Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Dynamics of cocoa pollination: tools and applications for surveying and monitoring cocoa pollinators

  • E.A. Frimpong (a1), I. Gordon (a2), P.K. Kwapong (a1) and B. Gemmill-Herren (a3)
Abstract

Pollinators are important natural agents for fruit and seed formation in most tree crops and the use of appropriate sampling methods is fundamental in studying their population. A study to develop surveying and monitoring protocols for cocoa pollinators was undertaken in Ghana. Yellow, white and blue UV-bright painted pan traps (UVPPT), McPhail traps and motorized aspirators were used to sample pollinators of cocoa for 13 successive months, after 6 days assessment of the effectiveness of the traps and diurnal active period of the pollinators. The peak pollinating period of cocoa by ceratopogonid midges was between 07.00 and 12.00 h, as previously reported. All three methods were effective in sampling ceratopogonid midges with the UVPPT being the most efficient in terms of sampling effort. The number of ceratopogonid midges caught by the yellow-UVPPT was significantly higher than that by blue- and white-UVPPT. The diversity of midges caught could not be determined due to taxonomic difficulties, and thus all the three colours of UVPPT should be used until efficiency in terms of diversity is determined. It is reported here that the meliponine bee Liotrigona parvula Darchen visits cocoa flowers and thus their effectiveness in cocoa pollination should be investigated.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*E-mail: nanakofy@yahoo.com
References
Hide All
Afreh-Nuamah, K. (1999) Insect Pests of Tree Crops in Ghana: Identification, Damage and Control Measures. Buck Press Ltd, Accra. 65 pp.
Billes, D. J. (1941) Pollination of Theobroma cacao L. in Trinidad. Tropical Agriculture 17 (8), 151.
Brew, A. H. (1985) Studies of cocoa pollination in Ghana. Proceedings of 9th International Cocoa Research Conference, Lome, Togo. Cocoa Producers Alliance, Lagos. pp. 567571.
Brew, A. H. (1988) The effect of colours and specific features of floral parts on the pollination of cocoa by ceratopogonid midges in Ghana. Proceedings of the 10th International Cocoa Research Conference, 1987, Santa Domingo. Cocoa Producers Alliance, Lagos. pp. 307310.
Cope, F. W. (1939) Agents of Pollination in Cacao. 9th Annual Report. Cacao Research Institute, Trinidad.
Frankie, G. W., Vinson, S. B., Thorp, R. W., Rizzardi, M. A., Tomkins, M. and Newstrom-Lloyd, I. E. (2002) Monitoring an essential tool in bee ecology and conservation, pp. 187198. In Pollinating Bees: The Conservation Link Between Agriculture and Nature. Proceedings of the Workshop on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Pollinators in Agriculture, with Emphasis on Bees, 1998, Sao Paulo, Brazil (edited by Kevan, P. G. and Imperatriz-Fonseca, V. L.). Ministry of Environment, Secretariat for Biodiversity and Forests.
Gomez, K. A. and Gomez, A. A. (1984) Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research, 2nd edn. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York. 680 pp.
Kaufmann, T. (1973) Preliminary observations on a cecidomyiid midge and its role as a cocoa pollinator in Ghana. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science 6, 193198.
Kaufmann, T. (1974 a) Ecology and behaviour of cocoa pollinating Ceratopogonidae in Ghana, West Africa. Environmental Entomology 4, 347351.
Kaufmann, T. (1974 b) Behavioural biology of a cocoa pollinator, Forcipormyia inornatipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Ghana. Journal of Kansas Entomological Society 47, 541548.
Kaufmann, T. (1975) Pollinators of Theobroma cacao in Ghana. Proceedings of 4th Conference of West African Cocoa Entomologists, 1974, Accra (edited by Kumar, R.). Universities Press, Accra. pp. 7781.
McGregor, S. E. (1976) Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants. US Department of Agriculture Handbook, Washington, DC. 411 pp.
Murray, D. (1975) The botany of cocoa, pp. 718. In Cocoa (edited by Wood, G. A. R.). Longman, London.
Padi, B. and Owusu, G. K. (1998) Towards an integrated pest management for sustainable cocoa production in Ghana. Proceedings of the First International Sustainable Cocoa Workshop, March, Panama City.
Posnette, A. F. (1944) Pollination of cacao in Trinidad. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 21, 115118.
Potts, S. G. (2005) Plant interface–pollinator interface, pp. 329394. In Practical Pollination Biology (edited by Dafni, A., Kevan, P. G. and Husband, B. C.). Enviroquest Ltd, Ontario.
Potts, S. G., Nuttman, C., Kwapong, P. K., Combey, R. and Willmer, P. (2006) A Standardized Method for Assessing Pollinator Biodiversity in Tropical Forests and Agro-ecosystems. A report to the British Ecological Society. 13 pp.
Saunders, L. G. (1959) Methods for studying Forcipomyia midges, with special reference to cacao-pollinating species (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 37, 3351.
Scudder, G. G. E. and Cannings, R. A. (2006) Diptera families of British Columbia. http://ditera.info/download (accessed 4 March 2007).
Swanson, J. D., Carlson, J. E. and Guiltinan, M. J. (2005) The development of Theobroma cacao flowers: A multi-level comparison to arabidopsis: Summary of a PhD thesis. Ingenic Newsletter 10, 1013.
Winder, J. A. and Silva, P. (1972) Cacao pollination: Microdiptera of cacao plantations and some of their breeding places. Bulletin of Entomological Research 61, 651655.
Young, A. M. (1981) The ineffectiveness of the stingless bees Trigona jatty (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae) as a pollinator of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). Journal of Applied Ecology 18, 140155.
Young, A. M. (1982 a) Effects of shade cover and availability of midge breeding sites on pollinating midge populations and fruit set in two cocoa farms. Journal of Applied Ecology 19, 4763.
Young, A. M. (1982 b) Population Biology of Tropical Insects. Plenum Press, New York. 511 pp.
Young, A. M. (1985) Research on the natural pollination of cocoa in Central America: Overview of current directions. In Proceedings of the 9th International Cocoa Research Conference, 1984, Lome. Cocoa Producers Alliance, Lagos. pp. 557565.
Young, A. M., Schaller, M. and Strand, M. (1984) Floral nectaries and trichomes in relation to pollination in some species of Theobroma and Herrania (Sterculiaceae). American Journal of Botany 4, 466480.
Young, A. M., Erickson, B. J. and Erickson, E. H. Jr (1988) Steam distilled floral oils of Theobroma sp. (Sterculiaceae) as attractants to flying insects during dry and wet seasons in a Costa Rican cocoa plantation. Proceedings of the 10th International Cocoa Research Conference, 1987, Santa Domingo. Cocoa Producers Alliance, Lagos. pp. 289296.
Zahradnik, J. (1999) Insects. Blitz Editions, Leicester. 319 pp.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Tropical Insect Science
  • ISSN: 1742-7584
  • EISSN: 1742-7592
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-tropical-insect-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed