Hostname: page-component-797576ffbb-vjhkx Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-12-04T19:29:22.859Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

International authority and its politicization

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 March 2012

Michael Zürn*
Professor Doctor, Director of the Research Unit Transnational Conflicts and International Institution, Social Science Research Center, Berlin
Martin Binder*
Doctor, Research fellow at the Research Unit Transnational Conflicts and International Institution, Social Science Research Center, Berlin
Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt*
Doctor, Research fellow at the Research Unit Transnational Conflicts and International Institution, Social Science Research Center, Berlin


The article focuses on the politicization of international authority as a thus far little understood development in world politics. We first define the concept and show that there is an empirical trend towards politicization of international institutions. We then argue that the increasing authority of international institutions has led to their politicization and we relate this hypothesis to alternative explanations. The validity of the authority–politicization nexus is illustrated by the rise of international authority in parallel to politicization. We go on to distinguish different policy functions such as rule definition, monitoring, interpretation, and enforcement in order to show that especially those international institutions with a high level of authority meet with strong contestation of their competencies. We conclude the article by exploring various avenues for future politicization research.

Original Papers
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abbott, Kenneth W.Snidal, Duncan. 1998. “Why States Act Through Formal International Organizations.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 42(1):332.Google Scholar
Abbott, Kenneth W.Snidal, Duncan 2009. “The Governance Triangle: Regulatory Standards Institutions and the Shadow of the State.” In The Politics of Global Regulation, edited by Walter Mattli and Ngaire Woods, 4488. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Alter, Karen J. 2009. The European Court's Political Power. Selected Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Arendt, Hanna. 1970. On Violence. New York: Harcourt.Google Scholar
Armstrong, David, Farrell, TheoMaiguashca, Bice. 2003. Governance and Resistance in World Politics. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Aspinwall, Mark. 1998. “Collective Attraction – the New Political Game in Brussels.” In Collective Action in the European Union. Interests and the New Politics of Associability, edited by Justin Greenwood and Mark Aspinwall, 196213. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Baines, Erin K. 2007. “The Haunting of Alice: Local Approaches to Justice and Reconciliation in Northern Uganda.” The International Journal of Transitional Justice 1:91114.Google Scholar
Barnett, Michael N.Finnemore, Martha. 2004. Rules for the World. International Organizations in Global Politics. Ithaca, NY/London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Barnett, Michael N.Raymond, Duvall (eds). 2005. Power in Global Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Beetham, David. 1991. The Legitimation of Power. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International.Google Scholar
Biersteker, Thomas J.Hall, John A. (eds). 2002. The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Binder, Martin. forthcoming. “Die Politisierung internationaler Sicherheitsinstitutionen? Der UN-Sicherheitsrat und NGOs.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und Internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Berlin: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
Binder, Martin. 2009. “Humanitarian Crises and the International Politics of Selectivity.” Human Rights Review 10(3):327348.Google Scholar
Binder, Martin, Heupel, Monika. 2011. “The Legitimacy of the United Nations Security Council.” Paper presented at the ISA Annual Convention 2011 “Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition”, Montreal, March 16, 2011.Google Scholar
Blake, Daniel, Payton, Autumn. 2008. “Voting Rules in International Organizations: Reflections of Power or Facilitators of Cooperation?” Paper presented at the ISA's 49th Annual Convention, San Francisco, CA, March 26, 2008–March 29, 2008.Google Scholar
Blau, Peter M. 1963. “Critical Remarks on Weber's Theory of Authority.” American Political Science Review 57(2):305316.Google Scholar
