Skip to main content
×
×
Home

A review of the issues and management of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Rhynchophoridae) in coconut and date palm during the last one hundred years

  • J.R. Faleiro (a1)
Abstract

The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), a concealed tissue borer, is a lethal pest of palms and is reported to attack 17 palm species worldwide. Although the weevil was first reported on coconut Cocos nucifera from South Asia, during the last two decades it has gained a foothold on date palm Phoenix dactylifera in several Middle Eastern countries from where it has moved to Africa and Europe, mainly due to the movement of infested planting material. In the Mediterranean region, RPW also severely damages Phoenix canariensis. Currently, the pest is reported in c. 15% of the coconut-growing countries and in nearly 50% of the date palm-growing countries. Infested palms, if not detected early and treated, often die. However, palms in the early stages of attack respond to chemical treatment with insecticide. RPW has been managed in several countries employing an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy including the use of food-baited pheromone traps. Early detection of infestation in the field is important for the success of any RPW-IPM programme. Ideally, movement of planting material from infested plantations within the country and also from one country to another needs to be stopped. Wherever this is not possible, it is essential to implement strict pre- and post-entry quarantine regimes, wherein only pest-free and certified planting material can be transported. The existing pheromone-based IPM programme can be strengthened by intensifying the search for effective natural enemies, coupled with the introduction of resistance in palms to RPW. This article reviews the work done during the last 100 years on various aspects of RPW viz. life history, damage and symptoms of attack, seasonal activity, spatial distribution, host range, IPM and its main components, including trapping adult weevils and chemical control, besides biological control, host plant resistance and male sterile technique.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*E-mail: jrfaleiro@yahoo.co.in
References
Hide All
Abad, R. G. and Gallego, V. C. (1978) Chemical control of Asiatic palm weevil through the drill–pour–plug method. In Proceedings of the 9th Annual Conference on Pest Control in Coconut, 6–8 May, Manila, Philippines.
Abbas, M. S. T., Hanounik, S. B., Mousa, S. A. and Al-Bagham, S. H. (2000) Soil application of entomopathogenic nematodes as a new approach for controlling Rhynchophorus ferrugineus on date palm. International Journal of Nematology 10, 215218.
Abbas, M. S. T., Hanounik, S. B., Mousa, S. A. and Mansour, M. I. (2001a) Pathogenicity of Steinernema abbasi and Heterorhabitis indicus isolated from adult Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. International Journal of Nematology 11, 6972.
Abbas, M. S. T., Saleh, M. M. E. and Akil, A. M. (2001b) Laboratory and field evaluation of the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Anzeiger für Schadlingskunde 74, 167168.
Abdallah, F. F. and Al-Khatri, S. A. (2000) The effectiveness of trunk injection and fumigation for the control of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier in date palm. Journal of Plant Protection in the Tropics 13, 1721.
Abdallah, F. F. and Al-Khatri, S. A. (2005) The effect of pheromone, kairomone and food bait on attracting males and females of red palm weevil. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 83, 169177.
Abdulsalam, K. S., Shawir, M. S., Abo-El- Saad, M. M., Rezk, M. A. and Ajlan, A. M. (2001) Regent (fipronil) as a candidate insecticide to control red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier). Annals of Agriculture (Cairo) 46, 841849.
Abo-El-Saad, M. M., Ajlan, A. M., Shawir, M. S., Abdulsalam, K. S. and Rezk, M. A. (2001) Comparative toxicity of four pyrethroid insecticides against red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) under laboratory conditions. Journal of Pest Control and Environmental Science 9, 6376.
Abozuhairah, R. A., Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V. and Abraham, V. A. (1996) Integrated management of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in date palm plantations of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, p. 541. In Proceedings of the XX International Congress of Entomology [DO29], 25–36 August, Firenze, Italy.
Abraham, V. A. (1971) Prevention of red palm weevil entry into coconut palms through wounds. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Science 5, 121122.
Abraham, V. A. and Kurian, C. (1975) An integrated approach to the control of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F. the red weevil of coconut palm, pp. 1–5. In Proceedings of the 4th Session of the FAO Technical Working Party on Coconut Production, Protection and Processing, 14–25 September, Kingston, Jamaica.
Abraham, V. A. and Nair, S. S. (2001) Evaluation of five insecticides for use in the red palm weevil pheromone traps. Pestology 25, 3133.
Abraham, V. A., Mathen, K. and Kurian, C. (1966) Aids to detect red palm weevil infestation in coconut palm. Coconut Bulletin 20, 148152.
Abraham, V. A., Abdulla Koya, K. M. and Kurian, C. (1975) Evaluation of seven insecticides for control of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Fabr. Journal of Plantation Crops 3, 7172.
Abraham, V. A., Abdulla Koya, K. M. and Kurian, C. (1989) Integrated management of red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) in coconut gardens. Journal of Plantation Crops 16 (Supplement), 159162.
Abraham, V. A., Mahmood, Al-Shuaibi, Faleiro, J. R., Abozuhairah, R. A. and Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V. (1998) An integrated approach for the management of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.—A key pest of date palm in the Middle East. Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Scientific Research, Agricultural Science 3, 7783.
Abraham, V. A., Nair, S. S. and Nair, C. P. R. (1999a) A comparative study on the efficacy of pheromone lures in trapping red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coconut gardens. Indian Coconut Journal 30, 12.
Abraham, V. A., Faleiro, J. R. and Al-Shuaibi, M. A. (1999b) Sex ratio of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus captured from date palm plantations of Saudi Arabia using pheromone traps. Indian Journal of Entomology 61, 201204.
Abraham, V. A., Faleiro, J. R., Al-Shuaibi, M. A. and Prem Kumar, T. (2000) A strategy to manage red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. on date palm Phoenix dactylifera L.—Its successful implementation in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pestology 24, 2330.
Abraham, V. A., Faleiro, J. R., Al-Shuaibi, M. A. and Saad Al Abdan, (2001) Status of pheromone trap captured female red palm weevils from date gardens in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Tropical Agriculture 39, 197199.
Abraham, V. A., Faleiro, J. R., Nair, C. P. R. and Nair, S. S. (2002) Present management technologies for red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in palms and future thrusts. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems 8, 6982.
Ajlan, A. M. and Abdulsalam, K. S. (2000) Efficiency of pheromone traps for controlling the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), under Saudi Arabia conditions. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt (Economics Series) 27, 109120.
Ajlan, A. M. and Abdulsalam, K. S. (2005) Efficacy of two pheromone types on red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus under Saudi Arabian conditions. Indian Journal of Plant Protection 33, 220222.
Ajlan, A. M., Shawir, M., Abo-El-Saad Rezk, M. A. and Abdulsalam, K. S. (2000) Laboratory evaluation of certain organophosphorus insecticides against the red palm weevil (Olivier). Scientific Journal of King Faisal University 1, 1526.
Alarcon, F. J., Peregirna, A., Martinez, T. F., Mayoral, J. G. and Barranco, P. (2004) Carbohydrate digestion of larvae of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790), (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal Plagas 30, 519532.
Aldryhim, Y. and Al-Bukiri, S. (2003) Effect of irrigation on within-grove distribution of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Scientific Research (Agricultural and Marine Sciences) 8, 4749.
Aldryhim, Y. and Khalil, A. (2003) Effect of humidity and soil type on survival and behaviour of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) adults. Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Scientific Research (Agricultural and Marine Sciences) 8, 8790.
Alfazariy, A. A. (2004) Notes on the survival capacity of two naturally occurring entomopathogens on the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 14, 423.
Alfazairy, A. A., Hendi, R., El-Minshawy, A. M. and Karam, H. H. (2003) Entomopathogenic agents isolated from 19 coleopteran insect pests in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 13, 125.
Al-Khatri, S. A. (2004) Date palm pests and their control, pp. 8488. In Proceedings of the Date Palm Regional Workshop on Ecosystem-based IPM for Date Palm in Gulf Countries, 28–30 March, Al-Ain, UAE.
Al-Rajhy, D. H., Hussein, H. I. and Al-Shawaf, A. M. A. (2005) Insecticidal activity of carbaryl and its mixture with piperonylbutoxide against red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) and their effects on acetylcholinesterase activity. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 8, 679682.
Anon. (1956) Red palm weevil. The hidden enemy that works from within. Coconut Bulletin 10, 7781.
Anon. (1998) Final Report of the Indian Technical Team (Part A): Red Palm Weevil Control Project, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, pp 165.
Anon. (2004) The Middle East Red Palm Weevil Programme, July 1998 to June, 2004 (Final Report). The Peres Center for Peace, Israel. 62 pp.
Avand Faghih, A. (1996) The biology of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Saravan region (Sistan and Balouchistan Province, Iran). Applied Entomology and Phytopathology 63, 1618.
Banerjee, A. and Dangar, T. K. (1995) Pseudomonas aeruginosa a facultative pathogen of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 11, 618620.
Banu, J. G. and Rajendran, G. (2002) Host records of an entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica. Insect Environment 8, 6163.
Banu, J. G. and Rajendran, G. (2003) Nematodes associated with red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus L. in Kerala. Journal of Experimental Zoology 6, 99100.
Banu, J. G., Rajendran, G. and Subramanian, S. (2003) Susceptibility of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) to entomopathogenic nematodes. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences 11, 104106.
Barranco, P., Pena, J. DeLa. and Cabello, T. (1995) Un nuevo curculiónido tropical para la fauna Europa, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier 1790), (Curculionidae: Coleoptera). Boletin de la Asociaction Espanola de Entomologia 20, 257258.
Barranco, P., Pena, J. A. Dela., Martin, M. M., Cabello, T., et al. , (1998) Efficacy of chemical control of the new palm pest Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier 1790) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera). Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas 24, 301306.
Barranco, P., Pena, J. A. Dela., Martin, M. M. and Cabello, T. (2002) Host rank for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) and host diameter (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bolentin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas 26, 7378.
Beevi, S. N., Maheswari, P. and Mohan, P. and Ambily, Paul (2004). Laboratory screening of newer insecticides against the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferruginous Oliv. Entomon 29, 401404.
Borden, J. H. (1985) Aggregation pheromones, pp. 257285. In Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology Vol. 9. (Edited by Kerkut, G. A. and Gilbert, L. I.). Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Brand, E. (1917) Coconut red weevil. Some facts and fallacies. Tropical Agriculture Magazine of the Ceylon Agricultural Society 49, 2224.
Brun, L., Kamal, W. and Soliman, A. (2006) The date palm in Egypt: A traditional cash crop threatened by the red palm weevil. In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Red Palm Weevil, 28–29, November 2005, IVIA, Valencia, Spain pp. 180 (in press).
Burkill, I. H. (1917) Scolia erratica (Smith), a parasite of the red coconut weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus). Garden Bulletin 1, 399400.
Buxton, P. A. (1920) Insect pests of dates and the date palm in Mesopotamia and elsewhere. Bulletin of Entomological Research 11, 287303.
Cabello, T. P. (2006) Biology and population dynamics of red palm weevil in Spain. In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Red Palm Weevil, 28–29, November 2005, IVIA, Valencia, Spain (in press).
Cabello, T. P., Pena, J. A. Dela., Barranco, P. and Belda, J. (1997) Laboratory evaluation of imidacloprid and oxamyl against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars 18, 67.
Cox, M. L. (1993) Red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in Egypt. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 41, 3031.
Dangar, T. K. (1997) Infection of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, by a yeast. Journal of Plantation Crops 25, 193196.
Dangar, T. K. and Banerjee, A. (1993) Infection of red palm weevil by microbial pathogens, pp. 531533. In Advances in Coconut Research and Development (Edited by M. K. Nair, H. H. Khan, P. Gopalasundaram and E. V. V. Bhaskara Rao). Oxford IBM Publishing Co., New Delhi.
El-Ezaby, F. (1997) A biological in vitro study on the red Indian date palm weevil. Arab Journal of Plant Protection 15, 8487.
El-Ezaby, F., Khalifa, O. and El-Assal, A. (1998) Integrated Pest Management for the control of red palm weevil in the UAE Eastern region, Al-Ain, pp. 269281. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Date Palms, March 1998 (Edited by M. A. Rahman Al-Afifi and A. Al-Sharif Al-Badawy). Al-Ain, UAE.
El-Garhy, M. E. (1996) Field evaluation of the aggregation pheromone of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in Egypt. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests and Diseases 3, 10591064.
El-Sebay, Y. (2003) Ecological studies on the red palm weevils Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 81, 523529.
El-Sebay, Y., El-Lattef, M. A. K. and Makhlouf, T. M. (2003) Laboratory rearing of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on artificial diet. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research 81, 551554.
Esteban-Duran, J., Yela, J. L., Beitia Crespo, F. and Jimenez Alvarez, A. (1998) Biology of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Rhynchophorinae), in the laboratory and field, life cycle, biological characteristics in its zone of introduction in Spain, biological method of detection and possible control. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal Plagas 24, 737748.
Faleiro, J. R. (2005) Pheromone technology for the management of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Rhynchophoridae)—A key pest of coconut. Technical Bulletin No. 4, ICAR Research Complex for Goa. 40 pp.
Faleiro, J. R. (2006) Insight into the management of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier based on experiences on coconut in India and date palm in Saudi Arabia. In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Red Palm Weevil, 28–29, November 2005, IVIA, Valencia, Spain (in press)
Faleiro, J. R. and Chellappan, M. (1999) Attraction of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus to different ferrugineol based pheromone lures in coconut gardens. Journal of Tropical Agriculture 37, 6063.
Faleiro, J. R. and Rangnekar, P. A. (2001) Ovipositional preference of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. to coconut cultivars. Indian Coconut Journal 32, 2223.
Faleiro, J. R. and Satarkar, V. R. (2002) Suitability of insecticides for use in red palm weevil pheromone traps. Pestology 26, 3436.
Faleiro, J. R. and Satarkar, V. R. (2003a) Diurnal activity of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier in coconut plantations of Goa. Insect Environment 9, 6364.
Faleiro, J. R. and Satarkar, V. R. (2003b) Ferrugineol based pheromone lures for trapping red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Rhynchophoridae) in coconut plantations. Indian Journal of Plant Protection 31, 8487.
Faleiro, J. R. and Satarkar, V. R. (2003c) Standardizing pheromone trap density for mass trapping red palm weevil in coconut. In Proceedings of the National Symposium on Frontier Areas of Entomological Research, 5–7 November, New Delhi.
Faleiro, J. R. and Satarkar, V. R. (2005) Attraction of food baits for use in red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier pheromone traps. Indian Journal of Plant Protection 33, 2325.
Faleiro, J. R., Abraham, V. A. and Al-Shuaibi, M. A. (1998) Role of pheromone trapping in the management of red palm weevil. Indian Coconut Journal 29, 13.
Faleiro, J. R., Mahmood Al-Shuaibi, , Abraham, V. A. and Premkumar, T. (1999) A technique to assess the longevity of the palm weevil pheromone (Ferrolure) under different conditions in Saudi Arabia. Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Scientific Research (Agricultural Science) 4, 59.
Faleiro, J. R., Abraham, V. A., Nabil Boudi, , Al-Shuaibi, M. A. and Premkumar, T. (2000) Field evaluation of different types of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus pheromone lures. Indian Journal of Entomology 62, 427433.
Faleiro, J. R., Ashok Kumar, J. and Rangnekar, P. A. (2002) Spatial distribution of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coconut plantations. Crop Protection 21, 171176.
Faleiro, J. R., Rangnekar, P. A. and Satarkar, V. R. (2003) Age and fecundity of female red palm weevils Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Rhynchophoridae) captured by pheromone traps in coconut plantations of India. Crop Protection 22, 9991002.
Faleiro, J. R., Mayilvaganan, M., Nair, C. P. R. and Satarkar, V. R. (2004) Efficacy of indigenous pheromone lure for red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Rhynchophoridae). Insect Environment 10, 164166.
Farazmand, H. (2002) Investigation on the reasons of food preference of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology 70, 1112.
Ganeswara Rao, A., Laxminarayana, K. and Ramamohana Rao, P. (1980) Administration of systemic insecticide through root—A new method of control of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Fab. in coconut. Indian Coconut Journal 11, 56.
Ganeswara Rao, A., Ramamohana Rao, P., Ramamohana Rao, T. and Laxminarayana, K. (1989) Studies on the effect of root feeding of systemic insecticides in the control of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Fab. in coconut. Indian Coconut Journal 19, 1216.
Ghazavi, M. and Avand-Faghih, (2002) Isolation of two entomopathogenic fungi on red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Iran. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology 69, 4445.
Gomez, S. and Ferry, M. (2002) The red palm weevil in the Mediterranean area, (formerly Principes). Palms 46, 172178.
Gopinandhan, P. B. (1993) Natural occurrence of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of red palm weevil in Kerala pp. 527530. In Advances in Coconut Research and Development (Edited by M. K. Nair, H. H. Khan, P. Gopalasundaram and E. V. V. Bhaskara Rao). Oxford IBM Publishing Co., New Delhi.
Gopinandhan, P. B., Mohandas, N. and Vasudevan Nair, K. P. (1990) Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus infecting red palm weevil of coconut. Current Sciences 59, 577580.
Green, E. E. (1906) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Tropical Agriculturist 27 p
Gunawardena, N. E. (1994) Terpenes as potential semiochemical for coconut pest Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): An electroantennogram assay. Journal of the Natural Sciences Council of Sri Lanka 22, 3542.
Gunawardena, N. E. and Bandarage, U. K. (1995) 4-methyl-5-nonanol (ferrugineol) as an aggregation pheromone of the coconut pest, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Synthesis and use in a preliminary field assay. Journal of the Natural Sciences Council of Sri Lanka 23, 7179.
Gunawardena, N. E. and Swarnakanthi, M. N. A. (1995) Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of the coconut pest, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to host, non-host and alternate host plant volatiles. Journal of the Natural Sciences Council of Sri Lanka 23, 6370.
Hagley, E. A. C. (1965) Test of attractants for the palm weevil. Journal of Economic Entomology 58, 10021003.
Hallett, R. H., Gries, G., Borden, J. H., Czyzewska, E., Oehlschlager, A. C., Pierce, H. D. Jr, Angerilli, N. P. D. and Rauf, A. (1993a) Aggregation pheromones of two Asian palm weevils, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and R. vulneratus. Naturwissenschaften 80, 328331.
Hallett, R. H., Oehlschlager, A. C., Gries, G., Gries, R., Angerilli, N. D. P., Shareqi, R. K., Gassouma, M. S. and Borden, J. H. (1993b) Field-testing of aggregation pheromones of two Asian palm weevils. In Proceedings of the PORIM International Palm Oil Congress: Update and Vision, 20–25 September, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Hallett, R. H., Oehlschlager, A. C. and Borden, J. H. (1999) Pheromone trapping protocols for the Asian palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). International Journal of Pest Management 45, 231237.
Hallett, R. H., Crespi, B. J. and Borden, J. H. (2004) Synonymy of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (1790) and R. vulneratus (Panzer), 1798 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Rhynchophoridae). Journal of Natural History 38, 28632882.
Hamad Saad, Al-Saad and El Faith, Mohamed Mahdi (2004) Endoscope: A potential diagnostic tool for red palm weevil infestation, pp. 8993. In Proceedings of the Date Palm Regional Workshop on Ecosystem-Based IPM for Date Palm in Gulf Countries, 28–30 March 2004, Al-Ain, UAE.
Hanounik, S. B. (1998) Steinernematids and heterorhabditids as biological control agents for the red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier). Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Scientific Research (Agricultural Sciences) 3, 95102.
Hanounik, S. B., Saleh, M. M. E., Abuzuairah, R. A., Alheji, M., Aldhahir, H. and Aljarash, Z. (2000) Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes with antidesiccants in controlling the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus on date palm trees. International Journal of Nematology 10, 131134.
Henry, G. M. (1917) The coconut red weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Tropical Agriculture 48, 218219.
Hernandez-Marante, D., Folk, F., Sanchez, A. and Fernandez-Escobar, R. (2003) Control of red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) using trunk injections and foliar sprays. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas 29, 563574.
Jaya, S., Suresh, T., Sobhitha-Rani, R. S. and Sreekumar, S. (2000) Evidence of seven larval instars in the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. reared on sugarcane. Journal of Entomological Research 24, 2731.
Kalleshwaraswamy, C. M., Jagadish, P. S. and Puttaswamy, (2004) Longevity and comparative efficacy of aggregation pheromone lure against red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems 10, 169172.
Kalleshwaraswamy, C. M., Jagadish, P. S. and Puttaswamy, (2005) Age and reproductive status of pheromone trapped females of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems 11, 713.
Kirthisinghe, J. K. F. (1966) Pest control in coconut cultivation. Ceylon Coconut Planters Review 4, 3438.
Krishnakumar, R. and Maheshwari, P. (2003a) Efficacy of different pheromones in trapping the red palm weevils Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.). Insect Environment 9, 28.
Krishnakumar, R. and Maheshwari, P. (2003b) Effect of cashew apple extracts on the mortality of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier). Insect Environment 9, 8384.
Krishnakumar, R. and Maheshwari, P. (2004) Preliminary studies of gamma irradiation on the development of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.). Insect Environment 9, 175177.
Krishnakumar, R. and Sudha, G. (2002) Indian tree pie Dendrocitta vagabunda parvula (Whistler and Kinnear) (Corvidae)—A predatory bird of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.). Insect Environment 8, 133.
Krishnakumar, R., Maheshwari, P. and Dongre, T. K. (2004) Study on comparative efficacy of different types of pheromones in trapping the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. of coconut. Indian Coconut Journal 34, 34.
Kurian, C. and Mathen, K. (1971) Red palm weevil—Hidden enemy of coconut palm. Indian Farming 21, 2931.
Kurian, C., Abraham, V. A. and Ponnamma, K. N. (1984) Attractants, an aid in red palm weevil management, pp. 581585. In Placrosym V.
Lakshmanan, P. L., Subba Rao, P. V. and Subramaniam, T. R. (1972) A note on the control of the coconut red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus with certain new chemicals. Madras Agricultural Journal 59, 638639.
Lefroy, H. M. (1906) The More Important Insects Injurious to Indian Agriculture. Govt. Press, Calcutta, India.
Lever, R. J. A. W. (1969) Pests of Coconut Palm (Curculionidae). FAO, Rome, pp. 113119.
Maharaj, S. (1973) A new design of traps for collecting the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum. Ceylon Coconut Planters Review 7, 57.
Mathen, K. and Kurian, C. (1962) Comparative efficacy of different insecticides on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F. In Proceedings of the 1st Conference of Coconut Research Workers, 1959, Indian Central Coconut Committee, Ernakulam.
Mathen, K. and Kurian, C. (1967) Insecticidal trials against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F. the coconut weevil (Curculionidae: Coleoptera). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 37, 521523.
Mathen, K. and Kurian, C. (1970) Sevin controls red palm weevil at low cost. Coconut Bulletin 1 (5), 78.
Mayilvaganan, M., Nair, C. P. R., Shanavas, M. and Nair, S. S. (2003) Field assay of locally synthesized ferrugineol for trapping Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Indian Coconut Journal 33, 89.
Monzer, M. A. (2004) Response of Heterorhabditis indica infective juveniles to host diffusates in a modified laboratory bioassay. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 14, 309313.
Monzer, A. E. and El-Rahman, R. A. (2003) Role of Heterorhabditis indica of substances occurring in decomposing palm tissues infested by Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Nematology 5, 647652.
Muralidharan, C. N., Vagjasia, U. R. and Sodagar, N. N. (1999) Population, food preference and trapping using aggregation pheromone (ferrugineol) on red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 69, 602604.
Murphy, S. T. and Briscoe, B. R. (1999) The red palm weevil as an alien invasive: Biology and the prospects for biological control as a component of IPM. Biocontrol News and Information 20 (1), 3545.
Muthiah, C., Natarajan, C. and Nair, C. P. R. (2005) Evaluation of pheromones in the management of red palm weevil in coconut. Indian Coconut Journal 35, 1517.
Muthuraman, M. (1984) Trunk injection of undiluted insecticides: Method to control coconut red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F. Indian Coconut Journal 15, 1214.
Nair, S. S., Abraham, V. A. and Radhakrishnan Nair, C. P. (2000) Efficiency of different food baits in combination with pheromone lures in trapping adults of red weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. (Coleoptera: Curulionidae). Pestology 24, 35.
Nakash, J., Osam, Y. and Kehat, M. (2000) A suggestion to use dogs for detecting red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) infestation in date palm in Israel. Phytoparasitica 28, 153154.
Nirula, K. K. (1956a) Investigation on the pests of coconut palm, Part-IV. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Indian Coconut Journal 9, 229247.
Nirula, K. K. (1956b) Investigation on the pests of coconut palm, Part-IV. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Indian Coconut Journal 10, 2844.
Oehlschlager, A. C. (1994) Use of pheromone-baited traps in control of red palm weevil in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Consultancy Report submitted to the Ministry of Agriculture, Saudi Arabia. 17 pp.
Oehlschlager, A. C. (1998) Trapping of date palm weevil. In Proceedings of an FAO Workshop on Date Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) and Its Control, 15–17 December 1998, Cairo, Egypt.
Oehlschlager, A. C. (2005) Current status of trapping palm weevils and beetles. Planter 81 (947), 123143.
Oehlschlager, A. C. (2006) Mass trapping as a strategy for management of Rhynchophorus palm weevils. In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Red Palm Weevil, 28–29, November 2005, IVIA, Valencia, Spain (in press).
Oehlschlager, A. C., Chinchilla, C. M., Gonzalez, L. M., Jiron, L. F., Mexon, R. and Morgan, B. (1993) Development of a pheromone-based trapping system for Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 86, 13811392.
Oehlschlager, A. C., Chinchilla, C., Castillo, G. and Gonzalez, L. M. (2002) Control of red ring disease by mass trapping of Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Florida Entomologist 85, 507513.
Perez, A. L., Hallett, R. H., Gries, G., Gries, A. C., Oehlschlager, A. C. and Borden, J. H. (1996) Pheromone chirality of Asian palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) and R. vulneratus (Panz.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology 22, 357368.
Rahalkar, G. W., Harwalkar, M. R. and Rananvare, H. D. (1972) Development of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. on sugarcane. Indian Journal of Entomology 34, 213215.
Rahalkar, G. W., Harwalkar, M. R., Rananvare, H. D., Shantaram, K. and Goplayengar, A. R. (1973) Laboratory studies on radiation sterilization of the red palm weevil, (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) males. Journal of Plantation Crops 1, 141146.
Rahalkar, G. W., Harwalkar, M. R., Rananvare, H. D., Kurian, C., Abrham, V. A. and Abdulla Koya, K. M. (1977) Peliminary field studies on the control of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus using radio sterilized males. Journal of Nuclear Agriculture and Biology 6, 6568.
Rahalkar, G. W., Tamhankar, A. J. and Shantaram, K. (1978) An artificial diet for rearing red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. Journal of Plantation Crops 6, 6164.
Rajapakse, C. N. K., Gunawardena, N. E. and Perera, K. F. G. (1998) Pheromone baited trap for the management of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) population in coconut plantations. Cocos 13, 5465.
Rajmanickam, K., Kennedy, J. S. and Christopher, A. (1995) Certain components of integrated management for red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F. (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) on coconut. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische 60, 803805.
Ramachandran, C. P. (1991) Effect of gamma radiation on various stages of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F. Journal of Nuclear Agriculture and Biology 20, 218221.
Ramachandran, C. P. (1998) Biotypic variability among four populations of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. from different parts of India. Coconut Research and Development (CORD) 14, 2641.
Ramachandran, C. P. and Nair, B. S. (1994) An insecticide injector for palm weevil control. Invention Intelligence 29, 563564.
Rananavare, H. D., Shantaram, K., Harwalkar, M. R. and Rahalkar, G. W. (1975) Method for laboratory rearing of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. Journal of Plantation Crops 3, 6567.
Rochat, D. (2006) Trapping: Drawbacks and prospects—Need for more research. In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Red Palm Weevil, 28–29, November 2005, IVIA, Valencia, Spain (in press).
Rochat, D., Gonzalez, A. V., Mariau, D., Villanueva, A. G. and Zagatti, P. (1991) Evidence for male-produced aggregation pheromone in American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum (L) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology 17, 12211230.
Salama, H. S. and Abd-Elgawad, M. M. (2001) Isolation of heterorhabditid nematodes from palm tree planted areas and their implications in the red palm weevil control. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde 74, 4345.
Salama, H. S. and Abd-Elgawad, M. M. (2003) Quarantine problems: An analytical approach with special reference to palm weevils and phytonematodes. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 36, 4146.
Salama, H. S. and Abdel-Razek, A. S. (2002) Development of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) on natural and synthetic diets. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde 75 (5), 137139.
Salama, H. S. and Saker, M. M. (2002) DNA fingerprints of three different forms of red palm weevil collected from Egyptian date palm orchards. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 35, 299306.
Salama, H. S., Hamdy, M. K. and El-Din, M. M. (2002) The thermal constant for timing the emergence of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera). Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde 75, 2629.
Salama, H. S., Foda, M. S., El-Bendary, M. A. and Abdel-Razek, A. (2004) Infection of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, by spore-forming bacilli indigenous to its natural habitat in Egypt. Journal of Pest Science 77, 2731.
Saleh, M. M. E. and Alheji, M. (2003) Biological control of red palm weevil with entomopathogenic nematodes in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 13, 5559.
Shaju, S., Kumar, R. K. and Gokulapalan, C. (2003) Occurrence of Beauveria sp. on red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) of coconut. Insect Environment 9, 6667.
Shamseldean, M. M. and Abd-Elgawad, M. M. (1994) Laboratory evaluation of six Egyptian isolates of heterorhabditid nematodes for control of the red palm weevil. Egyptian Journal of Applied Sciences 9, 670679.
Soroker, V., Gindin, G., Glazer, I., Pinhas, J., Levsky, S., Eliahu, M., Biton, S., Haberman, A., Nakache, Y., Gerling, D., Mizrach, A. and Hetzroni, A. (2006) The red palm weevil infestation in date palm plantations in Israel, management and the current status. In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Red Palm Weevil, 28–29, November, 2005, IVIA, Valencia, Spain (in press).
Soroker, V., Nakache, Y., Landau, U., Mizrach, A., Hetzroni, A. and Gerling, D. (2004) Utilization of sounding methodology to detect infestation by Rhynchophorus ferrugineus on palm offshoots. Phytoparasitica 32, 13.
Soroker, V., Blumberg, D., Haberman, A., Hamburger-Rishad, M., Reneh, S., Talebaev, S., Anshelevich, L. and Harari, A. R. (2005) Current status of red palm weevil infestation in date palm plantations in Israel. Phytoparasitica 33, 97106.
Sosamma, V. K. and Rasmi, B. (2002) Survey of entomophilic nematodes in Kerala. Indian Journal of Nematology 32, 184185.
Subba Rao, P. V., Subramaniam, T. R. and Abraham, E. V. (1973) Control of red palm weevil on coconut. Journal of Plantation Crops 1, 2627.
Vanderbilt, C. F., Giblin-Davis, R. M. and Weissling, T. J. (1998) Mating behaviour and sexual response to aggregation pheromone of Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Curculionidae: Coleoptera). Florida Entomologist 81, 351360.
Venkatasubbaiyer, C. S. (1940) Two interesting and unrecorded enemies of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F. Indian Journal of Entomology 2, 98.
Viado, G. B. S. and Bigornia, A. E. (1949) A biological study of the Asiatic palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. (Curculionidae: Coleoptera). Philippines Agriculture 33, 127.
Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V., Al-Saihati, A. A., Al-Mohanna, O. E., Subbei, A. I. and Abdul Mohsin, A. M. (2000a) Management of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, A serious pest of date palm in Al-Qatif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Plantation Crops 28, 3543.
Vidyasagar, P. S. P. V., Mohammed Hagi, , Abozuhairah, R. A., Al-Mohanna, O. E. and Al-Saihati, A. A. (2000b) Impact of mass pheromone trapping on red palm weevil adult population and infestation level in date palm gardens of Saudi Arabia. Planter 76 (891), 347355.
Wattanapongsiri A. (1966) A revision of the genera Rhynchophorus and Dynamis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Department of Agriculture Science Bulletin 1, 328 pp. Bangkok, Thailand.
Wickremasuriya, C. A. (1958) An important injection technique for coconut palm with special reference to the control of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus F. Ceylon Coconut Quarterly 9, 4054.
Zada, A., Soroker, V., Harel, M., Nakache, J. and Dunkelblum, E. (2002) Quantitative GC analysis of secondary alcohol pheromones: Determination of release rate of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, pheromone from lures. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28, 22992306.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Tropical Insect Science
  • ISSN: 1742-7584
  • EISSN: 1742-7592
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-tropical-insect-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 130 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2269 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.