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A study in British Trade Union history. Attempts at ‘General Union’ 1829—1834

  • G. D. H. Cole
Extract

The best-known episode in the early history of Britsh Trade Unionism is the dramatic rise and fall of the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union in 1833—1834. Robert Owen's sudden emergence as the leader of a mass movement reported to number a million adherents, the trial and transportation of the unfortunate ‘Tolpuddle Martyrs’ for the crime of administering unlawful oaths, the presentation of the ‘document’ demanding renunciation of Trade Union membership by masters in many parts of the country, and the complete eclipse of the Grand National within a year of its first foundation, make a story which has been told many times with effect, and does not need telling over again. But though this particular story is well-known, there is a good deal that remains obscure in Trade Union history both during this critical year and, still more, during the few previous years when the idea of an all-embracing ‘General Union of Trades’ was taking hold of one section after another of the British working classes.

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Page 360 note 1) Webb, , History of Trade Unionism, p. 124.

Page 360 note 2) Doherty's evidence before the Committee on Combinations, 1838.

Page 361 note 1) Manchester Notes and Queries, Vol, 7, 18871888, p. 228, from which much of the evidence for his life is taken.

Page 361 note 2) Ibid, and Doherty's Evidence before the Committee on Combinations, 1838.

Page 361 note 3) Leeds Intelligencer. 6 VII '33.

Page 361 note 4) Conciliator 22 XI '28.

Page 361 note 5) Factory Commission, Parl. Papers, 1834, Vol. 19, D. 2, p. 210.

Page 361 note 6) Place Papers, Vol. 16, p. 123. Also Home Office Papers 44, 16.

Page 361 note 7) Webb, , History, p. 81.

Page 361 note 8) Hammond, , Skilled Labourer, p. 83.

Page 362 note 1) Character, Objects and Effects of Trades Unions, p. 13.

Page 363 note 1) Hammond, , Skilled Labourer, p. 104.

Page 364 note 1) Doherty's evidence before the Select Committee on Combinations of Workers, 1838.

Page 364 note 2) Character, Objects and Effects of Trades' Unions, p. 18.

Page 364 note 3) Hammond, , Skilled Labourer, p. 128.

Page 364 note 4) Webb, , History, p. 115.

Page 364 note 5) This address, dated 2 VIII 28, is reprinted in ihe Conciliator of 6 XII '28.

Page 365 note 1) Conciliator 22 XI '28.

Page 365 note 2) Conciliator 29 XI '28.

Page 365 note 3) Conciliator 13 XII '28.

Page 365 note 4) Conciliator 29 XI '28 and 13 XII '28.

Page 365 note 5) See cutting in Place MSS. 16, Vol. 2f. 36.

Page 365 note 6) Poor Man's Guardian 14 XII '33, quoting Brougham.

Page 365 note 7) Doherty's 1838 evidence.

Page 366 note 1) Doherty's 1838 evidence. Hammond, , Skilled Labourer, p. 129.

Page 366 note 2) Place MSS 16 vol 2 f. 96 and Home Office Papers 40—27.

Page 366 note 3) Webb, , History, p. 120.

Page 366 note 4) Place MSS 16 Vol 2 f. 66—9.

Page 366 note 5) Doherty, , Letter, p. 11.

Page 366 note 6) Place MSS 16 Vol. 2 f. 96.

Page 367 note 1) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 3.

Page 367 note 2) Webb, , History, p. 118.

Page 368 note 1) These particulars are from the rules formally adopted in June, 1830; but I have assumed that these principles were accepted at the February meeting. It is at all events clear that from the outset the association was meant to be used only in resisting attempts to reduce wages.

Page 368 note 2) United Trades Cooperative Journal 20 III '30.

Page 368 note 3) Ibid. 27 III '30.

Page 368 note 4) Ibid. 10 IV '30.

Page 368 note 5) Ibid. 15 V '30.

Page 368 note 6) Ibid. 12 VI '30.

Page 368 note 7) Ibid. 5 VI '30.

Page 368 note 8) Ibid. 24 IV '30.

Page 369 note 1) They are printed in full in Appendix III of a pamphlet On Combinations of Trades, published by Ridgway, J. in 1831.

Page 369 note 2) United Trades Cooperative Journal 24 VII '30.

Page 369 note 3) Ibid. 14 VIII '30.

Page 369 note 4) Ibid. 18 IX '30.

Page 369 note 5) Ibid. 28 VIII '30.

Page 369 note 6) Poor Man's Guardian 20 X '32.

Page 369 note 7) Letter dated 6 XI '30. Home Office Papers 40–26.

Page 370 note 1) Warburton, , Trade Unionism in the Staffordshire Potteries, p. 53.

Page 370 note 2) Ibid. p. 61.

Page 370 note 3) United Trades Cooperative Journal 17 VII '30.

Page 370 note 4) Ibid. 21 VIII '30.

Page 370 note 5) Webb, , History, p. 118.

Page 370 note 6) Home Office Papers 40. 27.

Page 371 note 1) On this point, and for the subsequent dispute, see Hammond, , The Skilled Labourer, p. 132.

Page 371 note 2) On Combinations of Trades, p. 22.

Page 371 note 3) Ibid.

Page 372 note 1) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 20.

Page 372 note 2) On Combinations of Trades, p. 37.

Page 372 note 3) Ibid.

Page 373 note 1) On Combinations of Trades, pp. 37 ff.

Page 373 note 2) Ibid., Appendix II.

Page 373 note 3) Poor Man's Advocate 23 VI '32.

Page 373 note 4) Poor Man's Advocate 23 Vl '32.

Page 373 note 5) New Moral World 3 X 35.

Page 373 note 6) Webb, , History, p. 122

Page 374 note 1) On Combinations of Trades, Appendix. And see Appendix III.

Page 375 note 1) Voice of the People 26 III '31.

Page 376 note 1) Voice of the People 14 V '31.

Page 376 note 2) Ibid. 26 III '31.

Page 376 note 3) Ibid. 23 IV '31.

Page 376 note 4) Ibid. 25 VI '31.

Page 376 note 5) Webb, , History, p. 123.

Page 376 note 6) Warburton, , Potterles, p. 61.

Page 377 note 1) Voice of the People 18V1 '31.

Page 377 note 2) These particulars are gleaned from the file of The Voice of the People. They are only approximate, as there were four issues missing from the file consulted.

Page 377 note 3) Voice of the People 27 VIII '31.

Page 377 note 4) Warburton, , Potteries, p. 56.

Page 378 note 1) Voice of the People 17 IX '32 and 24 IX '31.

Page 378 note 2) Doherty, Letter to the Members of the National Association.

Page 378 note 3) Ibid.

Page 378 note 4) Ibid.

Page 378 note 5) Voice of the People 10 IX '31

Page 379 note 1) Webb, , History, p. 123.

Page 379 note 2) Voice of the People 2 IV '31.

Page 379 note 3) Ibid. 24 IX '31.

Page 379 note 4) Political Magazine, 01 1832.

Page 379 note 5) Ibid. Jan 1832.

Page 380 note 1) Voice of the People 9 IV '31.

Page 380 note 2) Ibid. 27 VIII '31.

Page 380 note 3) Doherty, , Letter.

Page 380 note 4) Ibid.

Page 381 note 1) Webb's, History, p. 124.

Page 381 note 2) Union Pilot 10 III '32.

Page 381 note 3) Leeds Mercury 4 III ' 32.

Page 381 note 4) Union Pilot 24 III '32.

Page 381 note 5) Ibid. 31 III 32.

Page 382 note 1) Union Pilot 7 IV '32.

Page 382 note 2) Leeds Patriot 5 V '32.

Page 382 note 3) Union Pilot 5 V '32.

Page 382 note 4) Poor Man's Advocate 281 '32.

Page 382 note 5) Ibid. 2 VI '32.

Page 382 note 6) Union Pilot 24 III '32.

Page 383 note 1) Poor Man's Advocate 10 III '32.

Page 383 note 2) Leeds Patriot 10 III '32.

Page 383 note 3) Leeds Mercury 11 III '32.

Page 383 note 4) Hammond, , Skilled Labourer, p. 194

Page 384 note 1) For all the above, see Hammond, , The Skilled Labourer, pp. 167 ff.

Page 384 note 2) Report of the Social Science Association on Trade Societies, 1860, p. 359.

Page 385 note 1) Hammond, , Skilled Labourer, p. 155.

Page 385 note 2) Report of the Social Science Association on Trade Societies, 1860, p. 359.

Page 385 note 3) Ibid.

Page 385 note 4) Report of the Committee on Combinations, 1824. Evidence of Joseph Oates.

Page 385 note 5) Social Science Report, p. 773.

Page 385 note 6) Report of the Committee on Combinations, 1825.

Page 385 note 7) Social Science Report, p. 381.

Page 385 note 8) Hammond, , Skilled Labourer, p. 200.

Page 385 note 9) Leeds Mercury 5 VII '34.

Page 386 note 1) Hammond, , Skilled Labourer, p. 165.

Page 386 note 2) Baines, , Yorkshire Past & Present, vol. II, p. 679.

Page 386 note 3) Burnly, , Romance of Modern Industry, p. 197.

Page 386 note 4) Hammond, , op. cit., p. 208.

Page 386 note 5) Baines, , op. cit.

Page 386 note 6) Burnley, , op. cit.

Page 386 note 7) Baines, , op. cit.

Page 387 note 1) Baines, op. cit.

Page 387 note 2) Mayhall, , Annals of Yorkshire, Vol. I; p. 358.

Page 387 note 3) Mayhall, , Annals of Leeds, s. v. 02 1830.

Page 387 note 4) Leeds Mercury 29 IX'30. See also Wood's letter, 27 X'30.

Page 387 note 5) Grant, , History of Factory Legislation, p. 15.

Page 387 note 6) Alfred, , History of the Factory movement, Vol I, p. 105 ff.

Page 388 note 1) Hutchins, and Harrison, , History of Factory Legislation, p. 32.

Page 388 note 2) 10 X'31. See Alfred, , op. cit., p. 120.

Page 388 note 3) Grant, , op. cit., p. 29.Alfred, , op. cit., pp. 150–1.

Page 389 note 1) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 48.

Page 389 note 2) Major is a Christian name. The surname is sometimes spelt ‘Scholefield’.

Page 389 note 3) Leeds Mercury 31 V '34.

Page 389 note 4) Crisis 181 '34.

Page 389 note 5) Leeds Mercury 19 III '34 and subsequent issues.

Page 389 note 6) Leeds Mercury 29 III '34.

Page 390 note 1) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 101.

Page 390 note 2) Mayhall, , Annals of Leeds, s.v. 15 II '31.

Page 390 note 3) Ward, , Workmen and Wages, p. 94.

Page 390 note 4) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 47.

Page 390 note 5) Voice of the people 23 IV'31.

Page 390 note 6) Social Science Report, p. 538.

Page 391 note 1) Leed's Mercury passim.

Page 391 note 2) i. e. The Leeds Mercury (Whig), The Leeds Intelligencer (Tory), and The Leeds Patriot (Radical). The Leeds Times was not started until 1833.

Page 391 note 3) Character, Objects and Effects, pp. 49–50.

Page 391 note 4) Ibid., p. 51.

Page 392 note 1) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 59.

Page 392 note 2) Mayhall, , Annals of Leeds, s. v. 03, 1832.

Page 393 note 1) Leeds Mercury 27 VIII '32.

Page 393 note 2) Ibid. 24 IX '32.

Page 393 note 3) Ibid. 6 X '32.

Page 393 note 4) Ibid. 20 X '32, 27 X '32, 3 XI '32, 10 XI '32, 17 XI '32 24 XI '32, 1 XII '32, 22 XII '32, 19 I '33, 26 I '33, 2 II '33.

Page 393 note 5) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 59.

Page 394 note 1) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 63.

Page 394 note 2) Ibid., p. 65.

Page 394 note 3) Leeds Mercury 10 XI '32, 17 XI '32, 24 X1 '32, 1 XII '32.

Page 395 note 1) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 61.

Page 395 note 2) Ibid., pp. 75–6.

Page 395 note 3) Leeds Mercury 15 XII '32.

Page 395 note 4) Ibid., 22 XII '32.

Page 395 note 5) Leeds Mercury 15 XII '32.

