity unit profiles. In Chamberlain G. V. P. & Gunn P. (eds.), Birthplace. Chichester, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1987, 283–86.
103.Mugford M., Kingston J., & Chalmers I. Reducing the incidence of infection after caesarean section: Implications of prophylaxis with antibiotics for hospital resources. British Medical Journal, 1989, 299, 1003–06.
104.Mugford M., Mutch L., & Elbourne D. Standard perinatal data: Suggestions for regular review of facilities for perinatal care within a regional health authority. Community Medicine, 1985, 7, 157–68.
105.Mugford M., Piercy J., & Chalmers I. Cost implications of different approaches to the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1991, 66, 757–64.
106.Mugford M., Somchiwong M., & Waterhouse I. Treatment of umbilical cords: A randomized trial to assess the effect of treatment methods on the work of midwives. Midwifery, 1986, 2, 177–86.
107.Mugford M., & Stilwell J. Maternity services: How well have they done and could they do better? and Profiling maternity services: How do English regions and Wales compare? In Harrison A. & Gretton J. (eds.), Health care U.K. 1986. Cambridge, U.K.: Burlington Press, 1986, 5364 and 115–19.
108.Mugford M., Szczepura A., Lodwick A., & Stilwell J. Factors affecting the outcome of maternity care II. Neonatal outcomes and resources beyond the hospital of birth. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 1988, 42, 170–76.
109.Murphy J. E, Dauncey M., Gray O. P., & Chalmers I. Planned and unplanned deliveries at home: Implications of a changing ratio. British Medical Journal, 1984, 288, 1429–32.
110.Murphy J. F., Dauncey M., Newcombe R., et al. Employment in pregnancy: Prevalence, maternal characteristics, perinatal outcome. Lancet, 1984, i, 1163–66.
111.Murphy K., Grieg V., Garcia J., et al. Maternal considerations in the use of pelvic examinations in labour. Midwifery, 1986, 2, 9397.
112.Mutch L. Archive of locally based perinatal surveys. Oxford, U.K.: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, 04 1986.
113.Mutch L., & Elbourne D. Standard national perinatal data: A suggested common core of tabulations. Community Medicine, 1983, 5, 251–59.
114.Mutch L., & Elbourne D. Archive of locally based perinatal surveys. Oxford, U.K.: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, 1983.
115.Mutch L. M. M., Johnson M. A., & Morley R. Follow-up studies: Design, organisation and analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1989, 64, 13941402.
116.Mutch L. M. M., Newdick M., Lodwick A., & Chalmers I. Secular changes in rehospitalisation of very low birthweight infants. Pediatrics, 1986, 78, 164–71.
117.National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit. A classified bibliography of controlled trials in perinatal medicine 1940–1984. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1985.
118.Niswander K., Henson G., Elbourne D., et al. Adverse outcome of pregnancy and the quality of obstetric care. Lancet, 1984, ii, 827–31.
119.Oakley A. Women confined: Towards a sociology of childbirth. London: Martin Robertson, 1980.
120.Oakley A. Subject women. Oxford, U.K.: Martin Robinson, 1981.
121.Oakley A. Obstetric practice — Cross-cultural comparisons. In Stratton P. (ed.), Psychobiology of the human newborn. London: John Wiley and Sons, 1982, 297313.
122.Oakley A. Social consequences of obstetric technology: How to measure ‘soft’ outcomes. Birth, 1983, 10, 99108.
123.Oakley A. Women and health policy. In Lewis J. (ed.), Women's welfare, women's rights. London: Croom Helm 1983, 103–29.
124.Oakley A. The effect of the mother's work on the infant. In Chamberlain G. (ed.), Pregnant women at work. London: Royal Society of Medicine/Macmillan Press, 1984,117–32.
125.Oakley A. The captured womb. Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1984.
126.Oakley A., Macfarlane J. A., & Chalmers I. Social class, stress and reproduction. In Rees A. R. & Purcell H. (eds.), Disease and the environment. Chichester, U.K.: John Wiley and Sons, 1982, 1150.
127.Oakley A., McPherson A., & Roberts H. Miscarriage. London: Fontana, 1984.
128.Oakley A., Rajan L., & Grant A. Social support and pregnancy outcome. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1990, 97, 155–62.
129.Prendiville W. J., Harding J. E., Elbourne D. R., & Stirrat G. M. The Bristol third stage trial: Active versus physiological management of third stage of labour. British Medical Journal, 1988, 297, 1295–300.
130.Proud J., & Grant A. Third trimester placental grading by ultrasonography as a test of fetal wellbeing. British Medical Journal, 1987, 294, 1641–44.
131.Quam L. Improving clinical effectiveness in the NHS: An alternative to the white paper. British Medical Journal, 1989, 299, 448–50.
132.Renfrew M. J. Developing midwifery research: The role of the midwife researcher at the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit. In 1988 Research and the Midwife Conference, Glasgow and London. Manchester, U.K.: University of Manchester, 1989.
133.Renfrew M. J. Ethics and morality in midwifery research. Midwives Chronicle and Nursing Notes, 1989, 102, 198202.
134.Renfrew M. J., Fisher C., & Arms S. Bestfeeding: Getting breastfeeding right for you. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts, 1990.
135. Saurel-Cubizolles, M.-J., & Garcia, J. Activité professionnelle pendant la grossesse en France et en Grande-Bretagne: Principes et realités. Revue Frangaise des Affaires Sociales, 1983, 177–87.
136.Sleep J. & Grant A. Pelvic floor exercises in post-natal care. Midwifery, 1987, 3,158–64.
137.Sleep J., & Grant A. Effects of salt and Savlon bath concentrate postpartum. Nursing Times, 1988, 84, 5557.
138.Sleep J., & Grant A. Relief of perineal pain following childbirth. A survey of midwifery practice. Midwifery, 1988, 4, 118–22.
139.Sleep J., Grant A., Garcia J., et al. West Berkshire perineal management trial. British Medical Journal, 1984, 289, 587–90.
140.Social Services Committee. Perinatal and neonatal mortality, vol. 1. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1980.
141.Spencer J., Grant A., Elbourne D., et al. A randomized comparison of glycerol-impregnated chromic catgut with untreated chromic catgut for the repair of perineal trauma. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1986, 93, 426–30.
142.Stayte M., Johnson A., & Wortham C. Ocular and vision defects in a geographically defined population of 2 year old children. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 1990, 74, 465–68.
143.Stilwell J., Szczepura A., & Mugford M. Factors affecting the outcome of maternity care I. The relationship between staffing and perinatal deaths at the hospital of birth. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 1988, 42, 157–69.
144.Szczepura A., Mugford M., & Stilwell J. A. Information for managers in hospitals: Representing maternity unit statistics graphically. British Medical Journal, 1987, 294, 875–80.
145.Tarnow-Mordi W. O., Elbourne D., Grant A., et al., & the OCTAVE Study Group. Randomised trial of high versus low frequency positive pressure ventilation in 346 newborn infants in 6 centres. Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the British Paediatric Association, York, U.K., 1989.
146.Vacca A., Grant A., Wyatt G., & Chalmers I. Portsmouth operative delivery trial: A comparison of vacuum extraction and forceps delivery. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1983, 90, 1107–12.
147.Ventriculomegaly Trial Group. Randomised trial of early tapping in neonatal posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1990, 65, 310.
148.Weale A. (ed.). Cost and choice in health care: The ethical dimension. London: King Edward's Hospital Fund for London, 1988, 4853.
149.Working Group on the very low birthweight infant. European Community collaborative study of outcome of pregnancy between 22 and 28 weeks’ gestation. Lancet, 1990, ii, 782–84.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
  • ISSN: 0266-4623
  • EISSN: 1471-6348
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-technology-assessment-in-health-care
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 13 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 47 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.