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Facilitating humanitarian assistance in international humanitarian and human rights law

  • Rebecca Barber

Abstract

In 2008, 260 humanitarian aid workers were killed or injured in violent attacks. Such attacks and other restrictions substantially limit the ability of humanitarian aid agencies to provide assistance to those in need, meaning that millions of people around the world are denied the basic food, water, shelter and sanitation necessary for survival. Using the humanitarian crises in Darfur and Somalia as examples, this paper considers the legal obligation of state and non-state actors to consent to and facilitate humanitarian assistance. It is shown that the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols, as well as customary international law, require that states consent to and facilitate humanitarian assistance which is impartial in character and conducted without adverse distinction, where failure to do so may lead to starvation or otherwise threaten the survival of a civilian population. This paper considers whether this obligation has been further expanded by the development of customary international law in recent years, as well as by international human rights law, to the point that states now have an obligation to accept and to facilitate humanitarian assistance in both international and non-international armed conflicts, even where the denial of such assistance does not necessarily threaten the survival of a civilian population.

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1 Report of the Secretary-General on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict, UN Doc. S/2007/643, 2007, p. 2.

2 Ibid., p. 6.

3 UN Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Natural Disaster Bulletin No. 8, October 2007, p. 1.

4 Strengthening the Co-ordination of Emergency Humanitarian Assistance of the United Nations: Report of the Secretary-General, UN GAOR, 59th sess., UN Doc. A/59/93-E/2004/74 (2004), p. 11.

5 Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck, Customary International Humanitarian Law, Vol. 1, ICRC/Cambridge University Press, Geneva/Cambridge, 2005, pp. 105, 193.

6 Abby Stoddard, Adele Harmer and Victoria DiDomenico, Providing Aid in Insecure Environments: 2009 Update, HPG Humanitarian Policy Brief No. 34, Overseas Development Institute, April 2009, p. 1, available at http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3250.pdf (last visited 3 June 2009).

9 Report of the High-Level Mission on the Situation of Human Rights in Darfur pursuant to Human Rights Council Decision S-4/101, UN HRC, 4th sess., prov. agenda item 2, UN Doc. A/HRC/4/80 (2007).

10 International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur pursuant to the United Nations Secretary General pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1564 of 18 September 2004, January 2005, p. 31.

11 Ibid. p. 22.

12 International Crisis Group, Darfur's Fragile Peace Agreement, Africa Briefing No. 39, June 2006, p. 2.

13 International Crisis Group, Darfur's New Security Reality, Africa Report No. 134, November 2007, p. 1.

14 Panel of Experts on the Sudan, Report of the Panel of Experts Established Pursuant to Resolution 1591 (2005) Concerning the Sudan, UN Doc. S/2008/647 (2008), p. 13.

15 Ibid., p. 16.

16 Ibid., p. 51.

17 Ibid., p. 53.

18 The initial authorization for the deployment of the African Union (AU) mission in Darfur was set out in the Communiqué of the Solemn Launching of the 10th Meeting of the Peace and Security Council, AU Peace and Security Council, 10th meeting, AU Doc. PSC/AHG/Comm (X) (2004). The Darfur Peace Agreement stipulated additional responsibilities for AMIS, and in June 2006 the AU's Military Staff Committee recommended that AMIS's mandate be reviewed to include the ‘protection of civilians, including women and children, under imminent threat within capabilities and resources’: Report of the Chairperson of the Commission on the Situation in Darfur, AU AU Peace and Security Council, 58th meeting, AU Doc. PSC/MIN/2 (LVIII) (2006), para. 33(b). The ‘additional tasks and the new mandate’ were approved by the AU Peace and Security Council in June 2006.

19 Panel of Experts on the Sudan, above note 14, p. 17.

20 Report of the Secretary-General and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission on the Hybrid Operation in Darfur, UN Doc. S/2007/307/Rev.1 (2007), paras 54–5. The Chapter VII authorization for the deployment of UNAMID is found in Resolution on Sudan, SC Res. 1769, UN SCOR, 5727th meeting, UN Doc. S/Res./1769 (2007), para. 15(a). Resolution 1769 also stipulates that the mandate of UNAMID shall be as set out in the report of the Secretary General and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission of 5 June 2007.

21 Panel of Experts on the Sudan, above note 14, p. 85.

22 Ibid., p. 3.

23 Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic (2004), Art. 11(1).

24 International Crisis Group, Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State, Africa Report No. 147, 23 December 2008, p. 2.

25 Ibid., p. 1.

26 Agreement between the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia and the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, opened for signature 9 June 2008, entered into force 18 August 2008 (‘Djibouti Agreement’).

