Skip to main content
×
Home

Natural Enemies of Cereal Stemborers in East Africa: a Review

  • M. J. Bonhof (a1) (a2), W. A. Overholt (a1), A. Van Huis (a2) and A. Polaszek (a3)
Abstract
Abstract

The noctuids Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis and the pyraloids Chilo partellus, Chilo orichalcociliellus and Eldana saccharina are the most important stemborers of maize in East Africa. A wide range of egg, larval and pupal parasitoids of stemborers have been identified, but information on predators, nematodes and microbial pathogens is less extensive. The most abundant and widespread parasitoids in the East African region are the egg parasitoids Telenomus spp. and Trichogramma spp., the larval parasitoids Cotesia sesamiae and Sturmiopsis parasitica and the pupal parasitoids Pediobius furvus and Dentichasmias busseolae. Predators, such as ants, spiders and earwigs can cause high mortality of eggs and young larvae in some areas. Nematodes and microbial pathogens have been reported to infect all life stages, but their impact is low under natural conditions. The abundance of natural enemies can vary considerably between locations and seasons. In general, indigenous natural enemies are not able to keep stemborer populations below economic injury levels. This paper summarises what is currently known of the natural enemies of cereal stemborers in East Africa.

Résumé

Les foreurs de tiges de maïs les plus importants de l'Afrique de l'est sont les noctuidés, Busseola fusca, Sesamia calamistis et les pyrales, Chilo partellus, Chilo orichalcociliellus, et Eldana saccharina. Une grande variété de parasitoïdes des oeufs, des larves et des pupes de ces foreurs est déjà connue. En revanche, l'information sur les prédateurs, les nématodes, et les pathogènes microbiens est limitée. Les parasitoïdes les plus abondants et ayant une plus grande distribution en Afrique de l'est sont les parasitoïdes des oeufs, Telenomus spp., Trichogramma spp., les parasitoïdes des larves, Cotesia sesamiae, Sturmiopsis parasitica et ceux des pupes, Pediobius furvus, et Dentichasmias busseolae. Les prédateurs telles que les fourmis peuvent dans certaines regions causer une mortalité élevée des oeufs et des jeunes larves. Il a été rapporté que les nématodes et les microbes infectent tous les stades de vie du foreur de tige, toutefois, leur impact est bas sous conditions naturelles. L'abondance des ennemis naturels varie selon les régions et les saisons. En général, les ennemis naturels locaux sont incapables de maintenir les populations des foreurs en dessous des seuils de dommages économiques. Cet article resume toutes les informations connues sur les ennemis naturels des foreurs de tiges de céréales en Africa de l'est.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Achterberg C. van (1979) A revision of the species of Amicrocentrinae, a new subfamily (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) with a description of the final larval instar o. Amicrocentrum curvinervis by J. R. T. Short. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 122, 1315.
Achterberg C. van and Polaszek A. (1996) The parasites of cereal stemborers (Lepidoptera: Cossidae, Crambidae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae) in Africa, belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische verhandelingen 304, 1123.
Benoit P. L. G. (1959) Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae. Banchinae, Bassinae, Pimplinae et Tryphoninae. South African AnimalLife 6, 441482.
Berger A. (1992) Larval movements o. Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) within and between plants: Timing, density responses and survival. Bull. Entomol. Res. 82, 441–148.
Bordat D., Coquard J. and Renand M. (1984) Quelques moyens de lutte pour enrayer les nosemoses de trois foreurs des graminées éleves en laboratoire sur miliéu nutritif artificiel. Agron. trop. 39, 275285.
Brownbridge M. (1989) Further evaluation of B. thuringiensis for the control of lepidopteran pests. IC1PE 17th Annual Report, 1989, 1415.
Brownbridge M. (1991) Nativ. Bacillus thuringiensis isolates for the management of lepidopteran cereal pests. Insect Sci. Applic. 12, 5761.
Chacko M. J. and Ogedah K. (1990) Survey for other parasitoids of sorghum and maize stem borers. ICIPE 18th Annual Report, 1990, 31.
Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control (CIBC) 19681972. Annual Reports.
Duerden J. C. (1953) Stem borers of cereal crops at Kongwa, Tanganyika 1950–1952. East African Agric. J. 19, 105119.
Dwumfour E. F. (1990) Predators of Chilo partellus. ICIPE 18th Annual Report, 1990, 3236.
