Skip to main content

International authority and its politicization

  • Michael Zürn (a1), Martin Binder (a2) and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt (a3)

The article focuses on the politicization of international authority as a thus far little understood development in world politics. We first define the concept and show that there is an empirical trend towards politicization of international institutions. We then argue that the increasing authority of international institutions has led to their politicization and we relate this hypothesis to alternative explanations. The validity of the authority–politicization nexus is illustrated by the rise of international authority in parallel to politicization. We go on to distinguish different policy functions such as rule definition, monitoring, interpretation, and enforcement in order to show that especially those international institutions with a high level of authority meet with strong contestation of their competencies. We conclude the article by exploring various avenues for future politicization research.

Corresponding author
Hide All
Abbott, Kenneth W.Snidal, Duncan. 1998. “Why States Act Through Formal International Organizations.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 42(1):332.
Abbott, Kenneth W.Snidal, Duncan 2009. “The Governance Triangle: Regulatory Standards Institutions and the Shadow of the State.” In The Politics of Global Regulation, edited by Walter Mattli and Ngaire Woods, 4488. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Alter, Karen J. 2009. The European Court's Political Power. Selected Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Arendt, Hanna. 1970. On Violence. New York: Harcourt.
Armstrong, David, Farrell, TheoMaiguashca, Bice. 2003. Governance and Resistance in World Politics. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Aspinwall, Mark. 1998. “Collective Attraction – the New Political Game in Brussels.” In Collective Action in the European Union. Interests and the New Politics of Associability, edited by Justin Greenwood and Mark Aspinwall, 196213. London: Routledge.
Baines, Erin K. 2007. “The Haunting of Alice: Local Approaches to Justice and Reconciliation in Northern Uganda.” The International Journal of Transitional Justice 1:91114.
Barnett, Michael N.Finnemore, Martha. 2004. Rules for the World. International Organizations in Global Politics. Ithaca, NY/London: Cornell University Press.
Barnett, Michael N.Raymond, Duvall (eds). 2005. Power in Global Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Beetham, David. 1991. The Legitimation of Power. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International.
Biersteker, Thomas J.Hall, John A. (eds). 2002. The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Binder, Martin. forthcoming. “Die Politisierung internationaler Sicherheitsinstitutionen? Der UN-Sicherheitsrat und NGOs.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und Internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Berlin: Suhrkamp.
Binder, Martin. 2009. “Humanitarian Crises and the International Politics of Selectivity.” Human Rights Review 10(3):327348.
Binder, Martin, Heupel, Monika. 2011. “The Legitimacy of the United Nations Security Council.” Paper presented at the ISA Annual Convention 2011 “Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition”, Montreal, March 16, 2011.
Blake, Daniel, Payton, Autumn. 2008. “Voting Rules in International Organizations: Reflections of Power or Facilitators of Cooperation?” Paper presented at the ISA's 49th Annual Convention, San Francisco, CA, March 26, 2008–March 29, 2008.
Blau, Peter M. 1963. “Critical Remarks on Weber's Theory of Authority.” American Political Science Review 57(2):305316.
Bogdandy, Armin v., Dann, PhilippGoldmann, Matthias. 2010. “Developing the Publicness of Public International Law: Towards a Legal Framework for Global Governance Activities.” In The Exercise of Public Authority by International Institutions. Advancing International Institutional Law, edited by Armin v. Bogdandy, Rüdiger Wolfrum, Jochen von Bernstorff, Philipp Dann, and Matthias Goldmann, 332. Heidelberg: Springer.
Breitmeier, Helmut, Young, Oran R.Zürn, Michael. 2006. Analyzing International Environmental Regimes. From Case Study to Database. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Burgoon, Brian. 2009. “Globalization and Backlash: Polanyi's Revenge?Review of International Political Economy 15(2):145178.
Caplan, Richard. 2004. “International Authority and State Building: The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina.” Global Governance 10:5365.