27 International Crisis Group, Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State, above note 24, p. i.

28 See Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN), ‘Somalia: Power-sharing Deal Reached in Djibouti as TFG Split Widens’ (Press Release, 26 November 2008), available at www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/IRIN/2910ccfff0cea26e0d2e02359eb47540.htm (last visited 1 March 2008).

29 Michael Weistein, ‘Somalia: Situation Brief No. 3: Analysis’, Garoweonline, 14 April 2009, available at www.garoweonline.com/artman2/publish/Analysis/Somalia_Situation_Brief_3_Analysis.shtml (last visited 15 April 2009).

30 Mohammed Ibrahim and Alan Cowell, ‘Islamists Overrun Somalia City as Ethiopians Leave’, New York Times, 26 January 2009, p. A6.

32 International Crisis Group, Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State, above note 24, p. i.

33 The AU mission in Somalia took place initially pursuant to the Communiqué of the AU Peace and Security Council, January 2007, for the purpose of contributing to the initial stabilization phase in Somalia. The mission was then formally endorsed by the UN Security Council under Chapter VII of the UN Charter in Resolution on Somalia, SC Res. 1744, UN SCOR, 5633th meeting, UN Doc. S/Res./1744 (2007). The mission was extended in August 2007 in Resolution on Somalia, SC Res. 1772, UN SCOR, 5732nd meeting, UN Doc. S/Res./1772 (2007), and then again in February 2008 (Resolution on Somalia, SC Res. 1801, UN SCOR, 4842nd meeting, UN Doc. S/Res./1801 (2008)) and January 2009 (Resolution on Somalia, SC Res. 1863, UN SCOR, 6068th meeting, UN Doc. S/Res./1863 (2009)).

34 International Crisis Group, Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State, above note 24, p. 20.

35 UN Secretary General, Report of the Secretary General on the Situation in Somalia, UN Doc. S/2008/709 (2008) p. 7.

36 Sara Pantuliano, Susanne Jaspars and Deepayan Basu Ray, Where to Now? Agency Expulsions in Sudan: Consequences and Next Steps, ALNAP/HPG Lessons Paper, Overseas Development Institute, March 2009, p. 3, available at http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3198.pdf (last visited 3 June 2009).

37 Office of Deputy Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General for Sudan; UN Resident and Humanitarian Co-ordinator, ‘Darfur Humanitarian Profile No 33’, October 2008.

38 John Holmes, UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, ‘Briefing to the Security Council on the situation in Chad and Sudan’, 3 December 2008, available at www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/EDIS-7LYTBD?OpenDocument (last visited 23 January 2008).

39 UN Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs, ‘UN Humanitarian Chief Calls for Continued Co-operation in Sudan’, Press Release, 30 November 2008, available at www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/RMOI-7LVMUD?OpenDocument&RSS20=02-P (last visited 24 January 2008).

41 Eric Reeves, ‘Humanitarian Efforts in Darfur Face Escalating War by Khartoum’, 28 October 2008, available at www.sudanreeves.org/Article227.html (last visited 20 January 2008).

42 UN Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs, ‘Fact Sheet on Access Restrictions in Darfur and Other Areas of Sudan’, 20 April 2006, available at www.ochaonline.un.org/OchaLinkClick.aspx?link=ocha&DocId=1004494 (last visited 20 January 2008).

44 Amnesty International, ‘Sudan: Continuing Blockade of Humanitarian Aid’, Public Statement, AI Index AFR 54/010/2006 (Public), 4 April 2006, available at www.asiapacific.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAFR540102006?open&of=ENG-393 (last visited 26 January 2009). The Humanitarian Aid Commission Act 1995 was promulgated by President Omer el-Bashir in 2005, and in February 2006 was replaced by the Organisation of Humanitarian and Voluntary Work Act 2006. Both Acts have been heavily criticized by humanitarian and human rights organizations as imposing undue restrictions on the ability of humanitarian organizations to operate in Sudan.

45 Patrick Worsnip, ‘South Darfur Authorities Expel UN Aid Official: UN’, Reuters, 7 November 2007, available at www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSN0757142620071107 (last visited 25 January 2008).

46 IRIN, Sudan: We Will Fill the Gaps, Government Insists, Press Release, 10 March 2009, available at www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=83398 (last visited 15 April 2009).

47 Pantuliano, Jaspars and Ray. above note 36, p. 3.

48 IRIN, Sudan: Lost Aid Expertise Hard to Replace – UN, Press Release, 25 March 2009, available at www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=83635 (last visited 15 April 2009).

49 IRIN, Sudan: We Will Fill the Gaps, Government Insists, above note 46.

50 Pantuliano, Jaspars and Ray, above note 36, p. 4.

51 IRIN, Sudan: Hungry People are Desperate People, Press Release, 23 March 2009, available at www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=83587 (last visited 15 April 2009).

52 IRIN, Sudan: Lost Aid Expertise Hard to Replace – UN, above note 48.

53 IRIN, Sudan: Oxfam Appeals against Expulsion, Press Release, 15 April 2009, available at www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportID=83933 (last visited 16 April 2009).

54 UN News Centre, Somalia Now World's Most Dangerous Place for Aid Workers, Says UN Official, Press Release, 24 April 2007, available at www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=22334&Cr=somalia&Cr1 (last visited 24 January 2008).

55 Somalia NGO Security Preparedness and Support Program, Somalia Report, No. 50/08, December 2008.

56 RMI Somalia, Report on Review of World Vision Operational Procedures in Somalia, World Vision Somalia, 2008, p. 6.

57 Amnesty International, Fatal Insecurity: Attacks on Aid Workers and Rights Defenders in Somalia, AI Index AFR 52/016/2008, 6 November 2008, p. 17.

58 UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Somalia: Situation Report No. 50, 19 December 2008.

59 Amnesty International, Fatal Insecurity, above note 57, p. 14.

60 Amnesty International, Millions at Risk in Somalia as Attacks on Aid Workers Escalate, Press Release, 6 November 2008, available at www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/report/millions-risk-somalia-attacks-aid-workers-escalate-20081106 (last visited 24 January 2008).

61 Amnesty International, Fatal Insecurity, above note 57.

62 Statement by 52 NGOs Working in Somalia on the Rapidly Deteriorating Humanitarian Crisis in the Country, 6 October 2008, available at www.somali-civilsociety.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=125&Itemid=1 (last visited 20 January 2008).

64 Amnesty International, Fatal Insecurity, above note 57.

65 International Court of Justice (ICJ), Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, ICJ Reports 1996, p. 226, para. 105(2)(E); ICJ, Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, ICJ Reports 2004, p. 136, para. 106; ICJ, Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo, ICJ Reports 2005, p. 116.

66 Human Rights Watch, So Much to Fear: War Crimes and the Devastation of Somalia, December 2008, pp. 26–27, available at http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2008/12/08/so-much-fear-0 (last visited 2 June 2009).

67 Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research, IHL Resource Page: Darfur 2007, available at www.ihl.ihlresearch.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.viewpage&pageid=844 (last visited 7 February 2008).

68 Panel of Experts on the Sudan, above note 14, p. 49.

69 Ibid., p. 3.

70 ICTY, The Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadic, Case No. IT-94-1-A, Judgment (Appeals Chamber), 15 July 1999.

71 Ibid., para. 92.

72 Ibid., para. 94.

73 See Andrew Heavens, ‘Sudan and Chad Accuse Each Other of Helping Rebels’, International Herald Tribune, 29 January 2009.

74 GC IV, Art. 11.

75 GC IV, Art. 30.

76 ICTY, Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadic, Case No. IT-94-1-T, Opinion and Judgment, 7 May 1997, para. 579, where the ICTY held, regarding the definition of a protected person, that this ‘is not restricted to situations in which the individual civilian is physically in the hands of a Party or Occupying Power’, but that rather, persons will be considered to be in the hands of a party if they are ‘in territory effectively occupied by a party to the conflict’.

77 GC IV, Art. 13.

78 GC IV, Art. 23.

79 AP I, Art. 70(1).

80 API, Art. 71.

81 Human Security Centre, The Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005, p. 34.

82 GC IV, Art. 59.

83 Jean Pictet, Commentary on the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, Vol. IV, International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, 1958, p. 320.

84 Hague Regulations Concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land, adopted 18 October 1907, entered into force 26 January 1910, Art. 42: ‘Territory is considered occupied when it is actually placed under the authority of the hostile army. The occupation extends only to the territory where such authority has been established and can be exercised.’

85 See, for example, Michael J. Kelly, Restoring and Maintaining Order in Complex Peace Operations, International Humanitarian Law Series, Vol. 2, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1999, p. 151; Roberts, Adam, ‘What is a Military Occupation’, British Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 55, 1985, p. 253.

86 ICJ, Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, above note 66, para. 95.

87 ICTY, Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadic, Case No. IT-94-1-AR72, Decision on the Defence Motion for Interlocutory Appeal on Jurisdiction (Appeals Chamber), 2 October 1995, para. 70.

88 For Somalia, see Human Rights Watch, above note 66, pp. 26–27. In the case of Darfur, the International Commission of Inquiry said that: ‘the requirements of (i) existence of organised armed groups fighting against the central authorities; (ii) control by rebels over part of the territory; and (iii) protracted fighting, in order for this situation to be considered an internal armed conflict … are met’ – International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, above note 10, p. 26.

89 Stoffels, Ruth Abril, ‘Legal Regulation of Humanitarian Assistance in Armed Conflict: Achievements and Gaps’, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 86, No. 855, September 2004, pp. 519520.

90 See AP II, Art. 1.

91 Yves Sandoz et al., Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987, p. 1477.

92 Rohan Perera, Statement at the 60th Session of the International Law Commission, Geneva, 18 July 2008, available at www.lankamission.org/content/view/579/ (last visited 28 May 2008).

93 Sandoz et al., above note 91, p. 1479.

95 In terms of APII, Art. 1.

96 Panel of Experts on the Sudan, above note 14, p. 53.

97 International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, above note 10, p. 26.

98 Ibid., p. 33.

99 Ibid., p. 36.

100 Henckaerts and Doswald-Beck, above note 5, pp. 105, 193.

101 Ibid., p. 105.

102 Ibid., p. 197.

103 ICJ, North Sea Continental Shelf (Federal Republic of Germany v. Denmark; Federal Republic of Germany v. The Netherlands), Judgment, ICJ Reports 1969, para. 77.

104 ICJ, Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America), Judgment, ICJ Reports 1986, para. 188.

105 Ibid. The ICJ regarded the parties' acceptance of the resolutions and declarations as evidence of opinio juris sufficient to support the existence of a rule of customary international law.

106 Resolution on the Strengthening of the Coordination of Humanitarian Emergency Assistance of the United Nations, GA Res. 46/182 (1991), Annex.

107 Resolution on the Strengthening of the Coordination of Humanitarian Emergency Assistance of the United Nations, GA Res. 51/194 (1996).

108 See, e.g., Resolution on the Strengthening of the Coordination of Humanitarian Emergency Assistance of the United Nations, GA Res. 47/168 (1992) (‘stressing the need for adequate protection of personnel involved in humanitarian operations, in accordance with relevant norms and principles of international law’); Resolution on the Strengthening of the Coordination of Humanitarian Emergency Assistance of the United Nations, GA Res. 51/194 (1996) (emphasizing ‘the urgent need to ensure, respect and promote international humanitarian law, principles and norms, the safety of humanitarian personnel and the need for States whose populations are in need of humanitarian assistance to facilitate the work of humanitarian organisations in implementing humanitarian assistance’) and Resolution on the Safety and Security of Humanitarian Personnel and Protection of United Nations Personnel, GA Res. 62/95 (2007) (calling upon ‘all States and parties in complex humanitarian emergencies …, in countries in which humanitarian personnel are operating, … to cooperate fully with … humanitarian agencies … to ensure the safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel as well as delivery of supplies and equipment’).

109 Resolution on Liberia, SC Res. 104 (1996); Resolution on Liberia, SC Res. 1059 (1996); Resolution on Liberia, SC Res. 1071 (1996); Resolution on Liberia, SC Res. 1083 (1996).

110 Resolution on Somalia, SC Res. 1744 (2007); Resolution on Somalia, SC Res. 1772 (2007); Resolution on Somalia, SC Res. 1801 (2008); Resolution on Somalia, SC Res. 1814 (2008); Resolution on Somalia, SC Res. 1844 (2008); Resolution on Somalia, SC Res. 1863 (2009); Resolution on Somalia, SC Res. 1872 (2009).

111 Resolution on Afghanistan, SC Res. 1806 (2008); Resolution on Afghanistan, SC Res. 1868 (2009).

112 Resolution on Sudan, SC Res. 1870 (2009).

113 Resolution on Iraq, SC Res. 1770 (2007).

114 The ICRC study notes that the obligation to allow the free passage of relief supplies has also been included in military manuals and other official statements and practice applicable to both international and non-international armed conflict – see Henckaerts and Doswald-Beck, above note 5, p. 195 (citing the military manuals of Columbia, Germany, Italy and Kenya, and referring to official statements made by Germany, Nigeria, US and Yugoslavia).

115 Resolution on Iraq, SC Res. 1770 (2007).

116 See Meron, Theodor, ‘Revival of Customary Humanitarian Law’, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 99, No. 4, October 2005, p. 817.

117 ICJ, Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua, above note 104, para. 186.

118 Henckaerts and Doswald-Beck, above note 5, p. 195.

119 Resolution on Somalia, SC Res. 1844 (2008).

120 See Barber, Rebecca, ‘Protecting the Right to Housing in the Aftermath of Natural Disaster: Standards in International Human Rights Law’, International Journal of Refugee Law, Vol. 20, No. 3, October 2008, pp. 436–7 for a list of resolutions of the Security Council, Commission on Human Rights and the Human Rights Council reaffirming the parallel application of international human rights and humanitarian law in times of armed conflict.

121 See ICJ, Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, above note 65.

122 Ibid., para. 106.

123 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), opened for signature 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976, Art. 6; African Charter of Human and Peoples' Rights (African Charter), opened for signature 27 June 1981, entered into force 21 October 1986.

124 Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), opened for signature 20 November 1989, entered into force 2 September 1990, Art. 6.

125 Committee on Civil and Political Rights, General Comment No. 6: The Right to Life (Article 6 of the Covenant), CCPR, 60th sess., UN Doc. HRI/Gen/1/Rev.7 (1982), para. 5.

126 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), opened for signature 16 December 1966, entered into force 3 January 1976, Art. 11(1).

127 ICESCR Art. 11(2).

128 ICESCR Art. 12; African Charter, Art 16.

129 Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), General Comment No 3: The Nature of States Parties Obligations (Art 2(1) of the Covenant), UN ESCOR, Comm. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 5th sess., Annex 3, UN Doc. E/1991/23 (1990), para. 1.

130 Odinkalu, Chidi Anselm, ‘Analysis of Paralysis or Paralysis by Analysis? Implementing Economic, Social and Cultural Rights under the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights’, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 23, May 2001, p. 327, at p. 349.

131 CESCR, General Comment No. 3, above note 129.

132 Ibid., para. 13.

133 CESCR, General Comment No. 12: The Right to Adequate Food (Art. 11 of the Covenant), UN ESCOR, CESCR, 20th sess., UN Doc. E/C.12/1999/5 (1999), para. 6.

134 Ibid., para. 6.

135 Ibid., para. 14.

136 Ibid., para. 17.

137 Food Security Analysis Unit Somalia, Food Security & Nutrition: Special BriefPost Deyr '08/09 Analysis, 11 February 2009, p. 11, available at http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWFiles2009.nsf/FilesByRWDocUnidFilename/JBRN-7P6GW3-full_report.pdf/$File/full_report.pdf (last visited 3 June 2009).

138 UN News Centre, New UN Survey Reveals Alarming Malnutrition Rates Among Darfur's Children, Press Release, 28 December 2007, available at www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=25178&Cr=sudan&Cr1 (last visited 24 February 2009).

139 CESCR, General Comment No. 15: The Right to Water (Arts 11 and 12 of the Covenant), UN ESCOR, CESCR, 29th sess., Agenda Item 3, UN Doc. E/C.12/2002/1 (2002), para. 3.

140 Ibid., para. 2.

141 Ibid., para. 17.

142 These include: the obligation to ensure access to the minimum essential amount of water sufficient and safe for personal and domestic use to prevent disease; the obligation to ensure physical access to facilities or services that provide sufficient, safe and regular water, at a reasonable distance and without prohibitive waiting times; and the obligation to ensure access to adequate sanitation. Ibid., para. 37.

143 Ibid., para. 40.

144 Ibid., para. 41.

145 Ibid.

146 Ibid., para. 19.

147 CESCR, General Comment No. 3, above note 129, para. 9.

148 Ibid.

149 CESCR, General Comment No. 12, above note 133, para. 17; CESCR, General Comment No. 15, above note 139, para. 41; CESCR, General Comment No. 14, The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health (Art. 12 of the Covenant), UN ESCOR, Comm. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 22nd sess., UN Doc. E/C.12/2000/4 (2000), para. 47.

150 ICJ, Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, above note 65, para. 106.

151 International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), The Responsibility to Protect, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, 2001, p. 13.

152 Ibid.

153 Ibid.

154 Ibid.

155 World Summit Outcome, GA Res. 60/1 (2005); Resolution on Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflicts, SC Res. 1674 (2006).

156 e.g. ICISS, above note 151, p. 15 (referring to the responsibility to protect as an ‘emerging guiding principle’); UN Secretary-General's High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, 2004, para. 202, available at http://www.un.org/secureworld/report2.pdf (last visited 3 June 2009), endorsing the ‘collective international responsibility to protect’ as an emerging norm.

* The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of World Vision.

Facilitating humanitarian assistance in international humanitarian and human rights law

  • Rebecca Barber

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