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“A horrific photo of a drowned Syrian child”: Humanitarian photography and NGO media strategies in historical perspective

  • Heide Fehrenbach and Davide Rodogno

Abstract

This article is a historical examination of the use of photography in the informational and fundraising strategies of humanitarian organizations. Drawing on archival research and recent scholarship, it shows that the figure of the dead or suffering child has been a centrepiece of humanitarian campaigns for over a century and suggests that in earlier eras too, such photos, under certain conditions, could “go viral” and achieve iconic status. Opening with last year's photo campaign involving the case of 3-year-old Syrian refugee Alan Kurdi, whose body washed up on a Turkish beach near Bodrum in early September 2015, the article draws on select historical examples to explore continuities and ruptures in the narrative framing and emotional address of photos depicting dead or suffering children, and in the ethically and politically charged decisions by NGO actors and the media to publish and distribute such images. We propose that today, as in the past, the relationship between media and humanitarian NGOs remains symbiotic despite contemporary claims about the revolutionary role of new visual technologies and social media.

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1 Prominent literature on this issue includes Susan Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, Picador, New York, 2003; Susie Linfield, The Cruel Radiance: Photography and Political Violence, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2010; Luc Boltanski, Distant Suffering: Morality, Media, and Politics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999. For a critique of the absence of attention by international relations scholars, see Bleiker, Roland and Hutchinson, Emma, “Fear No More: Emotions and World Politics”, Review of International Studies, Vol. 34, 2008 . In a recent article, Pierluigi Musarò claims that Susie Linfield and Lilie Chouliaraki underline that “it is impossible to imagine transnational organizations such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, or Doctors Without Borders in the pre-photographic age. It is also difficult to understand the link between the visual projections of human suffering and the exponential growth of the humanitarian industry without taking into account the devastating imagery that circulated within a variety of Western print and broadcast media formats in the 1980s.” Musarò, Pierluigi, “The Banality of Goodness: Humanitarianism between the Ethics of Showing and the Ethics of Seeing”, Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2015, p. 318 . The two books that Musarò reviews are Lilie Chouliariaki, The Ironic Spectator: Solidarity in the Age of Post-Humanitarianism, Polity, Cambridge, 2013; and S. Linfield, ibid.

2 Of course, expectations do not always produce results. While German policy liberalized in the wake of Alan's drowning, British policy toward Syrian refugees did not, even though an estimated 80% of Britons had seen the photo. Statistic is from Mukul Devichand, “Alan Kurdi's Aunt: ‘My Dead Nephew's Picture Saved Thousands of Lives’”, BBC Trending, 2 January 2016, available at www.bbc.com/news/blogs-trending-35116022 (all internet references were accessed in January 2016). The names of the children have been spelled in various ways: Alan is also called Aylan; Ghalib is sometimes spelled Galip.

3 Since this essay is focused on historical analysis, we do not discuss the expansive literature on the agenda-setting effects of media and visual images on national and international policy. See, for example, Larry Minear, Colin Scott and Thomas G. Weiss, The News Media, Civil War and Humanitarian Action, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, CO, 1996; and more recently, Lei Guo and Maxwell McCombs (eds), The Power of Information Networks: New Directions, Routledge, New York, 2015.

4 On late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century campaigns, see the essays in Heide Fehrenbach and Davide Rodogno (eds), Humanitarian Photography: A History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015. The discussion in this essay draws on, and expands upon, the analysis in that book. The use of the Internet for humanitarian campaigns reaches back to at least 2008, when Save Darfur (http://savedarfur.org/about/history), a transnational advocacy group that took a clear position in favour of an intervention (armed included) in Sudan against what the organization labelled a genocide, massively campaigned using social media such as Facebook (www.facebook.com/savedarfurcoalition/timeline). Save Darfur did not use the image of a dead toddler. Lewis, Kevin, Gray, Kurt and Meierhenrich, Jens, “The Structure of Online Activism”, Sociological Science, Vol. 1, 2014 ; Mahmood Mamdani, Saviours and Survivors: Darfur, Politics, and the War on Terror, Verso, London, 2009.