Chayes, AbramChayes, Antonia H.. 1995. The New Sovereignty. Compliance with International Regulatory Agreements. Cambridge, MA/London, England: Harvard University Press.
Chesterman, Simon. 2004. You, the People. The United Nations, Transitional Administration, and State-Building. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Clarke, Kamari M. 2007. “Global Justice, Local Controversies: The International Criminal Court and the Sovereignty of Victims.” In Paths to International Justice: Social and Legal Perspectives, edited by Marie-Bénédicte Dembour and Tobias Kelly, 134160. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cooper, Scott, Hawkins, Darren G., Jacoby, WadeNielson, Daniel. 2008. “Yielding Sovereignty to International Institutions: Bringing System Structure Back In.” International Studies Review 10(3):501524.
Cutler, A. C., Haufler, VirginiaPorter, Tony. (eds). 1999. Private Authority and International Affairs. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Dai, Xinyuan. 2007. International Institutions and National Policies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Day, John. 1963. “Authority.” Political Studies 11(3):257271.
de Wilde, PieterZürn., Michael 2012. “‘Somewhere Along the Line’: Can the Politicization of European Integration be Reversed?Journal of Common Market Studies 50(s1):137153.
della Porta, Donatella. 2007. The Global Justice Movement: Cross-National and Transnational Perspectives. Boulder: Paradigm.
della Porta, DonatellaTarrow, Sidney.. (eds). 2005. Transnational Protest and Global Activism. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Downs, George W., Rocke, David M.Barsoom, Peter N.. 1996. “Is the Good News About Compliance Good News About Cooperation?International Organization 50(3):379406.
Easton, David. 1965. A Systems Analysis of Political Life. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ecker-Ehrhardt, Matthias. 2010a. “Does the Internationalization of Governance Politicize Domestic Debate? Testing Competing Explanations of Politicization Using Party Manifestos.” Paper presented at the SGIR – 7th Pan-European Conference, Stockholm, September, 2010–September 30, 2010.
Ecker-Ehrhardt, Matthias 2010b. “Aid Organizations, Governments and the Media: The Critical Role of Journalists in Signaling Authority Recognition.” In Public Policy and the Mass Media: the Interplay of Mass Communication and Political Decision Making, edited by Sigrid Koch-Baumgarten and Katrin Voltmer, 106123. London: Routledge.
Ecker-Ehrhardt, Matthias 2011. “Cosmopolitan Politicization? Relating Public Perceptions of Interdependence and Expectations in Internationalized Governance.” European Journal of International Relations: Published online before print February 22, 2011, p. 1–28.
Ecker-Ehrhardt, MatthiasWeßels, Bernhard. forthcoming. “Input-oder Output-Politisierung internationaler Organisationen? Der kritische Blick der Bürger auf Demokratie und Leistung.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Berlin: Suhrkamp.
Eckersley, Robyn. 2007. “A Green Public Sphere in the WTO? The Amicus Curiae Interventions in the Transatlantic Biotech Dispute.” European Journal of International Relations 13(3):329356.
Finnemore, MarthaSikkink, Kathryn. 1998. “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change.” International Organization 52(4):887917.
Flathman, Richard E. 1980. The Practice of Political Authority: Authority and the Authoritative. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ford, Christian E.Oppenheim, Ben A.. 2008. “Neotrusteeship or Mistrusteeship? The “Authority Creep” Dilemma in United Nations Transitional Administration.” Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 41(1):55105.
Forst, Rainer. 2007. Das Recht auf Rechtfertigung. Elemente einer konstruktivistischen Theorie der Gerechtigkeit. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.
Franck, Thomas M. 1990. The Power of Legitimacy Among Nations. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Friedman, R. B. 1990. “On the Concept of Authority in Political Philosophy.” In Authority, edited by Joseph Raz, 5691. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Furia, Peter A. 2005. “Global Citizenship, Anyone? Cosmopolitanism, Privilege and Public Opinion.” Global Society 19(4):331359.
Gerhards, Jürgen, Roose, JochenOfferhaus, Anke. forthcoming. “Die Rekonfiguration von politischer Verantwortungszuschreibung im Rahmen staatlichen Wandels.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Berlin: Suhrkamp.
Glasius, Marlies. 2008. “Global Justice Meets Local Civil Society: The International Criminal Court's Investigation in the Central African Republic.” Alternatives 33:413433.
Grande, EdgarPauly, Louis W. (eds). 2005. Complex Sovereignty: Reconstituting Political Authority in the Twenty-first Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Gravelle, Thimothy. 2011. “Global Public Opinion toward the United Nations: Insights from the Gallup World Poll.” Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the International Studies Association, Montréal, September 16, 2011.
Gravelle, Timothy B., Ray, Julie, 2011. “UN Gets More Approval than Disapproval Worldwide.” Gallup. Accessed November 28, 2011.
Greenpeace International. 2006. “Greenpeace New Study Reveals Death Toll of Chernobyl Enormously Underestimated.” Accessed March 8, 2011.
Greven, Michael Th. 1999. Die politische Gesellschaft. Kontingenz und Dezision als Probleme des Regierens und der Demokratie. Opladen: Leske+Budrich.
Gronau, Jennifer, Nonhoff, Martin, Schneider, SteffenNullmeier, Frank. 2009. “Spiele ohne Brot? Die Legitimationskrise der G8.” Leviathan 37(1):117143.
Haas, Ernst B. 1990. When Knowledge is Power: Three Models of Change in International Organizations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Haas, Peter M., Keohane, Robert O.Levy, Marc A. (eds). 1993.” In Institutions for the Earth: Sources of Effective International Environmental Protection. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Habermas, Jürgen. 1981. Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
Habermas, Jürgen. 1992. Faktizität und Geltung. Beiträge zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und des demokratischen Rechtsstaats. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.
Hainmueller, JensHiscox, Michael J.. 2006. “Learning to Love Globalization: Education and Individual Attitudes Toward International Trade.” International Organization 60(Spring):469498.
Hawkins, Darren G., Lake, David A., Nielson, DanielTierney, Michael (eds). 2006. Delegation and Agency in International Organizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hay, Colin. 2007. Why We Hate Politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Helleiner, Eric. 1994. States and the Reemergence of Global Finance: From Bretton Woods to the 1990s. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hooghe, LiesbetMarks, Gary. 2008. “A Postfunctionalist Theory of European Integration: From Permissive Consensus to Constraining Dissensus.” British Journal of Political Science 39(1):123.
Hudec, Robert E. 1987. Developing Countries in the GATT Legal System. London: Trade Policy Research Centre.
Hurd, Ian. 1999. “Legitimacy and Authority in International Politics.” International Organization 53(2):379408.
Hurd, Ian. 2007. After Anarchy. Legitimacy and Power in the United Nations Security Council. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Imig, Doug. 2002. “Contestation in the Streets.” Comparative Political Studies 35(8):914933.
Johansson, Patrik. 2009. “The Humdrum Use of Ultimate Authority: Defining and Analysing Chapter VII Resolutions.” Nordic Journal of International Law 78(3):309342.
Jung, Jai K. 2008. “Growing Supranational Identities in a Globalising World? A Multilevel Analysis of the World Values Surveys.” European Journal of Political Research 47(5):578609.
Kahler, Miles. 1995. International Institutions and the Political Economy of Integration. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Kahler, Miles. 2004. “Defining Accountability Up: the Global Economic Multilaterals.” Government and Opposition 39(2):132158.
Keohane, Robert O. 1984. After Hegemony. Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kissinger, Henry A. 1957. A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace 1812-22. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Koehn, Peter H.Rosenau, James N. 2002. “Transnational Competence in an Emergent Epoch.” International Studies Perspective 3(2):105127.
Kohut, Andrew, Wike, Richard, Carriere-Kretschmer, Erin, Holzwart, Kathleen, Poushter, Jacob. 2009. “Most Muslim Publics Not So Easily Moved: Confidence in Obama Lifts U.S. Image Around The World. 25-Nation Pew Global Attitudes Survey.” PewResearchCenter, Washington, DC.
Koopmans, RuudStatham, Paul (eds). 2010. The Making of a European Public Sphere Media Discourse and Political Contention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Krajewski, Markus. 2002. “Democratic Legitimacy and Constitutional Perspectives of WTO Law.” Journal of World Trade 35(1):167186.
Krasner, Stephen D. 1999. Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Krasner, Stephen D. 1991. “Global Communications and National Power. Life on the Pareto Frontier.” World Politics 43(3):336366.
Kriesi, Hanspeter, Grande, Edgar, Lachat, Romain, Dolezal, Martin, Bornschier, SimonFrey, Timotheos. 2008. West European Politics in the Age of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lake, David A. 2003. “The New Sovereignty in International Relations.” International Studies Review 5(3):303323.
Lake, David A. 2010. “Rightful Rules: Authority, Order, and the Foundations of Global Governance.” International Studies Quarterly 54(3):587913.
Liese, Andrea. 2006. Staaten am Pranger. Zur Wirkung internationaler Regime auf innerstaatliche Menschenrechtspolitik. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
Lu, Catherine. 2000. “The One and Many Faces of Cosmopolitanism.” The Journal of Political Philosophy 8(2):244267.
Luhmann, Niklas. 1984. Soziale Systeme. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.
Marks, GarySteenbergen, Marco R. (eds). 2004. European Integration and Political Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mau, Steffen. 2007. Transnationale Vergesellschaftung. Die Entgrenzung sozialer Lebenswelten. Frankfurt a.M: Campus Verlag.
Mayda, Anna M.Rodrik., Dani 2005. “Why Are Some People (and Countries) More Protectionist than Others?European Economic Review 49(6):13931430.
Mearsheimer, John J. 1994. “The False Promise of International Institutions.” International Security 19(3):549.
Miles, Edward L., Underdal, Arild, Andresen, Steinar, Wettestad, Jorgen, Skjaerseth, Jon B.Carlin, Elaine M. 2002. Environmental Regime Effectiveness: Confronting Theory with Evidence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Mitchell, Ronald B. (ed). 2006. Global Environmental Assessments: Information and Influence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Moravcsik, Andrew. 1998. The Choice for Europe. Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Moravcsik, Andrew. 2006. “Is there a ‘Democratic Deficit’ in World Politics? A Framework for Analysis.” Government and Opposition 39(2):336363.
Mosley, Paul, Harrigan, JaneToye, J.F.J.. 1995. Aid and Power: the World Bank and Policy-based Lending. London: Routledge.
Moulin, CarolinaNyers, Peter. 2007. ““We Live in a Country of UNHCR” – Refugee Protests and Global Political Society.” International Political Sociology 1(4):356372.
Narlikar, Amrita. 2006. “Fairness in International Trade Negotiations.” The World Economy 29(8):10051028.
Nelson, Paul. 2009. “Political Opportunity Structures and Non-State Influence: Making the Case for Transparency at the World Bank.” In Transnational Activism in the UN and the EU. A Comparitive Study, edited by Jutta M. Joachim and Birgit Locher, 6175. New York: Routledge.
Nölke, Andreas. forthcoming. “Die gesellschaftliche Politisierung transnationaler privater Governance: Der Fall des International Accounting Standards Board.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
Norris, Pippa. 2000. “Global Governance & Cosmopolitan Citizens.” In Governance in a Globalizing World, edited by Joseph S. Nye Jr. and John D. Donahue, 155177. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Nullmeier, Frank, Bigeon, Dominika, Nonhoff, Martin, Schmidtke, HenningSchneider, Steffen (eds). 2010. Prekäre Legitimitäten: Rechtfertigung von Herrschaft in der postnationalen Konstellation. Frankfurt a.M.: Campus.
O'Brian, Robert, Goetz, Anne M., Scholte, Jan A.Williams, Marc. 2000. Contesting Global Governance: Multilateral Institutions and Global Social Movements. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Park, Susan. 2010. World Bank Group Interactions with Environmentalists. Changing International Organisation Identities. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Parsons, Talcott. 1967. Sociological Theory and Modern Society. New York, NY: Free Press.
Parsons, TalcottShils, Edward (eds). 1951. Toward a General Theory of Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Pedersen, Susan. 2007. “Review Essay: Back to the League of Nations.” The American Historical Review 112(4):10911116.
Philpott, Daniel. 1999. “Westphalia, Authority, and International Society.” Political Studies XLVII:566589.
Pianta, Mario, Zola, Duccio. 2005. “The rise of global movements, 1970–2005.” Paper presented at the ACI Meeting, Paris, September 30, 2005.
Rajagopal, Balakrishnan. 2003. International Law From Below: Development, Social Movements and Third World Resistance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rauh, Christian. 2011. “Politicisation, Issue Salience, and Consumer Policies of the European Commission: Does Public Awareness and Contestation of Supranational Matters Increase the Responsiveness of Europe's Central Agenda-setter?” Department of Political and Social Sciences, Freie Universität, Berlin.
Raz, Joseph. 1990. “Introduction.” In Authority, edited by Joseph Raz, 119. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Rittberger, VolkerNettesheim, Martin. 2008. Authority in the Global Political Economy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Rixen, Thomas, Zangl., Bernhard 2010. “The Politicization of International Institutions: Empirical Evidence from Global Economic Governance.” Paper presented at the SGIR – 7th Pan-European Conference, Stockholm, September, 2010–September 30, 2010.
Rogowski, Ronald. 1989. Commerce and Coalitions. How Trade Affects Domestic Political Alignments. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rosenau, James N. 2003. Distant Proximities. Dynamics Beyond Globalization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rucht, Dieter. 2004. “The Quadruple ‘A’. Media strategies of Protest Movements Since the 1960s.” In Cyberprotest. New Media, Citizens and Social Movements, edited by Wim van de Donk, Brian D. Loader, Paul G. Nixon, and Dieter Rucht, 2956. London: Routledge.
Rucht, Dieter. forthcoming. “Globalisierungskritische Proteste als Herausforderung an Die Internationale Politik.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und Internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Berlin: Suhrkamp.
Ruggie, John G. 1982. “International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order.” International Organization 36(2):379415.
Ruggie, John G. 2004. “Reconstituting the Global Public Domain – Issues, Actors, and Practices.” European Journal of International Relations 10(4):499531.
Scheve, KennethSlaughter, Matthew J.. 2004. “Economic Insecurity and the Globalization of Production.” American Journal of Political Science 48(4):662674.
Schmidt, Manfred G. 2004. Wörterbuch zur Politik. Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner Verlag.
Schmidtke, Henning. 2011. “Is There a Trend Towards the Politicization of International Institutions? Empirical Evidence from Three Major Arenas of Global Governance.” Paper presented at the ISA International Conference, March 16–19, Montreal.
Schmitter, Philippe C. 1969. “Three Neo-Functionalist Hypotheses about International Integration.” International Organization 23(1):161166.
Siebenhüner, BerndBiermann, Frank. 2009. “International Organizations in Global Environmental Governance: Epilogue.” In International Organizations in Global Environmental Governance, edited by Frank Biermann, Bernd Siebenhüner, and Anna Schreyögg, 264269. Abingdon: Routledge.
Spoerri, MarleneFreyberg-Inan, Annette. 2008. “From Prosecution to Persecution: Perceptions of the ICTY in Serbian Domestic Politics.” Journal for International Relations and Development 11(4):350384.
Statham, Paul. 2010. “What Kind of Europeanized Public Politics?” In The Making of a European Public Sphere Media Discourse and Political Contention, edited by Ruud Koopmans and Paul Statham, 277306. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stiglitz, Joseph E.Charlton., Andrew 2005. Fair Trade For All: How Trade Can Promote Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tallberg, Jonas. 2002. “Paths to Compliance: Enforcement, Management, and the European Union.” International Organization 56(3):609644.
Tallberg, JonasJönsson, Christer (eds). 2010. Transnational Actors in Global Governance: Patterns, Explanations, and Implications. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Tallberg, Jonas, Beach, Derek, Naurin, DanielTiilikainen, Teija. 2011. Demokratiradets rapport. Stockholm: SNS Förlag.
Tallberg, Jonas, Sommerer, Thomas, Squatrito, Theresa. 2011. “Transnational Access to International Organizations: Change and Continuity, 1950–2010.” Paper presented at the Workshop “Institutional Dynamics in World Politics: Explaining Variation in the Scope, Pace, and Direction of International Institutional Change.” Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, April 7, 2011.
Tarrow, Sidney. 2005. The New Transnational Activism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Terlingen, Yvonne. 2007. “The Human Rights Council: A New Era in UN Human Rights Work?Ethics & International Affairs 21(1):167187.
Ucarer, Emek. 2009. “Safeguarding Asylum as a Human Right: NGOs and the European Union.” In Transnational Activism in the UN and the EU. A Comparitive Study, edited by Jutta M. Joachim and Birgit Locher, 121139. New York: Routledge.
Van den Bossche, Peter. 2008. “NGO Involvement in the WTO: A Comparitive Perspective.” Journal of International Economic Law 11(4):717749.
Viola, Lora. forthcoming. “Institutioneller Wandel durch Wettbewerb: Wie die Zivilgesellschaft die Weltgesundheitsorganisation verändert hat.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und Internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Berlin: Suhrkamp.
Viola, Lora. 2009. “Diplomacy and the Origins of the Diplomatic System.” Paper presented at the International Studies Association Annual Conference, New York, February 1, 2009.
Weber, Max. 1968. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Grundriß der Verstehenden Soziologie. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Weßels, Bernhard. 2004. “Contestation Potential of Interest Groups in the EU: Emergence, Structure, and Political Alliances.” In European Integration and Political Conflict, edited by Gary Marks and Marco R. Steenbergen, 195215. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wessler, Hartmut, Peters, Bernhard, Brüggemann, Michael, Kleinen-von Königslöw, KatharinaSifft, Stefanie. 2008. Transnationalization of Public Spheres. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wolf, Klaus D. 1999. “The New Raison d’état as a Problem for Democracy in World Society.” European Journal of International Relations 5(3):333363.
Zürn, Michael. 1998. Regieren jenseits des Nationalstaats. Globalisierung und Denationalisierung als Chance. Frankfurt a.M: Suhrkamp.
Zürn, Michael. 2004. “Global Governance under Legitimacy Pressure.” Government and Opposition 39(2):260287.
Zürn, Michael. 2007. “Institutionalized Inequality. The Current World Order is neither Imperial nor Constitutional but a Hybrid of Legal Stratification.” Internationale Politik 8(3):1016.
Zürn, Michael. forthcoming. “Politisierung als Konzept der Internationalen Beziehungen.” In Gesellschaftliche Politisierung und internationale Institutionen, edited by Michael Zürn and Matthias Ecker-Ehrhardt. Berlin: Suhrkamp.
Zürn, MichaelWalter, Gregor (eds). 2005. Globalizing Interests. Pressure Groups and Denationalization. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Zürn, MichaelStephen, Matthew. 2010. “The View of Old and New Powers on the Legitimacy of International Institutions.” Politics 30(S1):91101.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Theory
  • ISSN: 1752-9719
  • EISSN: 1752-9727
  • URL: /core/journals/international-theory
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 40
Total number of PDF views: 671 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1728 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.