Page 395 note 6) Ibid. 1 XIX '32.

Page 395 note 7) Ibid. 13 XIV '33.

Page 395 note 8) Ibid. 1 XX '32.

Page 395 note 9) Ibid. 17 XI '32.

Page 395 note 10) Ibid. 20 XV '33.

Page 395 note 11) Ibid. 24 V '34. The authority is Threapleton.

Page 395 note 12) Ibid. 24 X1 '32.

Page 396 note 1) Ward, , Workmen and Wages, p. 94.

Page 396 note 2) Poor Man's Guardian, 2 XI '33.

Page 396 note 3) Pioneer 15 III '34.

Page 396 note 4) Poor Man's Guardian 17 V '34.

Page 396 note 5) Northampton and Leamington Free Press 10 V '34, 7 VI '34, 14 VI '34, 12 VII '34.

Page 397 note 1) Leeds Mercury 31 XV '34, quoting from The Times.

Page 397 note 2) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 42.

Page 398 note 1) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 74.

Page 398 note 2) Trial of the Glasgow Cotton Spinners, 1837, and Report of the Committee on Combinations, 1838.

Page 399 note 1) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 66.

Page 399 note 2) See Wilkinson, J. E. Frome, The Friendly Society Movement, p. 29 and; the opening chapters of the same writer's Mutual Thrift.

Page 399 note 3) Leeds Mercury 12 IV '39.

Page 400 note 1) Pioneer 28 VI '34.

Page 400 note 2) Voice of the West Riding 28 IX '33.

Page 401 note 1) Alfred, , History of the Factory Movement, Vol. I, p. 235.

Page 401 note 2) Mayhall, , Annals of Leeds, p. 386.

Page 401 note 3) Leeds Mercury 21 IV '32.

Page 401 note 4) Alfred, , op. cit. Vol. p. 254.

Page 401 note 5) British Labourers' Protector 181 '33 and 1 II '33.

Page 402 note 1) Alfred, , op. cit., Vol. I, p. 321.

Page 402 note 2) Hutchins, and Harrison, , History of Factory Legislation, p. 37.

Page 402 note 3) Alfred, , op. cit., Vol. II, p. 37,Grant, , History of Factory Legislation, p. 40.

Page 402 note 4) Alfred, , op. cit., Vol., II, p. 45.

Page 402 note 5) Grant, , op. cit, p. 45.

Page 403 note 1) Mayhall, , Annals of Leeds, p. 403.

Page 404 note 1) Hutchins, and Harrison, , History, p. 41.

Page 404 note 2) Mayhall, , Annals of Yorkshire, Vol. I, p. 397.

Page 404 note 3) Leeds Mercury 30 III 33.

Page 404 note 4) Ibid. 20 IV '33.

Page 404 note 5) Ibid. 11 V '33.

Page 404 note 6) Mayhall, , Annals of Leeds, p. 402.

Page 405 note 1) Working Man's Friend, 3 VIII '33.

Page 405 note 2) Mayhall, , Annals of Leeds, p. 402.

Page 405 note 3) Leeds Mercury 13 VII '33.

Page 405 note 4) For this affair, see Léeds Intelligencer 4 VII '33, 21 VII '33, and 3 VIII '33.

Page 405 note 5) Quoted in Working Man's Friend 27 VII '33.

Page 405 note 6) Leeds Mercury 3 VIII '33.

Page 405 note 7) Ibid. 10 VIII '33.

Page 405 note 8) Ibid.

Page 406 note 1) Quoted in Poor Man's Guardian 14 IX '33.

Page 406 note 2) Leeds Mercury 21 IX '33.

Page 406 note 3) Pioneer 21 IX '33.

Page 406 note 4) Poor Man's Guardian 5 X '33.

Page 407 note 1) Wakefleld and Dewsbury Journal 4 X '33.

Page 407 note 2) Mayhall, , Annals of Leeds, p. 406.

Page 407 note 3) Leeds Mercury 5 X '33.

Page 407 note 4) Leeds Times 28 X '33.

Page 407 note 5) Pioneer 12 X '33.

Page 408 note 1) Quoted in Poor Man's Guardian 12 X '33.

Page 408 note 2) Leeds Mercury 12 X '33.

Page 408 note 3) Voice of the West Riding 12 X '33.

Page 408 note 4) Owen Correspondence, Holyoake House, Manchester, No. 623.

Page 408 note 5) Poor Man's Guardian 28 IX '33.

Page 409 note 1) Poor Man's Guardian 19 X '33.

Page 409 note 2) Holyoake, , History of Cooperation, p. 120. But Holyoake wrongly dates the Manchester Congress 1830.

Page 409 note 3) See Holyoake, , op. cit., p. 137.

Page 410 note 1) Holyoake, , History of Cooperation, p. 123.

Page 410 note 2) Political Magazine, 10 1831.

Page 411 note 1) Poor Man's Guardian 30 III '33.

Page 411 note 2) Owen Papers, Holyoake House, No. 260.

Page 412 note 1) Webb, , History, p. 123,

Page 412 note 2) Webb, , op. cit., p. 120, quoting the Poor Man's Advocate.

Page 413 note 1) Leeds Mercury 19 I '33.

Page 413 note 2) See ante, p. 403.

Page 413 note 3) Poor Man's Guardian 7 IX '33.

Page 413 note 4) Destructive 8 VI '33.

Page 413 note 5) Poor Man's Guardian 1 XII '32.

Page 413 note 6) Ibid. 5 X '33.

Page 414 note 1) See The Trial of the Glasgow Cotton Spinners, 1837, and the evidence given to the 1838 Committee on Combinations.

Page 414 note 2) Poor Man's Guardian 5 X '33.

Page 414 note 3) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 29.

Page 415 note 1) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 31.

Page 415 note 2) Ibid., p. 34.

Page 415 note 3) Pioneer 19 X '33.

Page 416 note 1) Pioneer 19 X '33.

Page 416 note 2) See Postgate, , Builders' History, p. 92 and Cole, , Life of Robert Owen, p. 271.

Page 416 note 3) Pioneer 16 XI '33.

Page 416 note 4) Ibid. 7 XII '33.

Page 417 note 1) Postgate, , op. cit., p. 111.

page 417 note 2) True Sun, quoted by Postgate, , op. cit., p. 58.

page 417 note 3) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 37.

page 417 note 4) Ibid., p. 40.

page 417 note 5) Pioneer 7 X '33.

page 417 note 6) Ibid. 5 X '33.

page 417 note 7) Ibid, 26 X '33.

page 418 note 1) Pioneer 7 XII '33.

page 418 note 2) Herald of the Rights of Industry 22 II '33

page 418 note 3) Ibid. 16 IV '34.

page 418 note 4) Home Office Papers 40—32. Dated 3 V '34.

page 418 note 5) Pioneer 1 III '34.

page 418 note 6) See Cole, , Life of William Cobbett, p. 402.

page 419 note 1) Pioneer 24 V '34.

page 419 note 2) Ibid. 5 X '33.

page 419 note 3) Ibid. 26 X '33.

page 419 note 4) Ibid. 2 XI '33.

page 419 note 5) Ibid. 9 X1 '33.

page 419 note 6) Ibid. 7 XII '33.

page 419 note 7) Felkin, , History of Machine-wrought Hosiery and Lace Manufacture, p. 450.

page 419 note 8) Ploneer 21 IX '33.

page 419 note 9) Poor Man's Guardian 2 XI '33.

page 420 note 1) Pioneer 28 IX '33.

page 420 note 2) Warburton, Potteries, p. 72.

page 420 note 3) Ibid., p. 77.

page 420 note 4) Pioneer 5 X '33.

page 420 note 5) Ibid. 9 XI '33.

page 420 note 6) Ibid. 9 XI '33.

page 421 note 1) Pioneer 14 XII '33.

page 422 note 1) Pioneer 14 XII '33.

page 422 note 2) Ibid. 21 XII '33.

page 422 note 3) Ibid. 28 XII '33.

page 422 note 4) Ibid. 41 '34.

page 422 note 5) Ibid. 41 '34.

page 422 note 6) Poor Man's Guardian 7 X '33.

page 422 note 7) Ibid. 14 XII '33.

page 422 note 8) Ibid. 21 XII '33.

page 423 note 1) Pioneer 41 '34.

page 423 note 2) Ibid.

page 423 note 3) Crisis 181 '34.

page 423 note 4) Pioneer 1 III '34.

page 423 note 5) Ibid.

page 423 note 6) Ibid. 22 II '34.

page 423 note 7) Ibid. 1 II '34.

page 423 note 8) Ibid. 151 '34.

page 423 note 9) Ibid. 8 II '34, and Poor Man's Guardian 25 I '34.

page 423 note 10) Pioneer 8 II '34.

page 424 note 1) Pioneer 22 II '34.

page 424 note 2) Ibid. 15 II '34.

page 424 note 3) Ibid. 1 III '34.

page 424 note 4) Ibid.

page 424 note 5) See ante, p. 407.

page 424 note 6) See ante, p. 411.

page 424 note 7) Pioneer 22 II '34

page 425 note 1) See Owen's own account, in New Moral World 17 X '35.

page 425 note 2) See Webb, , History, p. 125, and Cole, , Life of Robert Owen, pp. 3271 ff.

page 425 note 3) Pioneer 1 III '34.

page 425 note 4) Ibid.

page 425 note 5) Ibid. 1 III '34.

page 425 note 6) Ibid.

page 426 note 1) Pioneer 11 I '34.

page 426 note 2) Poor Man's Guardian 8 II '34.

page 426 note 3) Ibid. 8 II '34.

page 426 note 4) Pioneer 22 II '34.

page 426 note 5) Ibid. 22 II '34 and 1 III '34.

page 426 note 6) Ibid. 22 II '34.

page 427 note 1) Pioneer 22 II '34.

page 427 note 2) Ibid. 1 III '34.

page 427 note 3) and

page 427 note 4) Ibid.

page 427 note 5) Ibid. 15 III '34.

page 427 note 6) Character, Objects and Effects, p. 140.

page 427 note 7) Times 14 III '34.

page 427 note 8) See Webb, , History, pp. 139 ff, and Senior's Essays, Vol. II, p. 116.

page 427 note 9) For the fullest account of the Dorchester Case, see the memorial volume, The Martyrs of Tolpuddle, published by Trades Union Congres in 1934.

page 427 note 10) Leeds Mercury 12 IV '34.

page 427 note 11) Ibid. 19 IV'34.

page 427 note 12) Ibid. 26 IV '34.

page 427 note 13) Poor Man's Guardian 19 IV '34.

page 428 note 1) Pioneer 10 V '34.

page 428 note 2) Webb, , History, p. 147.

page 428 note 3) New Moral World 17 IV '34.

page 428 note 4) Pioneer 12 IV '34.

page 428 note 5) Ibid.

page 429 note 1) Pioneer 12 IV '34.

page 429 note 2) Ibid. 26 IV '34.

page 429 note 3) Ibid. 5 IV '34.

page 429 note 4) Ibid. 22 III '34.

page 429 note 5) Ibid. 26 IV '34.

page 429 note 6) Ibid. 17 V '34.

page 429 note 7) Ibid. 7 VIII '34.

page 429 note 8) Webb, , History, p. 149.

page 429 note 9) Pioneer 3 V '34 and Poor Man's Guardian 3 V '34.

page 430 note 1) Poor Man's Guardian 10 V '34.

page 430 note 2) Pioneer 10 V '34.

page 430 note 3) Ibid. 3 V '34.

page 430 note 4) Ibid. 10 V '34.

page 430 note 5) Poor Man's Guardian 17 V '34.

page 430 note 6) Ibid. 31 V '34.

page 430 note 7) Ibid.

page 431 note 1) Pioneer 17 V '34.

page 431 note 2) For the legal aspects of the case, see my essay, ‘A Study in Legal Repression’ in my Persons and Periods, pp. 120 ff.

page 431 note 3) Pioneer 29 III '34.

page 431 note 4) Ibid. 5 IV '34.

page 431 note 5) Ibid. 19 IV '34.

page 431 note 6) Poor Man's Guardian 17 V '34.

page 432 note 1) Pioneer 19 IV '34.

page 432 note 2) Ibid. 24 V '34.

page 433 note 1) Pioneer 31 V '34.

page 433 note 2) See p. 418.

page 433 note 3) Pioneer 19 IV '34 and Poor Man's Guardian 19 IV '34.

page 433 note 4) Leeds Mercury 26 IV '34.

page 433 note 5) Webb, , History, p. 151.

page 434 note 1) See p. 407.

page 434 note 2) Leeds Mercury 17 V '34.

page 434 note 3) Ibid. 10 V '34.

page 434 note 4) Ibid. 18 I '34, 25 I '34, 29 III '34, 17 V '34.

page 434 note 5) Leeds Mercury 17 V '34 (Letter from Pollard).

page 434 note 6) Ibid. 10 V '34.

page 435 note 1) Pioneer 14 VI '34.

page 435 note 2) Leeds Mercury 7 VI '34.

page 435 note 3) Ibid. 14 VI '34.

page 435 note 4) Pioneer 21 VI '34.

page 435 note 5) Ibid.

page 435 note 6) Quoted Pioneer 21 VI '34.

page 435 note 7) Leeds Mercury 21 VI '34.

page 436 note 1) Leeds Mercury 28 VI '34.

page 436 note 2) Ibid. 5 VII '34.

page 436 note 3) Poor Man's Guardian 2 VII '34.

page 436 note 4) Ibid. 21 VI '34.

page 436 note 5) Leeds Mercury 31 V '34.

page 436 note 6) Poor Man's Guardian 31 V '34.

page 437 note 1) Pioneer 28 VI '34.

page 437 note 2) Poor Man's Guardian 31 VI '34 and Pioneer 31 V '34.

page 437 note 3) Pioneer 24 V '34.

page 437 note 4) Ibid. 14 VI '34.

page 437 note 5) Ibid. 7 VI '34.

page 438 note 1) For full text see Pioneer 7 VI '34.

page 438 note 2) See p. 432.

page 438 note 3) Poor Man's Guardian 14 VI '34.

page 438 note 4) Pioneer 14 VI '34.

page 438 note 5) Pioneer 30 V '34.

page 438 note 6) Owen Correspondence, Holyoake House, No 706.

page 438 note 7) Poor Man's Guardian 5 VII '34.

page 439 note 1) For full text see Poor Man's Guardian 16 VIII '34.

page 439 note 2) New Moral World 17 X '35.

page 439 note 3) Ibid. 17 X '35.

page 439 note 4) Ibid.

page 439 note 5) Ibid.

page 440 note 1) New Moral World 17 X '35.

page 440 note 2) Ibid.

page 440 note 3) Ibid. 1 XI '34.

page 440 note 4) Ibid. 13 XII '34.

page 440 note 5) Postgate, , Builders History, p. 111.

page 441 note 1) New Moral World 17 X '35.

page 441 note 2) Burnley, , Romance of Modern Industry, p. 208.Warburton, , Potteries, pp. 80 ff.

page 441 note 3) New Moral World 3 X '35.

page 441 note 4) Alfred, , History of the Factory Movement, Vol. II, pp. 87 ff.

page 442 note 1) Manchester Advertiser 5 XII '35.

page 442 note 2) Ibid. 21 '36.

page 442 note 3) Manchester Notes and Queries Vol. 7, p. 229.

page 442 note 4) Place, MSS. Hendon Vol. 51. f. 47.

page 442 note 5) For a short obituary notice see New Moral World 3 X '35.

page 443 note 1) New Moral World 1 XI '34.

page 443 note 2) Ibid. 7 III '35.

page 443 note 3) See Holyoake, History of Cooperation, p. 129.

page 443 note 4) New Moral World 21 '36 et passim.

page 444 note 1) Home Office Papers, 40–32, Dated 5 I '34.

page 444 note 2) Ibid. 40–32, Dated 25 II'34.

page 444 note 3) Postgate, Builders' History.

page 444 note 4) Fynes, Miners' Unions of Northumberland and Durham.

page 444 note 5) Edwards, History of the South Wales Miners.

page 444 note 6) See Podmore, Life of Robert Owen, Cole, Life of Robert Owen, Holyoake, History of Cooperation, Benjamin Jones, Cooperative Production.

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