5 A brief discussion of the ethical regulation of images of death and suffering can be found in the final section of this essay. On nineteenth-century depictions, see, for example, James Vernon, Hunger: A Modern History, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2007, pp. 17–40; Heather D. Curtis, “Picturing Pain: Evangelicals and the Politics of Pictorial Humanitarianism in an Imperial Age”, in H. Fehrenbach and D. Rodogno (eds), above note 4. See also the travel and ethnographic literature on India published in book form, like Reuters special correspondent F. H. S. Mereweather's Tour through the Famine Districts, 1898, which featured graphic images of starving adults and children yet was not humanitarian in presentation or purpose.

6 H. Fehrenbach and D. Rodogno (eds), above note 4.

7 See Jennifer Tucker, Nature Exposed: Photography as Eyewitness in Victorian Science, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 2005; Corey Keller (ed.), Brought to Light: Photography and the Invisible, 1840–1900, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 2008; Robert A. Sobieszek, Ghost in the Shell: Photography and the Human Soul, 1850–2000, MIT Press and Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Cambridge, MA, and Los Angeles, CA, 1999; Elizabeth Edwards (ed.), Anthropology and Photography, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1992; Christopher Pinney, Photography and Anthropology, 1860–1920, Reaktion Books, London, 2011; Anna Grimshaw, The Ethnographer's Eye, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2001; Eleanor Hight and Gary Sampson (eds), Colonialist Photography, Routledge, New York, 2002; Anne Maxwell, Colonial Photography and Exhibitions, Leicester University Press, Leicester, 2000; Marcus Banks and Jay Ruby (eds), Made to Be Seen: Perspectives on the History of Visual Anthropology, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2011; Deborah Willis and Barbara Krauthamer, Envisioning Emancipation, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, PA, 2013.

8 Halttunen, Karen, “Humanitarianism and the Pornography of Pain in Anglo-American Culture”, American Historical Review, Vol. 100, No. 2, 1995 ; Thomas Laqueur, “Bodies, Details, and the Humanitarian Narrative”, in Lynn Hunt (ed.), The New Cultural History, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 1989; Richard Wilson and Richard Brown (eds), Humanitarianism and Suffering: The Mobilization of Empathy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009; L. Boltanski, above note 1; Erica Bornstein and Peter Redfield (eds), Forces of Compassion: Humanitarianism between Ethics and Politics, SAR Press, Santa Fe, NM, 2011; Daniel Bell and Jean-Marc Coicaud (eds), Ethics in Action: The Ethical Challenges of International Human Rights Nongovernmental Organizations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007; Craig Calhoun, “The Imperative to Reduce Suffering: Charity, Progress, and Emergencies in the Field of Humanitarian Action”, in Thomas Weiss and Michael Barnett (eds), Humanitarianism in Question: Politics, Power, Ethics, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 2008; Didier Fassin, Humanitarian Reason: A Moral History of the Present, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 2011; Didier Fassin and Mariella Pandolfi, Contemporary States of Emergency, Zone Books, New York, 2010; Ilana Feldman and Miriam Ticktin (eds), In the Name of Humanity: The Government of Threat and Care, Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 2010.

9 John Szarkowski, The Photographer's Eye, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2007 (first edition 1966), p. 8.

10 See, for example, the “Sole Survivor” discussion below; this was certainly not unique for the period.

11 For further analysis, see Heide Fehrenbach and Davide. Rodogno, “The Morality of Sight: Humanitarian Photography in History”, in H. Fehrenbach and D. Rodogno (eds), above note 4, pp. 3–4.

12 For a historical discussion regarding the humanitarian use of images of children, see Heide Fehrenbach, “Children and Other Civilians: Photography and the Politics of Humanitarian Image-Making”, in H. Fehrenbach and D. Rodogno (eds), above note 4. On the humanitarian use of the image of the child, see Briggs, Laura, “Mother, Child, Race, Nation: The Visual Iconography of Rescue and the Politics of Transnational and Transracial Adoption”, Gender & History, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2003 ; Manzo, Kate, “Imagining Humanitarianism: NGO Identity and the Iconography of Childhood”, Antipode, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2008 ; Liisa H. Malkki, “Children, Humanity, and the Infantilization of Peace”, in I. Feldman and M. Ticktin (eds), above note 8; Laura Suski, “Children, Suffering, and the Humanitarian Appeal”, in R. A. Wilson and R. D. Brown (eds), above note 8; Philip Gourevitch, “Alms Dealers: Can You Provide Humanitarian Aid without Facilitating Conflicts?”, New Yorker, 11 October 2010; Wells, Karen, “The Melodrama of Being a Child: NGO Representations of Poverty”, Visual Communication, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2013 ; Wilkinson, Iain, “The Provocation of the Humanitarian Social Imaginary”, Visual Communication, Vol. 12, No. 2013 ; L. Chouliaraki, above note 1. These social scientists have examined the focus on children as a post-1945 phenomenon and have not investigated or acknowledged its earlier evolution.

13 This despite the fact that photo editors have congratulated themselves on “breaking taboos” and taking “an important step” in publishing and circulating photos of the lifeless Alan. See the quotations by Hugh Pinney of Getty Images and Nicolas Jimenez of Le Monde in Olivier Laurent, “What the Image of Alan Kurdi Says about the Power of Photography”, Time, 4 September 2015, available at: http://time.com/4022765/Alan-kurdi-photo/.

14 See Time's slide show “See Front Pages from around the World Showing Drowned Syrian Boy”, 3 September 2015, available at: http://time.com/4021560/drowned-syrian-boy-aylan-kurdi-photo-front-page/.

15 Information on Alan Kurdi, his death and the photos is now available on Wikipedia at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_of_Alan_Kurdi. We do not enter the theoretical debate on the so-called “connective turn” and “culture of connectivity” here, but our invitation to our readers to consult the Internet signals our assumption that they rely on a specific connectivity culture and system. José van Dijck and Andrew Hoskin have suggested that “as memories are increasingly mediated and thus constructed by networked technologies, the boundaries between present and past are no longer given, but they are the very stakes in debating what counts as memory. Memory, after the connective turn, is a new mediatized memory that challenges currently dominant concepts of time and space.” Dijck, José Van, “Flickr and the Culture of Connectivity: Sharing Views, Experiences, Memories”, Memory Studies, Vol. 20, No. 10, 2010, p. 4 . See also Andrew Hoskin, “Digital Network Memory”, in Atrid Erll and Ann Rigny (eds), Mediation, Remediation and the Dynamics of Cultural Memory, de Gruyter, Berlin, 2009; José van Dijck, Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013.

16 Peter Bouckaert, “Dispatches: Why I Shared a Horrific Photo of a Drowned Child”, Human Rights Watch website, available at: www.hrw.org/news/2015/09/02/dispatches-why-i-shared-horrific-photo-drowned-syrian-child. Bouckaert tweeted a tight close-up of the boy's body from a slightly different perspective. See the tweet and image at: https://twitter.com/bouckap/status/639037338362978304?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw.

17 O. Laurent, above note 13.

18 Liisa Malkki has noted that contemporary humanitarian policy discussions have produced an abstracted and standardized “representational form” of the figure of the refugee, which has been taken up by news and media organizations. Malkki, Liisa H., “Speechless Emissaries: Refugees, Humanitarianism and Dehistoricization”, Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1996, pp. 385386 .

19 This is a simplification, of course, but it sketches a cultural understanding of children and childhood that has informed national child welfare policy and international law in the past century. See the BBC piece cited above and the front-page article by Anne Barnard, “Family's Tragedy Goes beyond One Boy”, New York Times, 28 December 2015, pp. A1, A6-7.

20 See, for example, Kevin Grant, A Civilized Savagery: Britain and the New Slaveries in Africa, 1884–1926, Routledge, New York, 2005.

21 Karin Nahon and Jeff Hemsley, Going Viral, Polity, London, 2013.

22 See the careful scholarship of Kevin Grant, above note 20, who has traced the CRA campaign in detail. See also Kevin Grant, “The Limits of Exposure: Atrocity Photographs in the Congo Reform Campaign”, and Christina Twomey, “Framing Atrocity: Photography and Humanitarianism”, in H. Fehrenbach and D. Rodogno (eds), above note 4; Christina Twomey, “Severed Hands: Authenticating Atrocity in the Congo, 1904–1913”, in Geoffrey Batchen et al., Picturing Atrocity: Photography in Crisis, Reaktion Books, London, 2012.

23 See Grant and Twomey, ibid., on this and other Congo images.

24 The CRA campaign petered out until it was re-energized by Protestant missionaries and their long-time networks. To date there has been little scholarly attention devoted to comparing successful and failed humanitarian campaigns, apart from Kevin Grant's work on the CRA.

25 Bryan Walsh, Time, 29 December 2015, available at: http://time.com/4162306/alan-kurdi-syria-drowned-boy-refugee-crisis/ (see embedded video featuring interview with photographer Nilüfer Demir and Peter Bouckaert of HRW).

26 Media, especially large media with meaningful distribution, become strategic allies of crucial importance. Historically, however, there are several examples of major campaigns (from the CRA to Near East Relief to Save Darfur, more recently) in which those who call the shots are humanitarian professionals.

27 HRW website, available at: www.hrw.org/about.

28 On donor fatigue, see Susan D. Moeller, Compassion Fatigue: How the Media Sell Disease, Famine, War, and Death, Routledge, New York, 1999; on the collapse of compassion, see Cameron, C. Dary and Payne, B. Keith, “Escaping Affect: How Motivated Emotion Regulation Creates Insensitivity to Mass Suffering”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 100, No. 1, 2011 .

29 Since the nineteenth century, it has not been unusual for newspapers, government officials and scientists in Britain, Europe and North America to rely on missionaries, charitable workers, businessmen and other private citizens in the field for information and pictorial renderings of populations, built and natural environments, political and military developments and other subjects. See J. Vernon, above note 5; also T. Jack Thompson, Light on Darkness? Missionary Photography of Africa in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, William B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI, 2012.

30 Near East Committee Records, 1904–1950, Series 1, Box 3, File 11, MRL2, Burke Library Archives at the Union Theological Seminary and Columbia University, New York.

31 Henry Morgenthau, “The Greatest Horror in History: An Authentic Account of the Armenian Atrocities”, American Red Cross Magazine, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1918.

32 For a discussion of photos taken, but not used, in the humanitarian campaign, see Peter Balakian, “Photography, Visual Culture, and the Armenian Genocide”, in H. Fehrenbach and D. Rodogno (eds), above note 4.

33 Ibid . See also Julia Irwin, Making the World Safe: The American Red Cross and a Nation's Humanitarian Awakening, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013.

34 Rozario, Kevin, “Delicious Horrors: Mass Culture, the Red Cross and the Appeal of Modern American Humanitarianism”, American Quarterly, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2003, pp. 418419 (emphasis in original).

35 There is a long tradition of humanitarian poetry devoted to far-away stricken populations. Davide Rodogno has counted no less than 500 poems in the French National Library written by Frenchmen on behalf of Greece. Paintings too, like Delacroix's The Massacres of Chios, The Ruins of Missolonghi, had a political and humanitarian message; there is also an example of a Russian painting of the Bulgarian Martyrdom. Delacroix exhibited Massacres of Chios in the Louvre to support the work and ideology of the Philhellenes, to show that the Turk slaughtered, massacred, raped and killed women and children (all visible in the painting). That painting was completed and exhibited in record time for the nineteenth century, and “le Tout-Paris” saw it, causing a buzz. This is perhaps the equivalent of “going viral” for the period. Davide Rodogno, Against Massacre: Humanitarian Interventions in the Ottoman Empire, 1815–1914, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2012.

36 The Zangwill poem appeared in The Record of the Save the Children Fund, 15 December 1921.

37 For a discussion of the ICRC's film archive and its early use of film and photography, see Gorin, Valérie, “Looking Back over 150 Years of Humanitarian Action: The Photographic Archives of the ICRC”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 94, No. 888, 2012 ; Francesca Piana, “Photography, Cinema, and the Quest for Influence: The International Committee of the Red Cross in the Wake of the First World War”, in H. Fehrenbach and D. Rodogno (eds), above note 4.

38 Emily Hobhouse, The Brunt of War and Where It Fell, Methuen, London, 1902, p. 215, also pp. 317–318.

39 The analysis of the historical material in this and the previous section is drawn from H. Fehrenbach, “Children and Other Civilians”, above note 12.

40 For a discussion of “the parallel between moments arrested mechanically” by the camera, “experientially by the traumatized psyche”, and fixed into memory, see Ulrich Baer, Spectral Evidence: The Photography of Trauma, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2002. Video of the discovery and recovery of Alan's body, for example, can be seen on YouTube (available at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=gzw8L-Ubrik; www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uk1HEf9kSGE), but at the time of writing it has attracted far fewer views (about 60,000) than the still photos of his body.

41 O. Laurent, above note 13.

42 See, for example, S. Linfield, above note 1, and her criticisms of Susan Sontag on the representation of the effects of violence.

43 Alan Tractenberg, Lincoln's Smile and Other Enigma, Hill and Wang, New York, 2007, p. 110. On iconic images, see Robert Hariman and J. L. Lucaites, No Caption Needed: Iconic Photographs, Public Culture and Liberal Democracy, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2007.

45 Kleinman, Arthur and Kleinman, Joan, “The Appeal of Experience, the Dismay of Images: Cultural Appropriations of Suffering in Our Times”, Daedalus, Vol. 125, No. 1, 1996 . See the 2004 documentary by Dan Krauss entitled The Death of Kevin Carter: Casualty of the Bang Bang Club. It was nominated for an Academy Award in the documentary short subject category in 2006.

46 On the professionalization of news photography during the Spanish Civil War and Second World War, and the post-war engagement of wartime photographers by UN organizations, see, among others, Robert Lebeck and Bodo von Dewitz, Kiosk: A History of Photojournalism, Steidl, Göttingen, 2001; Cynthia Young (ed.), We Went Back: Photographs from Europe 1933–1955, International Center of Photography and Delmonico Books, New York, 2013. Immediately after the First World War, the American Red Cross hired US photographer Lewis Hine to go to Europe and take photos of the post-war misery there. Hine, by that time, was well known for his portraits of children in the workplace, which were used in the American campaign against child labour. However, the American Red Cross did not make use of Hine's European photos for purposes of fundraising; why the organization did not exploit them for these purposes is not clear.

47 See, for example, Silvia Salvatici, “Sights of Benevolence: UNRRA's Recipients Portrayed”, in H. Fehrenbach and D. Rodogno (eds), above note 4.

48 The argument is drawn from Heide Fehrenbach, “Children and Other Civilians”, above note 12.

49 O. Laurent, above note 13.

50 Ibid .

51 Davide Rodogno and Thomas Davide, “All the World Loves a Picture: The World Health Organization's Visual Politics, 1948–1973”, in H. Fehrenbach and D. Rodogno (eds), above note 4.

52 Lasse Heerten, “‘A’ as in Auschwitz, ‘B’ as in Biafra: The Nigerian Civil War, Visual Narratives of Genocide, and the Fragmented Universalization of the Holocaust”, in H. Fehrenbach and D. Rodogno (eds), above note 4.

53 Ibid . An appropriate current comparison to this strategy is perhaps the photos and videos released by the Syrian government allegedly showing starving children in Madaya, which circulated in late December 2015. “Starving Children in Madaya”, LiveLeak, available at: www.liveleak.com/view?i=a3a_1452404656; “Syrian Govt to Allow Aid into Starving Town”, Sky News, 7 January 2016, available at: http://news.sky.com/story/1618288/syrian-govt-to-allow-aid-into-starving-town; Al Jazeera, “Inside Story – Starvation as a Tool of War in Syria”, available at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1AewGozXoo.

54 See, for instance, UNICEF celebrity campaign, “No Place Like Home”, available at: http://youtu.be/un4cZOKFK3M; UNICEF videos in which refugee children narrate their experiences, available at: http://youtu.be/AFVUoYQl6LA.

55 L. Heerten, above note 52.

58 On Weiwei's photo, see Rama Lakshmi, “Chinese Artist Weiwei Poses as Drowned Syrian Child”, Washington Post, 30 January 2016, available at: www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/01/30/chinese-artist-ai-weiwei-poses-as-a-drowned-syrian-refugee-toddler/.

59 On the cartoon skirmish, see the BBC News website at: www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-35333895.

60 O. Laurent, above note 13.

61 Ibid .

62 “Code of Conduct: Images and Messages Relating to the Third World”, adopted by the General Assembly of European NGOs meeting in Brussels in April 1989. The strategy for implementation was assigned to the Liaison Committee's Development Education Working Group. See also Nikki Van der Gaag and Cathy Nash, Images of Africa: The UK Report, Oxfam, Oxford, 1987; for a discussion of written regulations in Europe, see Henrietta Lidchi, “Finding the Right Image: British Development NGOs and the Regulation of Imagery”, in H. Fehrenbach and D. Rodogno (eds), above note 4.

63 Ibid . There is a growing literature on celebrity humanitarianism which critically covers several crucial aspects of this phenomenon but leaves unaddressed the historical dimension. Chouliaraki, Lilie, “Post-Humanitarianism: Humanitarian Communication beyond a Politics of Pity”, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2010 ; Chouliariaki, Lilie, “The Theatricality of Humanitarianism: A Critique of Celebrity Advocacy”, Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2012 ; Davis, H. Louise, “Feeding the World a Line? Celebrity Activism and Ethical Consumer Practices from Live Aid to Product Red”, Nordic Journal of English Studies, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2010 ; Ilan Kapoor, Celebrity Humanitarianism. The Ideology of Global Charity, Routledge, London, 2013; Lousley, Cheryl, “Humanitarian Melodramas, Globalist Nostalgia: Affective Temporalities of Globalization and Uneven Development”, Globalizations, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2015 ; Mostafanezhad, Mary, “‘Getting in Touch with Your Inner Angelina’: Celebrity Humanitarianism and the Cultural Politics of Gendered Generosity in Volunteer Tourism”, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2013 ; Repo, Jemima and Yrjölä, Riina, “The Gender Politics of Celebrity Humanitarianism in Africa”, International Feminist Journal of Politics, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2011 .

64 H. Lidchi, above note 62. See also Sanna Nissinen, “Dilemmas of Ethical Practice in the Production of Contemporary Humanitarian Photography”, in H. Fehrenbach and D. Rodogno (eds), above note 4.

65 For example, the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera reported news first published in the Times of Malta about a 2-year-old Syrian child who lost his life when the boat he was in crashed against the rocks of an Aegean Island. The news originated from the Migrant Offshore Aid Station, a humanitarian institution funded by US billionaire and philanthropist Christopher Catrambone. The Italian newspaper did not fail to invoke Alan, the original 3-year-old symbol of Syrian suffering, but did not re-run his photo. Corriere noted that 700 children have died in Mediterranean waters fleeing war and hunger; the slaughter (strage) continues in 2016. “Migranti, il gommone si schianta sulle rocce: Muore bimbo di 2 anni”, Corriere della Sera, 3 January 2016, available at: www.corriere.it/esteri/16_gennaio_03/migranti-gommone-si-schianta-rocce-muore-bimbo-2-anni-191ded8c-b233-11e5-829a-a9602458fc1c.shtml. The New York Times reported on 31 January 2016 that the bodies of at least ten more children had washed up on Turkish shores the day before. This time, it was reported not on the front page but on page 17.

66 “The Displaced” and advertising insert “Changing the Way Stories are Told”, New York Times Magazine, 8 November 2015.

67 Margaret Sullivan, “The Tricky Terrain of Virtual Reality”, New York Times, 15 November 2015; Robert D. Hof, “Advertising: Brands Look Far and Wide for a Niche in Virtual Reality”, New York Times, 16 November 2015.

68 Jaime Lowe, “How to Help”, New York Times Magazine, 8 November 2015. The organizations named were the US Fund for UNICEF, USA for UNHCR, Save the Children, Mercy-USA for Aid and Development, and the World Food Programme. On Christmas Day 2015, “How to Help in a Global Refugee Crisis” was published in Tara Siegal Bernard's “Your Money” column, New York Times, 25 December 2015, available at: www.nytimes.com/2015/12/26/your-money/how-to-help-in-a-global-refugee-crisis.html?ref=topics&_r=0.

69 R. D. Hof, above note 67.

70 For an interesting recent discussion, see Liisa H. Malkki, The Need to Help: The Domestic Arts of International Humanitarianism, Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 2015.

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