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Field Responses of Tsetse Flies (Glossinidae) and Other Diptera to Oils in Formulations of Deltamethrin

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 September 2011

P. O. Mireji
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, P. O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
A. M. Mabveni
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, P. O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
B. N. Dube
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, P. O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
J. G. Ogembo
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, P. O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
C. M. Matoka
Affiliation:
International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772–00100, Nairobi, Kenya
T. N. C. Mangwiro
Affiliation:
Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Control Branch, P. O. Box CY52, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe

Abstract

Investigations were conducted to establish field responses of Glossina pallidipes, G. m. morsitans, muscoids and tabanids to castor, raw linseed, paraffin and chlorinated paraffin oils in deltamethrin suspension concentrate (sc) formulation, through randomised Latin square experiments. Tsetse landing responses on targets treated with 400 ml/m2 of any of the oils in 2 g/m2 deltamethrin formulation were significantly lower than on non-oil-containing deltamethrin formulations, for both G. pallidipes (F(4,32) = 4.855, P = 0.00357) and G. m. morsitans (F(4,32)=2.421, P = 0.06862).

The landing response indices, relative to the control formulation without oil, were 0.60, 0.70, 0.61 and 0.41 in G. pallidipes and 0.92, 0.82, 0.75 and 0.42 in G. m. morsitans and for paraffin, chlorinated paraffin, castor and raw linseed oils respectively. Glossina pallidipes and G. m. morsitans landing responses were inversely proportional to raw linseed oil concentrations. None of the oils significantly affected muscoid (F(4/32) = 1.6959, P = 0.1753) or tabanid (F(4,32) = 1.7546, P = 0.1624) landing response, or tsetse fly resting persistence (F(4,32) = 0.9641, P = 0.4406) on the targets.

The reduced tsetse fly response to targets treated with any of the oils can be attributed to adverse effect of the oil treatments on the tsetse fly olfactory responses to the targets. Since the oil formulations reduce target efficiency by reducing tsetse responses to the targets, application of the oil formulations on targets deployed in G. pallidipes and G. m. morsitans control programmes is not recommended.

Résumé

Une expérimentation en carré latin aléatoire a été menée afin d'établir les réponses en conditions naturelles de Glossina pallidipes, G. m. morsitans, de mouches et de tabanides à des formulations de deltaméthrine à base d'huile de ricin, d'huile de lin, d'huile de paraffine chlorée ou non.

Les atterrissages des mouches tsé-tsé sur les pièges traités à 400 ml/m2 de deltaméthrine formulée à 2 g/m2 avec chacune des huiles sont significativement plus faibles que sur les pièges traités à la deltaméthrine non formulée avec de l'huile, aussi bien pour G. pallidipes (F(4 32) = 4.855, P = 0.00357) que pour G. m. morsitans (F(432) = 2.421, P = 0.06862). Les indices de réponse d'atterrissage comparés à la formulation témoin sans huile, sont de 0,60, 0,70, 0,61 et 0,41 pour G. pallidipes et de 0,92, 0,82, 0,75 et 0,42 pour G. m. morsitans pour l'huile de paraffine, l'huile de paraffine chlorée, l'huile de ricin et l'huile de lin respectivement. Les atterrissages de Glossina pallidipes et de G. m. morsitans sont inversement proportionnels aux teneurs en huile de lin. Aucune des huiles n'influence significativement l'atterrissage des mouches (F(4/32) = 1.6959, P = 0.1753) ou des tabanides (F(4/32) =1.7546, P = 0.1624), ou le temps de repos des mouches tsé-tsé (F(432)= 0.9641, P = 0.4406) sur les pièges.

La diminution de la réponse des mouches tsé-tsé sur les pièges traités avec n'importe quelle huile peut être attribuée à un effet négatif de l'huile sur la réponse olfactive des mouches tsé-tsé sur les pièges. Puisque les formulations à base d'huile réduisent l'efficacité des pièges en réduisant la réponse des mouches tsé-tsé aux pièges, l'application de formulations à base d'huile sur les pièges utilises dans les programmes de lutte contre G. pallidipes et G. m. morsitans est déconseillée.

Type
Research Articles
Copyright
Copyright © ICIPE 2003

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Field Responses of Tsetse Flies (Glossinidae) and Other Diptera to Oils in Formulations of Deltamethrin
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