Bogdandy, Armin v., Dann, PhilippGoldmann, Matthias. 2010. “Developing the Publicness of Public International Law: Towards a Legal Framework for Global Governance Activities.” In The Exercise of Public Authority by International Institutions. Advancing International Institutional Law, edited by Armin v. Bogdandy, Rüdiger Wolfrum, Jochen von Bernstorff, Philipp Dann, and Matthias Goldmann, 332. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
Breitmeier, Helmut, Young, Oran R.Zürn, Michael. 2006. Analyzing International Environmental Regimes. From Case Study to Database. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Burgoon, Brian. 2009. “Globalization and Backlash: Polanyi's Revenge?Review of International Political Economy 15(2):145178.Google Scholar
Caplan, Richard. 2004. “International Authority and State Building: The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina.” Global Governance 10:5365.Google Scholar
Chayes, AbramChayes, Antonia H.. 1995. The New Sovereignty. Compliance with International Regulatory Agreements. Cambridge, MA/London, England: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Chesterman, Simon. 2004. You, the People. The United Nations, Transitional Administration, and State-Building. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Clarke, Kamari M. 2007. “Global Justice, Local Controversies: The International Criminal Court and the Sovereignty of Victims.” In Paths to International Justice: Social and Legal Perspectives, edited by Marie-Bénédicte Dembour and Tobias Kelly, 134160. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Cooper, Scott, Hawkins, Darren G., Jacoby, WadeNielson, Daniel. 2008. “Yielding Sovereignty to International Institutions: Bringing System Structure Back In.” International Studies Review 10(3):501524.Google Scholar
Cutler, A. C., Haufler, VirginiaPorter, Tony. (eds). 1999. Private Authority and International Affairs. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
Dai, Xinyuan. 2007. International Institutions and National Policies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Day, John. 1963. “Authority.” Political Studies 11(3):257271.Google Scholar
de Wilde, PieterZürn., Michael 2012. “‘Somewhere Along the Line’: Can the Politicization of European Integration be Reversed?Journal of Common Market Studies 50(s1):137153.Google Scholar
della Porta, Donatella. 2007. The Global Justice Movement: Cross-National and Transnational Perspectives. Boulder: Paradigm.Google Scholar
della Porta, DonatellaTarrow, Sidney.. (eds). 2005. Transnational Protest and Global Activism. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
Downs, George W., Rocke, David M.Barsoom, Peter N.. 1996. “Is the Good News About Compliance Good News About Cooperation?International Organization 50(3):379406.Google Scholar
Easton, David. 1965. A Systems Analysis of Political Life. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Ecker-Ehrhardt, Matthias. 2010a. “Does the Internationalization of Governance Politicize Domestic Debate? Testing Competing Explanations of Politicization Using Party Manifestos.” Paper presented at the SGIR – 7th Pan-European Conference, Stockholm, September, 2010–September 30, 2010.Google Scholar
Ecker-Ehrhardt, Matthias 2010b. “Aid Organizations, Governments and the Media: The Critical Role of Journalists in Signaling Authority Recognition.” In Public Policy and the Mass Media: the Interplay of Mass Communication and Political Decision Making, edited by Sigrid Koch-Baumgarten and Katrin Voltmer, 106123. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Ecker-Ehrhardt, Matthias 2011. “Cosmopolitan Politicization? Relating Public Perceptions of Interdependence and Expectations in Internationalized Governance.” European Journal of International Relations: Published online before print February 22, 2011, p. 1–28.Google Scholar
Ecker-Ehrhardt, MatthiasWeßels, Bernhard. forthcoming. “Input-oder Output-Politisierung internationaler Organisationen? Der kritische Blick der Bürger auf Demokratie und Leistung.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Berlin: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
Eckersley, Robyn. 2007. “A Green Public Sphere in the WTO? The Amicus Curiae Interventions in the Transatlantic Biotech Dispute.” European Journal of International Relations 13(3):329356.Google Scholar
Finnemore, MarthaSikkink, Kathryn. 1998. “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change.” International Organization 52(4):887917.Google Scholar
Flathman, Richard E. 1980. The Practice of Political Authority: Authority and the Authoritative. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Ford, Christian E.Oppenheim, Ben A.. 2008. “Neotrusteeship or Mistrusteeship? The “Authority Creep” Dilemma in United Nations Transitional Administration.” Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 41(1):55105.Google Scholar
Forst, Rainer. 2007. Das Recht auf Rechtfertigung. Elemente einer konstruktivistischen Theorie der Gerechtigkeit. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
Franck, Thomas M. 1990. The Power of Legitimacy Among Nations. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Friedman, R. B. 1990. “On the Concept of Authority in Political Philosophy.” In Authority, edited by Joseph Raz, 5691. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
Furia, Peter A. 2005. “Global Citizenship, Anyone? Cosmopolitanism, Privilege and Public Opinion.” Global Society 19(4):331359.Google Scholar
Gerhards, Jürgen, Roose, JochenOfferhaus, Anke. forthcoming. “Die Rekonfiguration von politischer Verantwortungszuschreibung im Rahmen staatlichen Wandels.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Berlin: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
Glasius, Marlies. 2008. “Global Justice Meets Local Civil Society: The International Criminal Court's Investigation in the Central African Republic.” Alternatives 33:413433.Google Scholar
Grande, EdgarPauly, Louis W. (eds). 2005. Complex Sovereignty: Reconstituting Political Authority in the Twenty-first Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
Gravelle, Thimothy. 2011. “Global Public Opinion toward the United Nations: Insights from the Gallup World Poll.” Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the International Studies Association, Montréal, September 16, 2011.Google Scholar
Gravelle, Timothy B., Ray, Julie, 2011. “UN Gets More Approval than Disapproval Worldwide.” Gallup. Accessed November 28, 2011. Scholar
Greenpeace International. 2006. “Greenpeace New Study Reveals Death Toll of Chernobyl Enormously Underestimated.” Accessed March 8, 2011. Scholar
Greven, Michael Th. 1999. Die politische Gesellschaft. Kontingenz und Dezision als Probleme des Regierens und der Demokratie. Opladen: Leske+Budrich.Google Scholar
Gronau, Jennifer, Nonhoff, Martin, Schneider, SteffenNullmeier, Frank. 2009. “Spiele ohne Brot? Die Legitimationskrise der G8.” Leviathan 37(1):117143.Google Scholar
Haas, Ernst B. 1990. When Knowledge is Power: Three Models of Change in International Organizations. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Haas, Peter M., Keohane, Robert O.Levy, Marc A. (eds). 1993.” In Institutions for the Earth: Sources of Effective International Environmental Protection. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Habermas, Jürgen. 1981. Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
Habermas, Jürgen. 1992. Faktizität und Geltung. Beiträge zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und des demokratischen Rechtsstaats. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
Hainmueller, JensHiscox, Michael J.. 2006. “Learning to Love Globalization: Education and Individual Attitudes Toward International Trade.” International Organization 60(Spring):469498.Google Scholar
Hawkins, Darren G., Lake, David A., Nielson, DanielTierney, Michael (eds). 2006. Delegation and Agency in International Organizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hay, Colin. 2007. Why We Hate Politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Helleiner, Eric. 1994. States and the Reemergence of Global Finance: From Bretton Woods to the 1990s. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Hooghe, LiesbetMarks, Gary. 2008. “A Postfunctionalist Theory of European Integration: From Permissive Consensus to Constraining Dissensus.” British Journal of Political Science 39(1):123.Google Scholar
Hudec, Robert E. 1987. Developing Countries in the GATT Legal System. London: Trade Policy Research Centre.Google Scholar
Hurd, Ian. 1999. “Legitimacy and Authority in International Politics.” International Organization 53(2):379408.Google Scholar
Hurd, Ian. 2007. After Anarchy. Legitimacy and Power in the United Nations Security Council. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Imig, Doug. 2002. “Contestation in the Streets.” Comparative Political Studies 35(8):914933.Google Scholar
Johansson, Patrik. 2009. “The Humdrum Use of Ultimate Authority: Defining and Analysing Chapter VII Resolutions.” Nordic Journal of International Law 78(3):309342.Google Scholar
Jung, Jai K. 2008. “Growing Supranational Identities in a Globalising World? A Multilevel Analysis of the World Values Surveys.” European Journal of Political Research 47(5):578609.Google Scholar
Kahler, Miles. 1995. International Institutions and the Political Economy of Integration. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
Kahler, Miles. 2004. “Defining Accountability Up: the Global Economic Multilaterals.” Government and Opposition 39(2):132158.Google Scholar
Keohane, Robert O. 1984. After Hegemony. Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Kissinger, Henry A. 1957. A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace 1812-22. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
Koehn, Peter H.Rosenau, James N. 2002. “Transnational Competence in an Emergent Epoch.” International Studies Perspective 3(2):105127.Google Scholar
Kohut, Andrew, Wike, Richard, Carriere-Kretschmer, Erin, Holzwart, Kathleen, Poushter, Jacob. 2009. “Most Muslim Publics Not So Easily Moved: Confidence in Obama Lifts U.S. Image Around The World. 25-Nation Pew Global Attitudes Survey.” PewResearchCenter, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Koopmans, RuudStatham, Paul (eds). 2010. The Making of a European Public Sphere Media Discourse and Political Contention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Krajewski, Markus. 2002. “Democratic Legitimacy and Constitutional Perspectives of WTO Law.” Journal of World Trade 35(1):167186.Google Scholar
Krasner, Stephen D. 1999. Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Krasner, Stephen D. 1991. “Global Communications and National Power. Life on the Pareto Frontier.” World Politics 43(3):336366.Google Scholar
Kriesi, Hanspeter, Grande, Edgar, Lachat, Romain, Dolezal, Martin, Bornschier, SimonFrey, Timotheos. 2008. West European Politics in the Age of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lake, David A. 2003. “The New Sovereignty in International Relations.” International Studies Review 5(3):303323.Google Scholar
Lake, David A. 2010. “Rightful Rules: Authority, Order, and the Foundations of Global Governance.” International Studies Quarterly 54(3):587913.Google Scholar
Liese, Andrea. 2006. Staaten am Pranger. Zur Wirkung internationaler Regime auf innerstaatliche Menschenrechtspolitik. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
Lu, Catherine. 2000. “The One and Many Faces of Cosmopolitanism.” The Journal of Political Philosophy 8(2):244267.Google Scholar
Luhmann, Niklas. 1984. Soziale Systeme. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
Marks, GarySteenbergen, Marco R. (eds). 2004. European Integration and Political Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Mau, Steffen. 2007. Transnationale Vergesellschaftung. Die Entgrenzung sozialer Lebenswelten. Frankfurt a.M: Campus Verlag.Google Scholar
Mayda, Anna M.Rodrik., Dani 2005. “Why Are Some People (and Countries) More Protectionist than Others?European Economic Review 49(6):13931430.Google Scholar
Mearsheimer, John J. 1994. “The False Promise of International Institutions.” International Security 19(3):549.Google Scholar
Miles, Edward L., Underdal, Arild, Andresen, Steinar, Wettestad, Jorgen, Skjaerseth, Jon B.Carlin, Elaine M. 2002. Environmental Regime Effectiveness: Confronting Theory with Evidence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Mitchell, Ronald B. (ed). 2006. Global Environmental Assessments: Information and Influence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Moravcsik, Andrew. 1998. The Choice for Europe. Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Moravcsik, Andrew. 2006. “Is there a ‘Democratic Deficit’ in World Politics? A Framework for Analysis.” Government and Opposition 39(2):336363.Google Scholar
Mosley, Paul, Harrigan, JaneToye, J.F.J.. 1995. Aid and Power: the World Bank and Policy-based Lending. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Moulin, CarolinaNyers, Peter. 2007. ““We Live in a Country of UNHCR” – Refugee Protests and Global Political Society.” International Political Sociology 1(4):356372.Google Scholar
Narlikar, Amrita. 2006. “Fairness in International Trade Negotiations.” The World Economy 29(8):10051028.Google Scholar
Nelson, Paul. 2009. “Political Opportunity Structures and Non-State Influence: Making the Case for Transparency at the World Bank.” In Transnational Activism in the UN and the EU. A Comparitive Study, edited by Jutta M. Joachim and Birgit Locher, 6175. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Nölke, Andreas. forthcoming. “Die gesellschaftliche Politisierung transnationaler privater Governance: Der Fall des International Accounting Standards Board.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
Norris, Pippa. 2000. “Global Governance & Cosmopolitan Citizens.” In Governance in a Globalizing World, edited by Joseph S. Nye Jr. and John D. Donahue, 155177. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
Nullmeier, Frank, Bigeon, Dominika, Nonhoff, Martin, Schmidtke, HenningSchneider, Steffen (eds). 2010. Prekäre Legitimitäten: Rechtfertigung von Herrschaft in der postnationalen Konstellation. Frankfurt a.M.: Campus.Google Scholar
O'Brian, Robert, Goetz, Anne M., Scholte, Jan A.Williams, Marc. 2000. Contesting Global Governance: Multilateral Institutions and Global Social Movements. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Park, Susan. 2010. World Bank Group Interactions with Environmentalists. Changing International Organisation Identities. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Parsons, Talcott. 1967. Sociological Theory and Modern Society. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
Parsons, TalcottShils, Edward (eds). 1951. Toward a General Theory of Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Pedersen, Susan. 2007. “Review Essay: Back to the League of Nations.” The American Historical Review 112(4):10911116.Google Scholar
Philpott, Daniel. 1999. “Westphalia, Authority, and International Society.” Political Studies XLVII:566589.Google Scholar
Pianta, Mario, Zola, Duccio. 2005. “The rise of global movements, 1970–2005.” Paper presented at the ACI Meeting, Paris, September 30, 2005.Google Scholar
Rajagopal, Balakrishnan. 2003. International Law From Below: Development, Social Movements and Third World Resistance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Rauh, Christian. 2011. “Politicisation, Issue Salience, and Consumer Policies of the European Commission: Does Public Awareness and Contestation of Supranational Matters Increase the Responsiveness of Europe's Central Agenda-setter?” Department of Political and Social Sciences, Freie Universität, Berlin.Google Scholar
Raz, Joseph. 1990. “Introduction.” In Authority, edited by Joseph Raz, 119. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
Rittberger, VolkerNettesheim, Martin. 2008. Authority in the Global Political Economy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Rixen, Thomas, Zangl., Bernhard 2010. “The Politicization of International Institutions: Empirical Evidence from Global Economic Governance.” Paper presented at the SGIR – 7th Pan-European Conference, Stockholm, September, 2010–September 30, 2010.Google Scholar
Rogowski, Ronald. 1989. Commerce and Coalitions. How Trade Affects Domestic Political Alignments. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Rosenau, James N. 2003. Distant Proximities. Dynamics Beyond Globalization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Rucht, Dieter. 2004. “The Quadruple ‘A’. Media strategies of Protest Movements Since the 1960s.” In Cyberprotest. New Media, Citizens and Social Movements, edited by Wim van de Donk, Brian D. Loader, Paul G. Nixon, and Dieter Rucht, 2956. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Rucht, Dieter. forthcoming. “Globalisierungskritische Proteste als Herausforderung an Die Internationale Politik.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und Internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Berlin: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
Ruggie, John G. 1982. “International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order.” International Organization 36(2):379415.Google Scholar
Ruggie, John G. 2004. “Reconstituting the Global Public Domain – Issues, Actors, and Practices.” European Journal of International Relations 10(4):499531.Google Scholar
Scheve, KennethSlaughter, Matthew J.. 2004. “Economic Insecurity and the Globalization of Production.” American Journal of Political Science 48(4):662674.Google Scholar
Schmidt, Manfred G. 2004. Wörterbuch zur Politik. Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner Verlag.Google Scholar
Schmidtke, Henning. 2011. “Is There a Trend Towards the Politicization of International Institutions? Empirical Evidence from Three Major Arenas of Global Governance.” Paper presented at the ISA International Conference, March 16–19, Montreal.Google Scholar
Schmitter, Philippe C. 1969. “Three Neo-Functionalist Hypotheses about International Integration.” International Organization 23(1):161166.Google Scholar
Siebenhüner, BerndBiermann, Frank. 2009. “International Organizations in Global Environmental Governance: Epilogue.” In International Organizations in Global Environmental Governance, edited by Frank Biermann, Bernd Siebenhüner, and Anna Schreyögg, 264269. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Spoerri, MarleneFreyberg-Inan, Annette. 2008. “From Prosecution to Persecution: Perceptions of the ICTY in Serbian Domestic Politics.” Journal for International Relations and Development 11(4):350384.Google Scholar
Statham, Paul. 2010. “What Kind of Europeanized Public Politics?” In The Making of a European Public Sphere Media Discourse and Political Contention, edited by Ruud Koopmans and Paul Statham, 277306. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Stiglitz, Joseph E.Charlton., Andrew 2005. Fair Trade For All: How Trade Can Promote Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Tallberg, Jonas. 2002. “Paths to Compliance: Enforcement, Management, and the European Union.” International Organization 56(3):609644.Google Scholar
Tallberg, JonasJönsson, Christer (eds). 2010. Transnational Actors in Global Governance: Patterns, Explanations, and Implications. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
Tallberg, Jonas, Beach, Derek, Naurin, DanielTiilikainen, Teija. 2011. Demokratiradets rapport. Stockholm: SNS Förlag.Google Scholar
Tallberg, Jonas, Sommerer, Thomas, Squatrito, Theresa. 2011. “Transnational Access to International Organizations: Change and Continuity, 1950–2010.” Paper presented at the Workshop “Institutional Dynamics in World Politics: Explaining Variation in the Scope, Pace, and Direction of International Institutional Change.” Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, April 7, 2011.Google Scholar
Tarrow, Sidney. 2005. The New Transnational Activism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Terlingen, Yvonne. 2007. “The Human Rights Council: A New Era in UN Human Rights Work?Ethics & International Affairs 21(1):167187.Google Scholar
Ucarer, Emek. 2009. “Safeguarding Asylum as a Human Right: NGOs and the European Union.” In Transnational Activism in the UN and the EU. A Comparitive Study, edited by Jutta M. Joachim and Birgit Locher, 121139. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Van den Bossche, Peter. 2008. “NGO Involvement in the WTO: A Comparitive Perspective.” Journal of International Economic Law 11(4):717749.Google Scholar
Viola, Lora. forthcoming. “Institutioneller Wandel durch Wettbewerb: Wie die Zivilgesellschaft die Weltgesundheitsorganisation verändert hat.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und Internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Berlin: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
Viola, Lora. 2009. “Diplomacy and the Origins of the Diplomatic System.” Paper presented at the International Studies Association Annual Conference, New York, February 1, 2009.Google Scholar
Weber, Max. 1968. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Grundriß der Verstehenden Soziologie. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.Google Scholar
Weßels, Bernhard. 2004. “Contestation Potential of Interest Groups in the EU: Emergence, Structure, and Political Alliances.” In European Integration and Political Conflict, edited by Gary Marks and Marco R. Steenbergen, 195215. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Wessler, Hartmut, Peters, Bernhard, Brüggemann, Michael, Kleinen-von Königslöw, KatharinaSifft, Stefanie. 2008. Transnationalization of Public Spheres. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Wolf, Klaus D. 1999. “The New Raison d’état as a Problem for Democracy in World Society.” European Journal of International Relations 5(3):333363.Google Scholar
Zürn, Michael. 1998. Regieren jenseits des Nationalstaats. Globalisierung und Denationalisierung als Chance. Frankfurt a.M: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
Zürn, Michael. 2004. “Global Governance under Legitimacy Pressure.” Government and Opposition 39(2):260287.Google Scholar
Zürn, Michael. 2007. “Institutionalized Inequality. The Current World Order is neither Imperial nor Constitutional but a Hybrid of Legal Stratification.” Internationale Politik 8(3):1016.Google Scholar
Zürn, Michael. forthcoming. “Politisierung als Konzept der Internationalen Beziehungen.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Berlin: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
Zürn, MichaelWalter, Gregor (eds). 2005. Globalizing Interests. Pressure Groups and Denationalization. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
Zürn, MichaelStephen, Matthew. 2010. “The View of Old and New Powers on the Legitimacy of International Institutions.” Politics 30(S1):91101.Google Scholar