Dwumfour E. F., Owino J. and Andere M. (1991) Discovery capacity by parasitoids and predators of Chilo partellus eggs. ICIPE 19th Annual Report, 1991, 2324.
Easwaramoorthy S. and David H. (1979) A granulosis virus of sugarcane shoot borer. Chilo infuscatellus Snell. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Current Science 48, 685686.
FAO (1994) FAO Production Yearbook. Rome.
Fournier D. and Etienne J. (1981) Effect of parasitism by Nosematidae on the reproduction of Chilo sacchariphagus (Boj.) (Lep., Pyralidae). Agron. Trop. 36, 382388.
Gahan A. B. (1928) Some reared parasitic Hymenoptera from The Sudan. Bull. Entomol. Res. 19, 255257.
Gebre-Amlak A. (1985) Survey of the lepidopterous stemborers attacking maize and sorghum in Ethiopia. Ethiopian J. Agric. Sci. 7, 1526.
Gelernter W. D. (1997) Transgenic pest control products: Development and commercialization status, pp. 4853. In Transgenic Plants in Mesoamerican Agriculture (Bacillus thuringiensis) (Edited by Hruska A. J. and Pavón M. L.). Zamorano Academic Press, Honduras, Central America.
Girling D. J. (1972) Report on investigations on graminaceous stem borers in East Africa (November 1969–March 1972). Report of the Commonwealth Institute for Biological Control.
Girling D. J. (1977) Pasierola sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) as parasite o. Eldana saccharina Wlk. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Biological control of the stemborer in Uganda. Entomologists' Monthly Magazine 113, 211212.
Girling D. J. (1978) The distribution and biology o. Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and its relationship to other stemborers in Uganda. Bull. Entomol. Res. 68, 471488.
Greathead D. J. (1990) Utilization of natural enemies o. Chilo spp. for management in Africa. Insect Sci. Applic. 11, 749755.
Harris K. M. (1990) Bioecology of sorghum stem borers. Insect Sci. Applic. 11, 467477.
ICIPE (1995) Plant Pest Management Programme. Natural pesticides from neem. ICIPE Annual Report 1995, 2629.
Ingram W. R. (1958) The lepidopterous stalk borers associated with graminae in Uganda. Bull. Entomol. Res. 49, 367383.
La Croix E. A. S. (1967) Maize stalk borers in the coast province of Kenya. East African Agric. For. J. 33, 4954.
LePelley R. (1959) Agricultural Insects of East Africa, East African High Commision, Nairobi, 307 pp.
Litsinger J. A. and Moody K. (1976) Integrated pest management in multiple cropping systems, pp. 293317. In Multiple Cropping (Edited by Papendich R. I., Sanchez P. A. and Triplett G. B.). American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin.
Maniania N. K. (1991) Susceptibility o. Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lep., Pyralidae) eggs to entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes. J. Appl. Entomol. 112, 5358.
Maniania N. K. (1992) Pathogenicity of entomogenous fungi (Hyphomycetes) to larvae of the stemborer. Chilo partellus Swinhoe and Busseola fusca Fuller. Insect Sci. Applic. 13, 691696.
Maniania N. K. (1993) Evaluation of three formulations o. Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. for control of the stemborer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)(Lep., Pyralidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 115, 266272.
Maniania N. K., Okello R. O., Oluoch R. O. and Odero T. A. (1994) Potential of entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes (Deuteromycotina) fungi for the control of the stembore. Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Afr. Zool. 108, 529536.
Mathez F. C. (1972) Chilo partellus Swinh., C. orichalcociliella Strand (Lep., Crambidae) and Sesamia calamistis Hmps. (Lep., Noctuidae) on maize in the coast province, Kenya. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 45, 267289.
Mehta O. K. and David H. (1980) A granulosis virus disease of sugarcane internode borer. Madras Ague. J. 67, 616619.
Mihm J. A. (1994) Maize pest management—multiple insect and disease resistant varieties are the key to success. In Maize Research for Stress Environments. Proceedings of the Fourth Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference, 28 March–1 April 1994, Harare, Zimbabwe, CIMMYT.
Milner J. E. D. (1967) Final report on a survey of the parasites of graminaceous stem-borers in East Africa. CommonwealthInstitute of Biological Control (cyclostyled report).
Minja E. M. (1990) Management o. Chilo spp. infesting cereals in Eastern Africa. Insect Sci. Applic. 11, 489499.
Mohammed N. O. and Venkatraman T. V. (1966) The biology and control of the dina stalk bore. Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Sudan. Sudan Agric. J. 2, 116.
Mohyuddin A. I. (1968) Investigations of the natural enemies of lepidopterous stemborers of graminaceous crops in East Africa (for Tanzania). CIBC, East African Station, Kampala, Uganda, Annual Report 1968, 15.
Mohyuddin A. I. (1990) Biological control o. Chilo spp. in maize, sorghum and millet. Insect Sci. Applic. 11, 721732.
Mohyuddin A. I. and Greathead D. J. (1970) An annotated list of the parasites of graminaceous stemborers in East Africa, with a discussion of their potential in biological control. Entomophaga 15, 241274.
Nyambo B. T. and Mwangi M. (1991) Management of maize and sorghum stalks and residues by small-scale farmers and its implications for IPM control strategies in Kenya, pp. 5563. In Proceedings of a Seminar on Crop Protection for Resource-Poor Farmers (Edited by Gibson R. W. and Sweetmore A.), UK, 4–8 November 1991.
Nye I. W. B. (1960) The insect pests of graminaceous crops in East Africa. Colonial Research Studies No. 31. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 48 pp.
Odindo M. O., Otieno W. A., Oloo G. W., Kilori J. and Odhiambo R. C. (1989) Prevalence of microorganisms in field-sampled borers on sorghum, maize and cowpea in Western Kenya. Insect Sci. Applic. 10, 225228.
Odindo M. O. (1990) Potential o. Nosema spp. (Microspora, Nosematidae) and viruses in the managementof Chilo spp. (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Insect Sci. Applic. 11, 773778.
Odindo M. O., Ngugi E., Amutalla P., Ouma B. and Yogo M. (1990) Pathogen-incorporated diet for management of Chilo partellus infesting sorghum. ICIPE 18th Annual Report, 1990, 34.
Odindo M. O., Ngalo Z., Ngugi E., Amutalla P., Ouma B., Oriwo M. and Onyango T. (1991) Nosema marucae and Bacillus thuringiensis for the control of cereal stemborers of maize and sorghum. ICIPE 19th Annual Report, 1991, 2122.
Odindo M. O., Amutalla P., Opondo-Mbai M. and Anyango Odero T. (1993) Production o. Nosema marucae for biological control of cereal stemborers. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 67, 143148.
Oloo G. W. (1989) The role of local natural enemies in population dynamics o. Chilo partellus (Swinh.) (Pyralidae) under subsistence farming systems in Kenya. Insect Sci. Applic. 10, 243251.
Oloo G. W. and Ogeda K. (1990) The incidence o. Chilo partellus (Swinh.) (Pyralidae) and the contribution of natural enemies to its mortality under intercropping systems in Kenya. Trop. Pest Manage. 36, 244248.
Omwega C. O., Kimani S. W., Overholt W. A. and Ogol C. K. P. O. (1995) Evidence of the establishment o. Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in continental Africa. Bull. Entomol. Res. 85, 525530.
Omwega C. O., Overholt W. A., Mbapila J. C. and Kimani-Njogu S. W. (1997) Establishment and dispersal of Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an exotic endoparasitoid of Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in northern Tanzania. African Entomology (in press).
Otieno W. A. (1985) Incidence of pathogens of crop borers in relation to their mortality in different intercropping systems. ICIPE 13th Annual Report, 17.
Overholt W. A. (1998) A review of classical biological control of stemborers in Africa. In Cereal Stemborers in Africa: Taxonomy, Natural Enemies, and Control (Edited by Polaszek A.). Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, The Netherlands (in press).
Overholt W. A., Ngi-Song A. J., Omwega C. O., Kimani-Njogu S. W., Mbapila J., Sallam M. N. and Ofomata V. (1997) A reviewof the introduction and establishment of Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in East Africa for biological control of cereal stemborers. Insect Sci. Applic. (in press).
Overholt W. A., Ogeda K. and Lammers P. M. (1994) Distribution and sampling of C. partellus (Swinhoe)(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in maize and sorghum at the Kenyan Coast. Bull. Entomol. Res. 84, 367378.
Polaszek A. (1995) Cereal stem borers in Africa: Taxonomy and natural enemies. Handbook for training course held at ICIPE Nairobi, 15–28 October 1995.
Polaszek A. (1998) African Cereal Stemborers: Economic Importance, Taxonomy, Natural Enemies and Control (Edited by Polaszek A.). CAB International, Wallingford, UK (in press).
Polaszek A. and Kimani S. W. (1990) Telenomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) attacking eggs of pyralid pests (Lepidoptera) in Africa: A review and guide to identification. Bull. Entomol. Res. 80, 5771.
Polaszek A., Ubeku J. A. and Bosque-Perez N. A. (1993) Taxonomy of the Telenomus busseolae species-complex (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) egg parasitoids of cereal stem borers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Pyralidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 83, 221226.
Quicke D. L. J. and Wharton R. A. (1989) Myosoma nyanzaensis sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on the stemborer pes. Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Kenya. Bull. Entomol. Res. 79, 15.
Ritchie A. M. (1932) Report of the Government Entomologist 1931. Report of the Department of Agriculture, Tanganyika, pp. 8386.
Robertson I. A. D. (1965) Notes on Diptera collected in Tanganyika. J. Entomol. Soc. Southern Africa 28, 8091.
Seshu Reddy K. V. (1983) Sorghum stemborers in eastern Africa. Insect Sci. Applic. 4, 3339.
Seshu Reddy K. V. (1988) Assessment of on-farm yield losses in sorghum due to insect pests. Insect Sci. Applic. 9, 679685.
Seshu Reddy K. V. (1989) Sorghum stem borers in eastern Africa. In Int. Workshop on Sorghum Stem Borers, ICRISAT, India, pp. 3340.
Skovgård H. and Päts P. (1996) Effects of intercropping on maize stemborers and their natural enemies. Bull. Entomol. Res. 86, 599607.
Spaull M. A. (1990) Field tests to control the pyralid. Eldana saccharina, with an entomogenous nematode, Heterorhabditis sp. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists' Association 64, 103106.
Spaull M. A. (1992) On the use of methylcellulose polymer to increase the effectiveness of. Heterorhabditis species against the sugarcane stalk borer, Eldana saccharina. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 15, 457461.
Starks K. J. (1969) Some cereal crop insects in East Africa. East African Agriculture and Forestry Research Organization, Serere Research Station, Uganda (Mimeo).
Tarns W. H. T. (1932) New species of African Heterocera. Entomologist 65, 12411249.
Waiyaki J. N. (1968) The ecology o. Eldana saccharina Walker, and associated loss in cane yield at Arusha-Chini, Moshi, Tanzania. Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists 15, 457462.
Walker A. K. (1994) Species of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitising lepidopterous stem borers in Africa. Bull. Entomol. Res. (in press).
Walters H. S. and Kfir R. (1993) Development o. Nosema partellus sp. n. (Protozoa: Microsporidia: Nosematidae) inthe stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). African Entomology 1, 5762.
Warui C. M. and Kuria J. N. (1983) Population incidence and the control of maize stalkborer. Chilo partellus (Swinh.) and Chilo orichalcociliellus Strand and Sesamia calamistis Hmps. in Coast Province, Kenya. Insect Sci. Applic. 4, 1118.
Whalon M. E. and Norris D. L. (1997) Pest resistance management and transgenic plant deployment: Perspectives and policy recommendations for Mesoamerica, pp. 6285. In Transgenic Plants in Mesoamerican Agriculture (Bacillus thuringiensis) (Edited by Hruska A. J. and Pavón M. L.). Zamorano Academic Press, Honduras, Central America.
Wilkinson D. S. (1932) Revision of Ethiopian species of the genu. Apanteles (Braconidae). Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London 80, 301344.
Youdeowei A. (1989) Major arthropod pests of food and industrial crops of Africa and their economic importance, pp. 3150. In Biological Control: A Sustainable Solution to Crop Pest Problems in Africa (Edited by Yaninek J. S. and Herren H. R.). Ibadan, Nigeria, IITA.
Zwart K. W. R. (1998) Ichneumonidae. In African Cereal Stem Borers: Economic Importance, Taxonomy, Natural Enemies andControl (Edited by Polaszek A.). CAB International, Wallingford, UK (in press).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Tropical Insect Science
  • ISSN: 1742-7584
  • EISSN: 1742-7592
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-tropical-insect-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 5 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 85 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 13th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.