Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-s65px Total loading time: 0.373 Render date: 2021-03-01T19:10:50.989Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Ageing prisoners: An introduction to geriatric health-care challenges in correctional facilities

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 November 2017

Abstract

The rise in the number of older prisoners in many nations has been described as a correctional “ageing crisis” which poses an urgent financial, medical and programmatic challenge for correctional health-care systems. In 2016, the International Committee of the Red Cross hosted a conference entitled “Ageing and Imprisonment: Identifying the Needs of Older Prisoners” to discuss the institutional, legal and health-care needs of incarcerated older adults, and the approaches some correctional facilities have taken to meeting these needs. This article describes some of the challenges facing correctional systems tasked with providing health care to older adults, highlights some strategies to improve their medical care, and identifies areas in need of reform. It draws principally on research and examples from the United States to offer insights and recommendations that may be considered in other systems as well.

Type
Conditions in detention
Copyright
Copyright © icrc 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1 He, Wan, Goodkind, Daniel and Kowal, Paul, An Aging World: 2015, US Census Bureau, International Population Reports, P95/16-1, US Government Publishing Office, Washington, DC, 2016 Google Scholar.

2 United Nations (UN) Office on Drugs and Crime, Handbook on Prisoners with Special Needs, New York, 2009 Google Scholar, available at: www.unodc.org/pdf/criminal_justice/Handbook_on_Prisoners_with_Special_Needs.pdf (all internet references were accessed in May 2017).

3 Ibid.

Ibid

4 Williams, Brie A., Goodwin, James S., Baillargeon, Jacques, Ahalt, Cyrus and Walter, Louise C., “Addressing the Aging Crisis in U.S. Criminal Justice Health Care”, Journal of the American Geriatric Society, Vol. 60, No. 6, 2012 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

5 Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), Prisoners Series: 1990–2010, US Department of Justice (DoJ), Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Washington, DC, available at: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbse&sid=40.

6 BJS, Aging of the State Prison Population, 1993–2013, DoJ, OJP, Washington, DC, May 2016, available at: www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/aspp9313_Sum.pdf.

7 Office of the Inspector General, The Impact of an Aging Inmate Population on the Federal Bureau of Prisons, DoJ, Washington, DC, February 2016, available at: https://oig.justice.gov/reports/2015/e1505.pdf.

8 BJS, above note 6; BJS, Prisoners in 2015, DoJ, OJP, Washington, DC, December 2016, available at: www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p15_sum.pdf.

9 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4.

10 Aday, Ron H., Aging Prisoners: Crisis in American Corrections, Praeger, Westport, CT, 2003 Google Scholar.

11 Ibid.

Ibid

12 Williams, Brie A., Stern, Marc F., Mellow, Jeff, Safer, Meredith and Greifinger, Robert B., “Aging in Correctional Custody: Setting a Policy Agenda for Older Prisoner Health Care”, American Journal of Public Health, Vo1. 102, No. 8, 2012 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

13 Maschi, Tina, Viola, Deborah and Sun, Fei, “The High Cost of the International Aging Prisoner Crisis: Well-Being as the Common Denominator for Action”, The Gerontologist, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Ahalt, Cyrus, Trestmann, Robert L., Rich, Josiah D., Greifinger, Robert B. and Williams, Brie A., “Paying the Price: The Pressing Need for Quality, Cost and Outcomes Data to Improve Correctional Healthcare for Older Prisoners”, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 61, No. 11, 2013 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

14 Ibid .

Ibid

15 Ahalt, Cyrus, Binswanger, Ingrid A., Steinman, Michael, Tulsky, Jacqueline and Williams, Brie A., “Confined to Ignorance: The Absence of Prisoner Information from Nationally Representative Health Data Sets”, Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2012 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

16 Ibid.

Ibid

17 Office of the Inspector General, above note 7.

18 Ibid.

Ibid

19 Ibid.

Ibid

20 Ibid.

Ibid

21 Andrew Coyle, “Standards in Prison Health: The Prisoner as a Patient”, Prisons and Health, WHO, 2014, available at: www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/249191/Prisons-and-Health,-2-Standards-in-prison-health-the-prisoner-as-a-patient.pdf?ua=1; citing, e.g., European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), Mouisel v. France, Application No. 67263/01, 14 November 2002; ECtHR, Hénaf v. France, Application No. 65436/01, 27 November 2003; ECtHR, McGlinchey and Others v. United Kingdom, Judgment, Application No. 50390/99, 29 April 2003.

22 A. Coyle, above note 21.

23 US Supreme Court, Estelle v. Gamble, Case No. 75-929, Judgment, 30 November 1976.

24 Ibid .

Ibid

25 Williams, Brie A., Chang, Anna, Ahalt, Cyrus, Chen, Helen, Conant, Rebecca, Landefeld, C. Seth, Ritchie, Christine and Yukawa, Michi, Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Geriatrics, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, 2014 Google Scholar.

26 Ibid., p. 4.

Ibid

27 Covinsky, Kenneth E., Justice, Amy C., Rosenthal, Gary E., Palmer, Robert M. and Landefeld, C. Seth, “Measuring Prognosis and Case Mix in Hospitalized Elders: The Importance of Functional Status”, Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1997 Google ScholarPubMed.

28 Williams, Brie A., Lindquist, Karla, Sudore, Rebecca L., Strupp, Heidi M., Willmott, Donna J. and Walter, Louise C., “Being Old and Doing Time: Functional Impairment and Adverse Experiences of Geriatric Female Prisoners”, Journal of the American Geriatric Society, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2006 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

29 Ibid.

Ibid

30 Ibid.

Ibid

31 Loeb, Susan J. and AbuDagga, Azza, “Health-Related Research on Older Inmates: An Integrative Review”, Research in Nursing and Health, Vol. 29, No. 6, 2006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Baillargeon, Jacques, Black, Sandra A., Pulvino, John and Dunn, Kim, “The Disease Profile of Texas Prison Inmates”, Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2000 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

32 Fazel, Seena, Hope, Tony, O'Donnell, Ian, Piper, Mary and Jacoby, Robin, “Health of Elderly Male Prisoners: Worse than the General Population, Worse than Younger Prisoners”, Age and Ageing, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

33 Wangmo, Tenzin, Hauri, Sirin, Meyer, Andrea H. and Elger, Bernice S., “Patterns of Older and Younger Prisoners’ Primary Healthcare Utilization in Switzerland”, International Journal of Prisoner Health, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2016 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

34 Binswanger, Ingrid A., Krueger, Patrick M. and Steiner, John F., “Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions Among Jail and Prison Inmates in the USA Compared with the General Population”, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 63, No. 11, 2009 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

35 Baillargeon, Jacques, Black, Sandra A., Leach, Charles T., Jenson, Hal, Pulvino, John, Bradshaw, Patrick and Murray, Owen, “The Infectious Disease Profile of Texas Prison Inmates”, Preventive Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 5, 2004 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

36 Landefeld, C. Seth, Palmer, Robert M., Johnson, Mary Anne, Johnston, C. Bree and Lyons, William L., Current Geriatric Diagnosis and Treatment, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2004 Google Scholar.

37 Inouye, Sharon K., Studenski, Stephanie, Tinetti, Mary Elizabeth and Kuchel, George A., “Geriatric Syndromes: Clinical, Research and Policy Implications of a Core Geriatric Concept”, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 55, No. 5, 2007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

38 C. S. Landefeld et al., above note 36.

39 Tinetti, Mary E. and Kumar, Chandrika, “The Patient Who Falls: ‘It's Always a Trade-Off’”, Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 303, No. 3, 2010 Google Scholar.

40 Papapetrou, Peter D., Triantafyllopoulou, Maria and Korakovouni, A., “Severe Vitamin D Deficiency in the Institutionalized Elderly”, Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, Vol. 31, No. 9, 2008 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

41 Holick, Michael F., “Vitamin D Deficiency”, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 357, No. 3, 2007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

42 Masud, Tahir and Morris, Robert O., “Epidemiology of Falls”, Age and Ageing, Vol. 30, 2001 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

43 Harada, Caroline N., Love, Marissa Natelson and Triebel, Kristen, “Normal Cognitive Aging”, Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2013 Google ScholarPubMed.

44 B. A. Williams et al., above note 25, pp. 123–133.

45 WHO, The Epidemiology and Impact of Dementia, Geneva, 2015 Google Scholar, available at: www.who.int/mental_health/neurology/dementia/dementia_thematicbrief_epidemiology.pdf.

46 Simmons, B. Brent, Hartmann, Brett and DeJoseph, Daniel, “Evaluation of Suspected Dementia”, American Family Physician, Vol. 15, No. 84, 2011 Google Scholar.

47 Ibid.

Ibid

48 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4.

49 R. H. Aday, above note 10.

50 Williams, Brie A., Baillargeon, Jacques, Lindquist, Karla, Walter, Louise C., Covinsky, Kenneth E., Whitson, Heather E. and Steinman, Michael A., “Medication Prescribing Practices for Older Prisoners in the Texas Prison System”, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 100, No. 4, 2010 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

51 Williams, Brie A., Lindquist, Karla, Hill, Terry, Baillargeon, Jacques, Mellow, Jeff, Greifinger, Robert and Walter, Louise C., “Caregiving Behind Bars: Correctional Officer Reports of Disability in Geriatric Prisoners”, Journal of the American Geriatric Society, Vol. 57, No. 7, 2009 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

52 B. A. Williams et al., above note 28.

53 Burgio, Kathryn L., Ives, Diane G., Locher, Julie L., Arena, Vincent C. and Kuller, Lewis H., “Treatment Seeking for Urinary Incontinence in Adults”, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 42, No. 2, 1994 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

54 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4.

55 Reviere, Rebecca and Young, Vernetta D., “Aging Behind Bars: Health Care of Older Female Inmates”, Journal of Women & Aging, Vol. 16, Nos 1–2, 2004 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

56 B. A. Williams et al., above note 28.

57 Walling, Anne D. and Dickson, Gretchen M., “Hearing Loss in Older Adults”, American Family Physician, Vol. 85, No. 12, 2012 Google ScholarPubMed, available at: www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0615/p1150.html; Allen L. Pelletier, Ledy Rojas-Roldan and Janis Coffin, “Vision Loss in Older Adults”, American Family Physician, Vol. 94, No. 3, 2016, available at: www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p219.html.

58 Hill, Terry, Williams, Brie A., Cobe, Gail and Lindquist, Karla, Aging Inmates: Challenges for Healthcare and Custody, Report, Lumetra, San Francisco, CA, 2006 Google Scholar, available at: www.cphcs.ca.gov/docs/resources/AgingInmatesByLumetra0506.pdf.

59 Ibid.

Ibid

60 Weinstein, Barbara E., Sirow, Lynn W. and Moser, Sarah, “Relating Hearing Aid Use to Social and Emotional Loneliness in Older Adults”, American Journal of Audiology, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2016 Google Scholar; Boi, Raffaella, Racca, Luca, Cavallero, Antonio, Carpaneto, Veronica, Dall'Acqua, Matteo Racca Francesca, Ricchetti, Michele, Santelli, Alida and Odetti, Patrizio, “Hearing Loss and Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Patients”, Geriatrics & Gerontology International, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2012 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

61 Williams, Brie A., Ahalt, Cyrus and Aronson, Louise, “Aging Correctional Populations”, in Bruinsma, Gerben and Weisburd, David (eds), Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Springer, New York, 2014 Google Scholar.

62 Williams, Cynthia M., “Using Medications Appropriately in Older Adults”, American Family Physician, Vol. 66, No. 10, 2002 Google Scholar.

63 Ibid.

Ibid

64 S. K. Inouye et al., above note 37.

65 Scott, Ian A., Hilmer, Sarah N., Reeve, Emily, Potter, Kathleen, Le Couteur, David, Rigby, Deborah, Gnjidic, Danijela, Del Mar, Christopher B., Roughead, Elizabeth E., Page, Amy, Jansen, Jesse and Martin, Jennifer H., “Reducing Inappropriate Polypharmacy: The Process of Deprescribing”, JAMA Internal Medicine, Vol. 175, No. 5, 2015 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; Steinman, Michael A., “Polypharmacy – Time to Get Beyond Numbers”, JAMA Internal Medicine, Vol. 176, No. 4, 2016 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

66 B. A. Williams et al., above note 50.

67 Ibid.

Ibid

68 James, Doris J. and Glaze, Lauren E., Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates, Special Report, BJS, DoJ, Washington, DC, 2006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

69 B. A. Williams, C. Ahalt and L. Aronson, above note 71; Haugebrook, Sabrina, Zgoba, Kristen M. and Maschi, Tina, “Trauma, Stress, Health, and Mental Health Issues among Ethnically Diverse Older Adult Prisoners”, Journal of Correctional Health Care, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2010 Google Scholar.

70 Flatt, Jason D., Williams, Brie A., Barnes, Deborah, Goldenson, Joe and Ahalt, Cyrus, “Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Associated Health and Social Vulnerabilities in Older Jail Inmates”, Aging & Mental Health, Vol. 21, No. 10, 2017 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

71 Crawley, Elaine and Sparks, Richard, “Is There Life After Imprisonment? How Elderly Men Talk About Imprisonment and Release”, Criminology and Criminal Justice, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

72 Aday, Ronald H., “Aging Prisoners’ Concerns toward Dying in Prison”, Journal of Death and Dying, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

73 Lisa C. Barry, Dorothy B. Wakefield, Robert L. Trestman and Yeates Conwell, “Disability in Prison Activities of Daily Living and Likelihood of Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Older Prisoners”, International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, January 2016.

74 B. A. Williams et al., above note 50.

75 Perissinotto, Carla M., Cenzer, Irena Stijacic and Covinsky, Kenneth E., “Loneliness in Older Persons: A Predictor of Functional Decline and Death”, JAMA Internal Medicine, Vol. 172, No. 14, 2012 Google ScholarPubMed.

76 The Sentencing Project, “Incarcerated Women and Girls”, Fact Sheet, Washington, DC, 2015, available at: www.sentencingproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Incarcerated-Women-and-Girls.pdf.

77 BJS, above note 8.

78 UN Office on Drugs and Crime, Handbook on Women and Imprisonment, 2nd ed., New York, 2014, available at: www.unodc.org/documents/justice-and-prison-reform/women_and_imprisonment_-_2nd_edition.pdf.

79 Ibid.

Ibid

80 Staton, Michele, Leukefeld, Carl and Webster, J. Matthew, “Substance Use, Health, and Mental Health: Problems and Service Utilization among Incarcerated Women”, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2003 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

81 J. Baillargeon et al., above note 35.

82 Natasha A. Frost, Judith Greene and Kevin Pranis, Hard Hit: The Growth of Imprisonment of Women, 1977–2004, Women's Prison Association, New York, 2006, available at: http://csdp.org/research/HardHitReport4.pdf.

83 Messina, Nena and Grella, Christine, “Childhood Trauma and Women's Health Outcomes in a California Prison Population”, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 96, No. 10, 2006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

84 Parvez, Farah, Katyal, Monica, Alper, Howard, Leibowitz, Ruth and Venters, Homer, “Female Sex Workers Incarcerated in New York City Jails: Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Associated Risk Behaviors”, Sexually Transmitted Infections, Vol. 89, No. 4, 2013 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

85 BJS, above note 8.

86 Covington, Stephanie S. and Bloom, Barbara E., “Gendered Justice: Women in the Criminal Justice System”, in Bloom, Barbara E. (ed.), Gendered Justice: Addressing Female Offenders, Carolina Academic Press, Durham, NC, 2003 Google Scholar.

87 C. S. Landefeld et al., above note 36.

88 Anne C. Looker, Lori G. Borrud, Bess Dawson-Hughhes, John A. Shepherd and Nicole C. Wright, “Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine in Older Adults: United States, 2005–2008”, NCHS Data Brief, No. 93, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD, 2012.

89 B. A. Williams et al., above note 28.

90 B. Jayne Anno, Camila Graham, James E. Lawrence and Ronald Shansky, “Correctional Health Care: Addressing the Needs of Elderly, Chronically Ill, and Terminally Ill Inmates”, Criminal Justice Institute, Middletown, CT, 2004; Lindquist, Christine H. and Lindquist, Charles A., “Health Behind Bars: Utilization and Evaluation of Medical Care among Jail Inmates”, Journal of Community Health, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1999 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

91 Binswanger, Ingrid A., Stern, Marc F., Deyo, Richard A., Heagerty, Patrick J., Cheadle, Allen, Elmore, Joann G. and Koepsell, Thomas D., “Release from Prison – a High Risk of Death for Former Inmates”, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 356, No. 2, 2007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

92 B. A. Williams et al., above note 28.

93 Mara, Cynthia Massie, “Expansion of Long-Term Care in the Prison System: An Aging Inmate Population Poses Policy and Programmatic Questions”, Journal of Aging & Social Policy, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2002 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

94 UN Office on Drugs and Crime, above note 2.

95 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4.

96 Alan Blinder, “In U.S. Jails, a Constitutional Clash over Air-Conditioning”, New York Times, 15 August 2016, available at: www.nytimes.com/2016/08/16/us/in-us-jails-a-constitutional-clash-over-air-conditioning.html?_r=0.

97 Human Rights Watch, Old Behind Bars: The Aging Prison Population in the United States, 2012, available at: www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/usprisons0112webwcover_0_0.pdf.

98 Rogers, Michael E., Rogers, Nicole L., Takeshima, Nobuo and Islam, Mohammod M., “Reducing the Risk for Falls in the Homes of Older Adults”, Journal of Housing for the Elderly, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

99 B. A. Williams et al., above note 28.

100 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016–17 Edition: Home Health Aides, US Department of Labor, Washington, DC, 2017 Google Scholar, available at: www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/home-health-aides.htm.

101 T. Hill et al., above note 58.

102 Office of the Inspector General, above note 7.

103 UN Office on Drugs and Crime, above note 2; Kerbs, John K. and Jolley, Jennifer M., “A Commentary on Age Segregation for Older Prisoners”, Criminal Justice Review, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2009 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

104 Human Rights Watch, above note 97.

105 Ibid.

Ibid

106 Ibid.

Ibid

107 UN Office on Drugs and Crime, above note 2; Human Rights Watch, above note 97.

108 Michael Hill, “New York Prison Creates Dementia Unit”, Washington Post, 29 May 2007, available at: www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/29/AR2007052900208.html; Maura Ewing, “When Prisons Need to Be More Like Prison Nursing Homes”, Marshall Project, 27 August 2015, available at: www.themarshallproject.org/2015/08/27/when-prisons-need-to-be-more-like-nursing-homes#.3EYvevSg9.

109 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4.

110 UN General Assembly, The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (the Nelson Mandela Rules), A/RES/70/175, 8 January 2016, available at: www.unodc.org/documents/justice-and-prison-reform/GA-RESOLUTION/E_ebook.pdf.

111 Metcalf, Hope, Morgan, Jamelia, Oliker-Friedland, Samuel, Resnik, Judith, Spiegel, Julia, Tae, Haran, Work, Alyssa Roxanne and Holbrook, Brian, Administrative Segregation, Degrees of Isolation, and Incarceration: A National Overview of State and Federal Correctional Policies, Yale Law School, Public Law Working Paper, 2013 Google Scholar.

112 Beck, Allen J., Use of Restrictive Housing in U.S. Prisons and Jails, 2011–12, BJS, DoJ, Washington, DC, 2015 Google Scholar, available at: www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/urhuspj1112.pdf.

113 M. F. Holick, above note 41; C. M. Perissinotto, I. Stijacic Cenzer and K. E. Covinsky, above note 75; Gillespie, L. D., Robertson, M., Gillespie, W. J., Sherrington, C., Gates, S., Clemson, L. M. and Lamb, S. E., “Interventions for Preventing Falls in Older People Living in the Community”, Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, Vol. 2, 2009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

114 Hawkley, Louise C., Thisted, Ronald A. and Cacioppo, John T., “Loneliness Predicts Reduced Physical Activity: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses”, Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Cacioppo, John T., Huges, Mary Elizabeth, Waite, Linda J. and Thisted, Ronald, “Loneliness as a Specific Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses”, Psychology and Aging, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2006 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; Larson, Eric B., Wang, Li, Bowen, James D., McCormick, Wayne C., Teri, Linda, Crane, Paul and Kukull, Walter, “Exercise Is Associated with Reduced Risk for Incident Dementia Among Persons 65 Years of Age and Older”, Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 144, No. 2, 2006 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

115 C. M. Perissinotto, I. Stijacic Cenzer and K. E. Covinsky, above note 75; Teguo, M Tabue, Simo-Tabue, N., Stoykova, R., Meillon, C., Cogne, M., Amiéva, H. and Dartiques, J. F., “Feelings of Loneliness and Living Alone as Predictors of Mortality in the Elderly: The PAQUID Study”, Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 78, No. 8, 2016 Google Scholar.

116 Bolano, Marielle, Ahalt, Cyrus, Ritchie, Christine, Cenzer, Irena Stijacic and Williams, Brie A., “Detained and Distressed: Persistent Distressing Symptoms in a Population of Older Jail Inmates”, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 64, No. 11, 2016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Williams, Brie A., Ahalt, Cyrus, Cenzer, Irena Stijacic, Smith, Alexander K., Goldenson, Joe and Ritchie, Christine S., “Pain Behind Bars: the Epidemiology of Pain in Older Jail Inmates in a County Jail”, Journal of Palliative Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 12, 2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

117 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4.

118 Human Rights Watch, The Answer Is No: Too Little Compassion Release in US Federal Prisons, 30 November 2012, available at: www.hrw.org/report/2012/11/30/answer-no/too-little-compassionate-release-us-federal-prisons; Office of the Inspector General, above note 7.

119 Ashley Nellis and Ryan S. King, No Exit: The Expanding Use of Life Sentences in America, Report, The Sentencing Project, Washington, DC, 2009, available at: www.sentencingproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/No-Exit-The-Expanding-Use-of-Life-Sentences-in-America.pdf.

120 Brie A. Williams, “Testimony of Brie Williams, MD, MS”, United States Sentencing Commission: Public Hearing on Compassionate Release and Conditions of Supervision, 17 February 2016, available at: www.ussc.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/amendment-process/public-hearings-and-meetings/20160217/williams.pdf.

121 Kelley, Amy S. and Morrison, R. Sean, “Palliative Care for the Seriously Ill”, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 373, No. 8, 2015 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

122 Goldstein, Nathan E. and Morrison, R. Sean, Evidence Based Practice of Palliative Medicine, 1st ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2013 Google Scholar.

123 Quill, Timothy E. and Abernethy, Amy P., “Generalist Plus Specialist Palliative Care – Creating a More Sustainable Model”, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 368, No. 13, 2013 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

124 B. A. Williams, above note 120.

125 Stensland, Meredith and Sanders, Sara, “Detained and Dying: Ethical Issues Surrounding End-of-Life Care in Prison”, Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life and Palliative Care, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2016 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

126 Loeb, S. J. et al. , “End-of-Life Care and Barriers for Female Inmates”, Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2011 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; M. Stensland and S. Sanders, above note 125.

127 Sanders, Sara, Stensland, Meredith, Dohrmann, Jane, Robinson, Erin and Juraco, Kim, “Barriers Associated with the Implementation of an Advance Care Planning Program in a Prison Setting”, Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life and Palliative Care, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

128 N. E. Goldstein and R. S. Morrison, above note 122.

129 Human Rights Watch, above note 97; Hoffman, Heath C. and Dickinson, George E., “Characteristics of Prison Hospice Programs in the United States”, American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2011 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

130 Wion, Rachel K. and Loeb, Susan J., “CE: Original Research: End-of-Life Care Behind Bars: A Systematic Review”, American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 116, No. 3, 2016 Google ScholarPubMed.

131 National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, Quality Guidelines for Hospice and End-of-Life Care in Correctional Settings, 2009, available at: www.nhpco.org/sites/default/files/public/Access/Corrections/CorrectionsQualityGuidelines.pdf; National Prison Hospice Association, Prison Hospice Operational Guidelines, 1998, available at: http://prisonhospice.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/prison-hospice-guidelines-revised3.doc.

132 Writing, Kevin N. and Bronstein, Laura, “Creating Decent Prisons: A Serendipitous Finding about Prison Hospice”, Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, Vol. 44, No. 4, 2008 Google Scholar.

133 H. C. Hoffman and G. E. Dickinson, above note 129.

134 Cloyes, Kristin G., Rosenkranz, Susan J., Berry, Patricia H., Supiano, Katherine P., Routt, Meghan, Shannon-Dorcy, Kathleen and Llanque, Sarah M., “Essential Elements of an Effective and Sustainable Prison Hospice Program”, American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; M. Stensland and S. Sanders, above note 125.

135 Ibid.

Ibid

136 Handtke, Violet, Wolff, Hans and Williams, Brie A., “The Pains of Imprisonment: Challenging Aspects of Pain Management in Correctional Settings”, Pain Management, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2016 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

137 Williams, Brie A., Sudore, Rebecca L., Greifinger, Robert and Morrison, R. Sean, “Balancing Punishment and Compassion for Seriously Ill Prisoners”, Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 155, No. 2, 2011 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

138 Ibid.

Ibid

139 Ibid.

Ibid

140 Office of the Inspector General, The Federal Bureau of Prisons' Compassionate Release Program, US Department of Justice, Washington, DC, 2013, available at: https://oig.justice.gov/reports/2013/e1306.pdf.

141 Office of the Inspector General, above note 7.

142 Office of the Inspector General, above note 140.

143 B. A. Williams et al., above note 137.

144 B. A. Williams, above note 120.

145 Ibid.

Ibid

146 I. A. Binswanger et al., above note 91.

147 Ibid.

Ibid

148 Human Rights Watch, above note 97.

149 Frank, Joseph W., Linder, Jeffrey A., Becker, William C., Fiellin, David A. and Wang, Emily A., “Increased Hospital and Emergency Department Utilization by Individuals with Recent Criminal Justice Involvement: Results of a National Survey”, Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 9, 2014 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

150 Coleman, Eric A. and Boult, Chad, “Improving the Quality of Transitional Care for Persons with Complex Care Needs”, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 51, No. 4, 2003 Google ScholarPubMed.

151 Ibid.

Ibid

152 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Project START, Best Evidence – Risk Reduction, Atlanta, Georgia, September 2015, available at: www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/research/interventionresearch/compendium/cdc-hiv-project_start_best_rr.pdf; Wolitski, Richard J. and Project START Writing Group, “Relative Efficacy of a Multisession Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention for Young Men Released From Prisons in 4 States”, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 96, No. 10, 2006 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

153 Wang, Emily A., Hong, Clemens S., Shavit, Shira, Sanders, Ronald, Kessell, Eric and Kushel, Margot B., “Engaging Individuals Recently Released from Prison into Primary Care: A Randomized Trial”, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 102, No. 9, 2012 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

154 Christine Vestal, “For Aging Inmates, Care Outside Prison Walls”, Pew Charitable Trusts, 12 August 2014, available at: www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2014/08/12/for-aging-inmates-care-outside-prison-walls.

155 M. Ewing, above note 108.

156 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4; House of Commons Justice Committee, Older Prisoners: Fifth Report of Session 2013–14, House of Commons, London, 2013 Google Scholar, available at: www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-committees/justice/older-prisoners.pdf.

157 Ahalt, Cyrus, Binswanger, Ingrid A., Steinman, Michael, Tulsky, Jacqueline and Williams, Brie A., “Confined to Ignorance: The Absence of Prisoner Information from Nationally Representative Health Data Sets”, Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2012 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

158 T. E. Quill and A. P. Abernethy, above note 123.

159 Meera Sheffrin, Cyrus Ahalt, Irena Stijacic Cenzer and Brie A. Williams, “Geriatrics in Jail: Educating Professionals to Improve the Care of Older Inmates”, presented at the American Geriatrics Society Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA, 2016.

160 Chun, Audrey Ed, Geriatric Care by Design: A Clinician's Handbook to Meet the Needs of Older Adults Through Environmental and Practice Redesign, 1st ed., American Medical Association, 2011 Google Scholar.

161 Saunders, Lynn, “Older Offenders: The Challenge of Providing Services to Those Aging in Prison”, Prison Services Journal, No. 208, 2013 Google Scholar.

162 Ibid.

Ibid

163 Office of National Drug Control Policy, “Alternatives to Incarceration”, The White House, Washington, DC, available at: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/ondcp/alternatives-to-incarceration.

164 Erikson, Erik H., Identity and the Life Cycle, reissue ed., Norton, New York, 1994 Google Scholar.

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 46
Total number of PDF views: 212 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 17th November 2017 - 1st March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Ageing prisoners: An introduction to geriatric health-care challenges in correctional facilities
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Ageing prisoners: An introduction to geriatric health-care challenges in correctional facilities
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Ageing prisoners: An introduction to geriatric health-care challenges in correctional facilities
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *