Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Cytotaxonomy of Simulium soderense sp. nov. and a redescription of the ‘Kulfo’ form (Dunbar, 1969) of Simulium damnosum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) as Simulium kulfoense sp. nov. in Ethiopia

  • Mamuye Hadis (a1), Michael D. Wilson (a2), Millicent A. Cobblah (a3) and Daniel A. Boakye (a2)
Abstract

The exact taxonomic identity of members of the Simulium damnosum Theobald complex in Ethiopia was not known until recently. A cytotaxonomic analysis of larval chromosomes from the Kulfo River area in southern Ethiopia, from where the ‘Kulfo’ form was reported, and from the Awash River at Sodere in central Ethiopia has revealed the existence of two newly recognized species, namely Simulium kulfoense and Simulium soderense. Although three fixed and 11 floating inversions in the chromosomes of the ‘Kulfo’ form were described in an idiogram, in the present study four fixed and 17 floating inversions were observed, out of which only seven floating inversions were the same as Dunbar's, indicating that the remaining 10 inversions were either missed or misinterpreted. Though both species share many inversions, S. kulfoense sp. nov. has a diagnostic inversion on chromosome II, IIL-E6, with no sex-linked chromosomal arrangement, while S. soderense sp. nov. has a sex-linked inversion, IIS-3, which warrants it as a distinct species. Both of these new species also share many inversions with the recently described new species from south-western Ethiopia, Simulium kaffaense, including the fixed inversions IIL-E1 and E3. Since both the study sites are known to be free of onchocerciasis, and the flies are not anthropophilic, both the species are not presumed to be vectors of human onchocerciasis. The presence of IS-1 and a complex inversion possibly involving IL-3 strongly indicates that the two species belong to the ‘Nile’ phylogenetic group of S. damnosum s.l.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*E-mail: mamuye.hadis@gmail.com
References
Hide All
Boakye, D. A. (1993) A pictorial guide to the chromosomal identification of members of the Simulium damnosum Theobald complex in West Africa with particular reference to the Onchocerciasis Control Programme Area. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 44, 223244.
Cheke, R. A. (1998) Getting under the Skin: The Biology of Human Onchocerciasis Transmission. An Inaugural Lecture Delivered at the University of Greenwich. Greenwich University Press, Kent. 49 pp.
Crosskey, R. W. (1973) Simuliidae (black-flies; German: Kriebelmücken), pp. 109153. In Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance (Edited by Smith, K. G. V.). British Museum (Natural History), London.
Crosskey, R. W. and Howard, T. M. (2004) A Revised Taxonomic and Geographical Inventory of World Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae). The Natural History Museum, London. 78 pp.
Dunbar, R. W. (1966) Four sibling species included in Simulium damnosum Theobald (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Uganda. Nature 209, 597599.
Dunbar, R. W. (1969) Nine cytological segregates in the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae). Bulletin of the World Health Organization 40, 974979.
Dunbar, R. W. (1976) East African situation and a review of the Simulium damnosum complex as a whole. Unpublished document. VBC/SC/76.20. World Health Organization, Geneva. 20 pp.
Dunbar, R. W. and Vajime, C. G. (1981) Cytotaxonomy of the Simulium damnosum complex, pp. 3143. In Blackflies: The Future for Biological Methods in Integrated Control (Edited by Laird, M.). Academic Press, London.
Hadis, M. (2006) Identification and description of the Simulium damnosum species complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Southern, South-western, and Central Ethiopia. PhD thesis, University of Ghana, Accra. 158 pp.
Hadis, M., Wilson, M. D., Cobblah, M. and Boakye, D. A. (2005) Cytotaxonomic description of Simulium kaffaense, a new member of the S. damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) from south-western Ethiopia. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 99, 267291.
Krüger, A., Car, M. and Maegga, B. T. A. (2005) Descriptions of members of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) from southern Africa, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 99, 293306.
Krüger, A., Kalinga, A. K., Post, R. J. and Maegga, B. T. A. (2004) Two new cytoforms of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Malawi and Tanzania and potential onchocerciasis vectors. Tropical Medicine and International Health 9, 805811.
Krüger, A., Kalinga, A. K., Kibweja, A. M., Mwaikonyole, A. and Maegga, B. T. A. (2006a) Cytogenetic and PCR-based identification of Simulium damnosum ‘Nkusi J’ as the anthropophilic blackfly in the Uluguru onchocerciasis focus in Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and International Health 11, 10661074.
Krüger, R. A., Mustapha, M., Kalinga, A. K., Tambala, A. A., Post, R. J. and Maegga, B. T. A. (2006b) Revision of the Ketaketa subcomplex of blackflies of the Simulium damnosum complex. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 20, 7692.
Krüger, A., Nurmi, V., Yocha, J., Kipp, W., Rubaale, T. and Garms, R. (1999) The Simulium damnosum complex in western Uganda and its role as a vector of Onchocerca volvulus. Tropical Medicine and International Health 4, 819826.
Maegga, B. T. and Cupp, E. W. (1993) Chromosomal diagnostic criteria for some members of the Simulium damnosum complex in East Africa. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 44, 165171.
Mustapha, M., Post, R. J., Enyong, P. and Lines, J. (2004) A new cytotype of Simulium squamosum from south-west Cameroon. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 18, 296300.
Post, R. J. (1986) The cytotaxonomy of Simulium sanctipauli and Simulium soubrense (Diptera: Simuliidae). Genetica 69, 191207.
Post, R. J. and Boakye, D. A. (1992) Vector taxonomy and the control of human onchocerciasis in West Africa. Proceedings of Experimental and Applied Entomology 3, 105109.
Procunier, W. S. and Muro, A. I. S. (1993) Cytotaxonomy of the Simulium damnosum complex from central and north-eastern Tanzania. Genome 36, 112130.
Raybould, J. N. and White, G. B. (1979) The distribution, bionomics and control of onchocerciasis vectors (Diptera: Simuliidae) in eastern Africa and Yemen. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie 30, 505547.
Vajime, C. G. and Dunbar, R. W. (1975) Chromosomal identification of eight species of the subgenus Edwardsellum Near and including Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosum Theobald (Diptera: Simuliidae). Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie 26, 111138.
Vajime, C. G. and Gregory, W. G. (1990) Species complex of vectors and epidemiology. Acta Leidensia 59, 235252.
Vajime, C. G., Tambala, P. A. J., Krüger, A. and Post, R. J. (2000) The cytotaxonomy of Simulium damnosum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thyolo onchocerciasis focus in Malawi and description of a new member of the complex. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 94, 279290.
WHO (1995) Onchocerciasis and its control. Report of a WHO Expert Committee on Onchocerciasis Control. WHO Technical Report Series No. 852. World Health Organization, Geneva. 103 pp.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Tropical Insect Science
  • ISSN: 1742-7584
  • EISSN: 1742-7592
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-tropical-insect-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed