Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Ageing prisoners: An introduction to geriatric health-care challenges in correctional facilities

  • Rachael Bedard, Lia Metzger and Brie Williams
Abstract

The rise in the number of older prisoners in many nations has been described as a correctional “ageing crisis” which poses an urgent financial, medical and programmatic challenge for correctional health-care systems. In 2016, the International Committee of the Red Cross hosted a conference entitled “Ageing and Imprisonment: Identifying the Needs of Older Prisoners” to discuss the institutional, legal and health-care needs of incarcerated older adults, and the approaches some correctional facilities have taken to meeting these needs. This article describes some of the challenges facing correctional systems tasked with providing health care to older adults, highlights some strategies to improve their medical care, and identifies areas in need of reform. It draws principally on research and examples from the United States to offer insights and recommendations that may be considered in other systems as well.

Copyright
References
Hide All

1 He, Wan, Goodkind, Daniel and Kowal, Paul, An Aging World: 2015, US Census Bureau, International Population Reports, P95/16-1, US Government Publishing Office, Washington, DC, 2016 .

2 United Nations (UN) Office on Drugs and Crime, Handbook on Prisoners with Special Needs, New York, 2009 , available at: www.unodc.org/pdf/criminal_justice/Handbook_on_Prisoners_with_Special_Needs.pdf (all internet references were accessed in May 2017).

3 Ibid.

4 Williams, Brie A., Goodwin, James S., Baillargeon, Jacques, Ahalt, Cyrus and Walter, Louise C., “Addressing the Aging Crisis in U.S. Criminal Justice Health Care”, Journal of the American Geriatric Society, Vol. 60, No. 6, 2012 .

5 Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), Prisoners Series: 1990–2010, US Department of Justice (DoJ), Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Washington, DC, available at: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbse&sid=40.

6 BJS, Aging of the State Prison Population, 1993–2013, DoJ, OJP, Washington, DC, May 2016, available at: www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/aspp9313_Sum.pdf.

7 Office of the Inspector General, The Impact of an Aging Inmate Population on the Federal Bureau of Prisons, DoJ, Washington, DC, February 2016, available at: https://oig.justice.gov/reports/2015/e1505.pdf.

8 BJS, above note 6; BJS, Prisoners in 2015, DoJ, OJP, Washington, DC, December 2016, available at: www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p15_sum.pdf.

9 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4.

10 Aday, Ron H., Aging Prisoners: Crisis in American Corrections, Praeger, Westport, CT, 2003 .

11 Ibid.

12 Williams, Brie A., Stern, Marc F., Mellow, Jeff, Safer, Meredith and Greifinger, Robert B., “Aging in Correctional Custody: Setting a Policy Agenda for Older Prisoner Health Care”, American Journal of Public Health, Vo1. 102, No. 8, 2012 .

13 Maschi, Tina, Viola, Deborah and Sun, Fei, “The High Cost of the International Aging Prisoner Crisis: Well-Being as the Common Denominator for Action”, The Gerontologist, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2013 ; Ahalt, Cyrus, Trestmann, Robert L., Rich, Josiah D., Greifinger, Robert B. and Williams, Brie A., “Paying the Price: The Pressing Need for Quality, Cost and Outcomes Data to Improve Correctional Healthcare for Older Prisoners”, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 61, No. 11, 2013 .

14 Ibid .

15 Ahalt, Cyrus, Binswanger, Ingrid A., Steinman, Michael, Tulsky, Jacqueline and Williams, Brie A., “Confined to Ignorance: The Absence of Prisoner Information from Nationally Representative Health Data Sets”, Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2012 .

16 Ibid.

17 Office of the Inspector General, above note 7.

18 Ibid.

19 Ibid.

20 Ibid.

21 Andrew Coyle, “Standards in Prison Health: The Prisoner as a Patient”, Prisons and Health, WHO, 2014, available at: www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/249191/Prisons-and-Health,-2-Standards-in-prison-health-the-prisoner-as-a-patient.pdf?ua=1; citing, e.g., European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), Mouisel v. France, Application No. 67263/01, 14 November 2002; ECtHR, Hénaf v. France, Application No. 65436/01, 27 November 2003; ECtHR, McGlinchey and Others v. United Kingdom, Judgment, Application No. 50390/99, 29 April 2003.

22 A. Coyle, above note 21.

23 US Supreme Court, Estelle v. Gamble, Case No. 75-929, Judgment, 30 November 1976.

24 Ibid .

25 Williams, Brie A., Chang, Anna, Ahalt, Cyrus, Chen, Helen, Conant, Rebecca, Landefeld, C. Seth, Ritchie, Christine and Yukawa, Michi, Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Geriatrics, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, 2014 .

26 Ibid., p. 4.

27 Covinsky, Kenneth E., Justice, Amy C., Rosenthal, Gary E., Palmer, Robert M. and Landefeld, C. Seth, “Measuring Prognosis and Case Mix in Hospitalized Elders: The Importance of Functional Status”, Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1997 .

28 Williams, Brie A., Lindquist, Karla, Sudore, Rebecca L., Strupp, Heidi M., Willmott, Donna J. and Walter, Louise C., “Being Old and Doing Time: Functional Impairment and Adverse Experiences of Geriatric Female Prisoners”, Journal of the American Geriatric Society, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2006 .

29 Ibid.

30 Ibid.

31 Loeb, Susan J. and AbuDagga, Azza, “Health-Related Research on Older Inmates: An Integrative Review”, Research in Nursing and Health, Vol. 29, No. 6, 2006 ; Baillargeon, Jacques, Black, Sandra A., Pulvino, John and Dunn, Kim, “The Disease Profile of Texas Prison Inmates”, Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2000 .

32 Fazel, Seena, Hope, Tony, O'Donnell, Ian, Piper, Mary and Jacoby, Robin, “Health of Elderly Male Prisoners: Worse than the General Population, Worse than Younger Prisoners”, Age and Ageing, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2001 .

33 Wangmo, Tenzin, Hauri, Sirin, Meyer, Andrea H. and Elger, Bernice S., “Patterns of Older and Younger Prisoners’ Primary Healthcare Utilization in Switzerland”, International Journal of Prisoner Health, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2016 .

34 Binswanger, Ingrid A., Krueger, Patrick M. and Steiner, John F., “Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions Among Jail and Prison Inmates in the USA Compared with the General Population”, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 63, No. 11, 2009 .

35 Baillargeon, Jacques, Black, Sandra A., Leach, Charles T., Jenson, Hal, Pulvino, John, Bradshaw, Patrick and Murray, Owen, “The Infectious Disease Profile of Texas Prison Inmates”, Preventive Medicine, Vol. 38, No. 5, 2004 .

36 Landefeld, C. Seth, Palmer, Robert M., Johnson, Mary Anne, Johnston, C. Bree and Lyons, William L., Current Geriatric Diagnosis and Treatment, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2004 .

37 Inouye, Sharon K., Studenski, Stephanie, Tinetti, Mary Elizabeth and Kuchel, George A., “Geriatric Syndromes: Clinical, Research and Policy Implications of a Core Geriatric Concept”, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 55, No. 5, 2007 .

38 C. S. Landefeld et al., above note 36.

39 Tinetti, Mary E. and Kumar, Chandrika, “The Patient Who Falls: ‘It's Always a Trade-Off’”, Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 303, No. 3, 2010 .

40 Papapetrou, Peter D., Triantafyllopoulou, Maria and Korakovouni, A., “Severe Vitamin D Deficiency in the Institutionalized Elderly”, Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, Vol. 31, No. 9, 2008 .

41 Holick, Michael F., “Vitamin D Deficiency”, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 357, No. 3, 2007 .

42 Masud, Tahir and Morris, Robert O., “Epidemiology of Falls”, Age and Ageing, Vol. 30, 2001 .

43 Harada, Caroline N., Love, Marissa Natelson and Triebel, Kristen, “Normal Cognitive Aging”, Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2013 .

44 B. A. Williams et al., above note 25, pp. 123–133.

45 WHO, The Epidemiology and Impact of Dementia, Geneva, 2015 , available at: www.who.int/mental_health/neurology/dementia/dementia_thematicbrief_epidemiology.pdf.

46 Simmons, B. Brent, Hartmann, Brett and DeJoseph, Daniel, “Evaluation of Suspected Dementia”, American Family Physician, Vol. 15, No. 84, 2011 .

47 Ibid.

48 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4.

49 R. H. Aday, above note 10.

50 Williams, Brie A., Baillargeon, Jacques, Lindquist, Karla, Walter, Louise C., Covinsky, Kenneth E., Whitson, Heather E. and Steinman, Michael A., “Medication Prescribing Practices for Older Prisoners in the Texas Prison System”, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 100, No. 4, 2010 .

51 Williams, Brie A., Lindquist, Karla, Hill, Terry, Baillargeon, Jacques, Mellow, Jeff, Greifinger, Robert and Walter, Louise C., “Caregiving Behind Bars: Correctional Officer Reports of Disability in Geriatric Prisoners”, Journal of the American Geriatric Society, Vol. 57, No. 7, 2009 .

52 B. A. Williams et al., above note 28.

53 Burgio, Kathryn L., Ives, Diane G., Locher, Julie L., Arena, Vincent C. and Kuller, Lewis H., “Treatment Seeking for Urinary Incontinence in Adults”, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 42, No. 2, 1994 .

54 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4.

55 Reviere, Rebecca and Young, Vernetta D., “Aging Behind Bars: Health Care of Older Female Inmates”, Journal of Women & Aging, Vol. 16, Nos 1–2, 2004 .

56 B. A. Williams et al., above note 28.

57 Walling, Anne D. and Dickson, Gretchen M., “Hearing Loss in Older Adults”, American Family Physician, Vol. 85, No. 12, 2012 , available at: www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0615/p1150.html; Allen L. Pelletier, Ledy Rojas-Roldan and Janis Coffin, “Vision Loss in Older Adults”, American Family Physician, Vol. 94, No. 3, 2016, available at: www.aafp.org/afp/2016/0801/p219.html.

58 Hill, Terry, Williams, Brie A., Cobe, Gail and Lindquist, Karla, Aging Inmates: Challenges for Healthcare and Custody, Report, Lumetra, San Francisco, CA, 2006 , available at: www.cphcs.ca.gov/docs/resources/AgingInmatesByLumetra0506.pdf.

59 Ibid.

60 Weinstein, Barbara E., Sirow, Lynn W. and Moser, Sarah, “Relating Hearing Aid Use to Social and Emotional Loneliness in Older Adults”, American Journal of Audiology, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2016 ; Boi, Raffaella, Racca, Luca, Cavallero, Antonio, Carpaneto, Veronica, Dall'Acqua, Matteo Racca Francesca, Ricchetti, Michele, Santelli, Alida and Odetti, Patrizio, “Hearing Loss and Depressive Symptoms in Elderly Patients”, Geriatrics & Gerontology International, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2012 .

61 Williams, Brie A., Ahalt, Cyrus and Aronson, Louise, “Aging Correctional Populations”, in Bruinsma, Gerben and Weisburd, David (eds), Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Springer, New York, 2014 .

62 Williams, Cynthia M., “Using Medications Appropriately in Older Adults”, American Family Physician, Vol. 66, No. 10, 2002 .

63 Ibid.

64 S. K. Inouye et al., above note 37.

65 Scott, Ian A., Hilmer, Sarah N., Reeve, Emily, Potter, Kathleen, Le Couteur, David, Rigby, Deborah, Gnjidic, Danijela, Del Mar, Christopher B., Roughead, Elizabeth E., Page, Amy, Jansen, Jesse and Martin, Jennifer H., “Reducing Inappropriate Polypharmacy: The Process of Deprescribing”, JAMA Internal Medicine, Vol. 175, No. 5, 2015 ; Steinman, Michael A., “Polypharmacy – Time to Get Beyond Numbers”, JAMA Internal Medicine, Vol. 176, No. 4, 2016 .

66 B. A. Williams et al., above note 50.

67 Ibid.

68 James, Doris J. and Glaze, Lauren E., Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates, Special Report, BJS, DoJ, Washington, DC, 2006 .

69 B. A. Williams, C. Ahalt and L. Aronson, above note 71; Haugebrook, Sabrina, Zgoba, Kristen M. and Maschi, Tina, “Trauma, Stress, Health, and Mental Health Issues among Ethnically Diverse Older Adult Prisoners”, Journal of Correctional Health Care, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2010 .

70 Flatt, Jason D., Williams, Brie A., Barnes, Deborah, Goldenson, Joe and Ahalt, Cyrus, “Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Associated Health and Social Vulnerabilities in Older Jail Inmates”, Aging & Mental Health, Vol. 21, No. 10, 2017 .

71 Crawley, Elaine and Sparks, Richard, “Is There Life After Imprisonment? How Elderly Men Talk About Imprisonment and Release”, Criminology and Criminal Justice, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2006 .

72 Aday, Ronald H., “Aging Prisoners’ Concerns toward Dying in Prison”, Journal of Death and Dying, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2006 .

73 Lisa C. Barry, Dorothy B. Wakefield, Robert L. Trestman and Yeates Conwell, “Disability in Prison Activities of Daily Living and Likelihood of Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Older Prisoners”, International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, January 2016.

74 B. A. Williams et al., above note 50.

75 Perissinotto, Carla M., Cenzer, Irena Stijacic and Covinsky, Kenneth E., “Loneliness in Older Persons: A Predictor of Functional Decline and Death”, JAMA Internal Medicine, Vol. 172, No. 14, 2012 .

76 The Sentencing Project, “Incarcerated Women and Girls”, Fact Sheet, Washington, DC, 2015, available at: www.sentencingproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Incarcerated-Women-and-Girls.pdf.

77 BJS, above note 8.

78 UN Office on Drugs and Crime, Handbook on Women and Imprisonment, 2nd ed., New York, 2014, available at: www.unodc.org/documents/justice-and-prison-reform/women_and_imprisonment_-_2nd_edition.pdf.

79 Ibid.

80 Staton, Michele, Leukefeld, Carl and Webster, J. Matthew, “Substance Use, Health, and Mental Health: Problems and Service Utilization among Incarcerated Women”, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2003 .

81 J. Baillargeon et al., above note 35.

82 Natasha A. Frost, Judith Greene and Kevin Pranis, Hard Hit: The Growth of Imprisonment of Women, 1977–2004, Women's Prison Association, New York, 2006, available at: http://csdp.org/research/HardHitReport4.pdf.

83 Messina, Nena and Grella, Christine, “Childhood Trauma and Women's Health Outcomes in a California Prison Population”, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 96, No. 10, 2006 .

84 Parvez, Farah, Katyal, Monica, Alper, Howard, Leibowitz, Ruth and Venters, Homer, “Female Sex Workers Incarcerated in New York City Jails: Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Associated Risk Behaviors”, Sexually Transmitted Infections, Vol. 89, No. 4, 2013 .

85 BJS, above note 8.

86 Covington, Stephanie S. and Bloom, Barbara E., “Gendered Justice: Women in the Criminal Justice System”, in Bloom, Barbara E. (ed.), Gendered Justice: Addressing Female Offenders, Carolina Academic Press, Durham, NC, 2003 .

87 C. S. Landefeld et al., above note 36.

88 Anne C. Looker, Lori G. Borrud, Bess Dawson-Hughhes, John A. Shepherd and Nicole C. Wright, “Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine in Older Adults: United States, 2005–2008”, NCHS Data Brief, No. 93, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD, 2012.

89 B. A. Williams et al., above note 28.

90 B. Jayne Anno, Camila Graham, James E. Lawrence and Ronald Shansky, “Correctional Health Care: Addressing the Needs of Elderly, Chronically Ill, and Terminally Ill Inmates”, Criminal Justice Institute, Middletown, CT, 2004; Lindquist, Christine H. and Lindquist, Charles A., “Health Behind Bars: Utilization and Evaluation of Medical Care among Jail Inmates”, Journal of Community Health, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1999 .

91 Binswanger, Ingrid A., Stern, Marc F., Deyo, Richard A., Heagerty, Patrick J., Cheadle, Allen, Elmore, Joann G. and Koepsell, Thomas D., “Release from Prison – a High Risk of Death for Former Inmates”, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 356, No. 2, 2007 .

92 B. A. Williams et al., above note 28.

93 Mara, Cynthia Massie, “Expansion of Long-Term Care in the Prison System: An Aging Inmate Population Poses Policy and Programmatic Questions”, Journal of Aging & Social Policy, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2002 .

94 UN Office on Drugs and Crime, above note 2.

95 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4.

96 Alan Blinder, “In U.S. Jails, a Constitutional Clash over Air-Conditioning”, New York Times, 15 August 2016, available at: www.nytimes.com/2016/08/16/us/in-us-jails-a-constitutional-clash-over-air-conditioning.html?_r=0.

97 Human Rights Watch, Old Behind Bars: The Aging Prison Population in the United States, 2012, available at: www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/usprisons0112webwcover_0_0.pdf.

98 Rogers, Michael E., Rogers, Nicole L., Takeshima, Nobuo and Islam, Mohammod M., “Reducing the Risk for Falls in the Homes of Older Adults”, Journal of Housing for the Elderly, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2004 .

99 B. A. Williams et al., above note 28.

100 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016–17 Edition: Home Health Aides, US Department of Labor, Washington, DC, 2017 , available at: www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/home-health-aides.htm.

101 T. Hill et al., above note 58.

102 Office of the Inspector General, above note 7.

103 UN Office on Drugs and Crime, above note 2; Kerbs, John K. and Jolley, Jennifer M., “A Commentary on Age Segregation for Older Prisoners”, Criminal Justice Review, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2009 .

104 Human Rights Watch, above note 97.

105 Ibid.

106 Ibid.

107 UN Office on Drugs and Crime, above note 2; Human Rights Watch, above note 97.

108 Michael Hill, “New York Prison Creates Dementia Unit”, Washington Post, 29 May 2007, available at: www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/29/AR2007052900208.html; Maura Ewing, “When Prisons Need to Be More Like Prison Nursing Homes”, Marshall Project, 27 August 2015, available at: www.themarshallproject.org/2015/08/27/when-prisons-need-to-be-more-like-nursing-homes#.3EYvevSg9.

109 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4.

110 UN General Assembly, The United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (the Nelson Mandela Rules), A/RES/70/175, 8 January 2016, available at: www.unodc.org/documents/justice-and-prison-reform/GA-RESOLUTION/E_ebook.pdf.

111 Metcalf, Hope, Morgan, Jamelia, Oliker-Friedland, Samuel, Resnik, Judith, Spiegel, Julia, Tae, Haran, Work, Alyssa Roxanne and Holbrook, Brian, Administrative Segregation, Degrees of Isolation, and Incarceration: A National Overview of State and Federal Correctional Policies, Yale Law School, Public Law Working Paper, 2013 .

112 Beck, Allen J., Use of Restrictive Housing in U.S. Prisons and Jails, 2011–12, BJS, DoJ, Washington, DC, 2015 , available at: www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/urhuspj1112.pdf.

113 M. F. Holick, above note 41; C. M. Perissinotto, I. Stijacic Cenzer and K. E. Covinsky, above note 75; Gillespie, L. D., Robertson, M., Gillespie, W. J., Sherrington, C., Gates, S., Clemson, L. M. and Lamb, S. E., “Interventions for Preventing Falls in Older People Living in the Community”, Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, Vol. 2, 2009 .

114 Hawkley, Louise C., Thisted, Ronald A. and Cacioppo, John T., “Loneliness Predicts Reduced Physical Activity: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses”, Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2009 ; Cacioppo, John T., Huges, Mary Elizabeth, Waite, Linda J. and Thisted, Ronald, “Loneliness as a Specific Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses”, Psychology and Aging, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2006 ; Larson, Eric B., Wang, Li, Bowen, James D., McCormick, Wayne C., Teri, Linda, Crane, Paul and Kukull, Walter, “Exercise Is Associated with Reduced Risk for Incident Dementia Among Persons 65 Years of Age and Older”, Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 144, No. 2, 2006 .

115 C. M. Perissinotto, I. Stijacic Cenzer and K. E. Covinsky, above note 75; Teguo, M Tabue, Simo-Tabue, N., Stoykova, R., Meillon, C., Cogne, M., Amiéva, H. and Dartiques, J. F., “Feelings of Loneliness and Living Alone as Predictors of Mortality in the Elderly: The PAQUID Study”, Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 78, No. 8, 2016 .

116 Bolano, Marielle, Ahalt, Cyrus, Ritchie, Christine, Cenzer, Irena Stijacic and Williams, Brie A., “Detained and Distressed: Persistent Distressing Symptoms in a Population of Older Jail Inmates”, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 64, No. 11, 2016 ; Williams, Brie A., Ahalt, Cyrus, Cenzer, Irena Stijacic, Smith, Alexander K., Goldenson, Joe and Ritchie, Christine S., “Pain Behind Bars: the Epidemiology of Pain in Older Jail Inmates in a County Jail”, Journal of Palliative Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 12, 2014 .

117 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4.

118 Human Rights Watch, The Answer Is No: Too Little Compassion Release in US Federal Prisons, 30 November 2012, available at: www.hrw.org/report/2012/11/30/answer-no/too-little-compassionate-release-us-federal-prisons; Office of the Inspector General, above note 7.

119 Ashley Nellis and Ryan S. King, No Exit: The Expanding Use of Life Sentences in America, Report, The Sentencing Project, Washington, DC, 2009, available at: www.sentencingproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/No-Exit-The-Expanding-Use-of-Life-Sentences-in-America.pdf.

120 Brie A. Williams, “Testimony of Brie Williams, MD, MS”, United States Sentencing Commission: Public Hearing on Compassionate Release and Conditions of Supervision, 17 February 2016, available at: www.ussc.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/amendment-process/public-hearings-and-meetings/20160217/williams.pdf.

121 Kelley, Amy S. and Morrison, R. Sean, “Palliative Care for the Seriously Ill”, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 373, No. 8, 2015 .

122 Goldstein, Nathan E. and Morrison, R. Sean, Evidence Based Practice of Palliative Medicine, 1st ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2013 .

123 Quill, Timothy E. and Abernethy, Amy P., “Generalist Plus Specialist Palliative Care – Creating a More Sustainable Model”, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 368, No. 13, 2013 .

124 B. A. Williams, above note 120.

125 Stensland, Meredith and Sanders, Sara, “Detained and Dying: Ethical Issues Surrounding End-of-Life Care in Prison”, Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life and Palliative Care, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2016 .

126 Loeb, S. J. et al. , “End-of-Life Care and Barriers for Female Inmates”, Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2011 ; M. Stensland and S. Sanders, above note 125.

127 Sanders, Sara, Stensland, Meredith, Dohrmann, Jane, Robinson, Erin and Juraco, Kim, “Barriers Associated with the Implementation of an Advance Care Planning Program in a Prison Setting”, Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life and Palliative Care, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2014 .

128 N. E. Goldstein and R. S. Morrison, above note 122.

129 Human Rights Watch, above note 97; Hoffman, Heath C. and Dickinson, George E., “Characteristics of Prison Hospice Programs in the United States”, American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2011 .

130 Wion, Rachel K. and Loeb, Susan J., “CE: Original Research: End-of-Life Care Behind Bars: A Systematic Review”, American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 116, No. 3, 2016 .

131 National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, Quality Guidelines for Hospice and End-of-Life Care in Correctional Settings, 2009, available at: www.nhpco.org/sites/default/files/public/Access/Corrections/CorrectionsQualityGuidelines.pdf; National Prison Hospice Association, Prison Hospice Operational Guidelines, 1998, available at: http://prisonhospice.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/prison-hospice-guidelines-revised3.doc.

132 Writing, Kevin N. and Bronstein, Laura, “Creating Decent Prisons: A Serendipitous Finding about Prison Hospice”, Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, Vol. 44, No. 4, 2008 .

133 H. C. Hoffman and G. E. Dickinson, above note 129.

134 Cloyes, Kristin G., Rosenkranz, Susan J., Berry, Patricia H., Supiano, Katherine P., Routt, Meghan, Shannon-Dorcy, Kathleen and Llanque, Sarah M., “Essential Elements of an Effective and Sustainable Prison Hospice Program”, American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2016 ; M. Stensland and S. Sanders, above note 125.

135 Ibid.

136 Handtke, Violet, Wolff, Hans and Williams, Brie A., “The Pains of Imprisonment: Challenging Aspects of Pain Management in Correctional Settings”, Pain Management, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2016 .

137 Williams, Brie A., Sudore, Rebecca L., Greifinger, Robert and Morrison, R. Sean, “Balancing Punishment and Compassion for Seriously Ill Prisoners”, Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 155, No. 2, 2011 .

138 Ibid.

139 Ibid.

140 Office of the Inspector General, The Federal Bureau of Prisons' Compassionate Release Program, US Department of Justice, Washington, DC, 2013, available at: https://oig.justice.gov/reports/2013/e1306.pdf.

141 Office of the Inspector General, above note 7.

142 Office of the Inspector General, above note 140.

143 B. A. Williams et al., above note 137.

144 B. A. Williams, above note 120.

145 Ibid.

146 I. A. Binswanger et al., above note 91.

147 Ibid.

148 Human Rights Watch, above note 97.

149 Frank, Joseph W., Linder, Jeffrey A., Becker, William C., Fiellin, David A. and Wang, Emily A., “Increased Hospital and Emergency Department Utilization by Individuals with Recent Criminal Justice Involvement: Results of a National Survey”, Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 9, 2014 .

150 Coleman, Eric A. and Boult, Chad, “Improving the Quality of Transitional Care for Persons with Complex Care Needs”, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 51, No. 4, 2003 .

151 Ibid.

152 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Project START, Best Evidence – Risk Reduction, Atlanta, Georgia, September 2015, available at: www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/research/interventionresearch/compendium/cdc-hiv-project_start_best_rr.pdf; Wolitski, Richard J. and Project START Writing Group, “Relative Efficacy of a Multisession Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention for Young Men Released From Prisons in 4 States”, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 96, No. 10, 2006 .

153 Wang, Emily A., Hong, Clemens S., Shavit, Shira, Sanders, Ronald, Kessell, Eric and Kushel, Margot B., “Engaging Individuals Recently Released from Prison into Primary Care: A Randomized Trial”, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 102, No. 9, 2012 .

154 Christine Vestal, “For Aging Inmates, Care Outside Prison Walls”, Pew Charitable Trusts, 12 August 2014, available at: www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2014/08/12/for-aging-inmates-care-outside-prison-walls.

155 M. Ewing, above note 108.

156 B. A. Williams et al., above note 4; House of Commons Justice Committee, Older Prisoners: Fifth Report of Session 2013–14, House of Commons, London, 2013 , available at: www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-committees/justice/older-prisoners.pdf.

157 Ahalt, Cyrus, Binswanger, Ingrid A., Steinman, Michael, Tulsky, Jacqueline and Williams, Brie A., “Confined to Ignorance: The Absence of Prisoner Information from Nationally Representative Health Data Sets”, Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2012 .

158 T. E. Quill and A. P. Abernethy, above note 123.

159 Meera Sheffrin, Cyrus Ahalt, Irena Stijacic Cenzer and Brie A. Williams, “Geriatrics in Jail: Educating Professionals to Improve the Care of Older Inmates”, presented at the American Geriatrics Society Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA, 2016.

160 Chun, Audrey Ed, Geriatric Care by Design: A Clinician's Handbook to Meet the Needs of Older Adults Through Environmental and Practice Redesign, 1st ed., American Medical Association, 2011 .

161 Saunders, Lynn, “Older Offenders: The Challenge of Providing Services to Those Aging in Prison”, Prison Services Journal, No. 208, 2013 .

162 Ibid.

163 Office of National Drug Control Policy, “Alternatives to Incarceration”, The White House, Washington, DC, available at: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/ondcp/alternatives-to-incarceration.

164 Erikson, Erik H., Identity and the Life Cycle, reissue ed., Norton, New York, 1994 .

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Review of the Red Cross
  • ISSN: 1816-3831
  • EISSN: 1607-5889
  • URL: /core/journals/international-review-of-the-red-cross
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed