Allen, J. A. and Krauss, K. W.
2006. Influence of propagule flotation longevity and light availability on establishment of introduced mangrove species in Hawai‘i. Pac. Sci.
Anttila, C. K., Daehler, C. C., Rank, N. E., and Strong, D. R.
1998. Greater male fitness of a rare invader (Spartina alterniflora, Poaceae) threatens a common native (Spartina foliosa) with hybridization. Am. J. Bot.
Ayres, D., Smith, D., Zaremba, K., Kolhr, S., and Strong, D. R.
2004. Spread of exotic cordgrasses and hybrids (Spartina sp.) in the tidal marshes of San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Biol. Invasions
Ayres, D. R., Zaremba, K., Sloop, C. M., and Strong, D. R.
2008. Sexual reproduction of cordgrass hybrids (Spartina foliosa × alterniflora) invading tidal marshes in San Francisco Bay. Divers. Distrib.
Banas, N. S., Hickey, B. M., MacCready, P., and Newton, J. A.
2004. Dynamics of Willapa Bay, Washington: a highly unsteady, partially mixed estuary. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
Biber, P. E. and Caldwell, J. D.
2008. Seed germination and seedling survival of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Am. J. Agric. Biol. Sci.
2006. The austral cordgrass Spartina densiflora Brong.: its taxonomy, biogeography and natural history. J. Biogeogr.
Bouma, T. J., De Vries, M. B., Low, E., Peralta, G., Tanczos, I. C., van de Koppel, J., and Herman, P. M. J.
2005. Trade-offs related to ecosystem engineering: a case study on stiffness of emerging macrophytes. Ecology
Cannon, G. A.
1983. An overview of circulation in the Puget Sound estuarine System. NOAA Technical Memorandum. ERL PMEL-48. Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, WA. 34 p.
Carr, E. M. and Dumbauld, B. R.
2000. Status of the European green crab invasion in Washington coastal estuaries: can expansion be prevented?
J. Shellfish Res.
Castillo, J. M., Fernández-Baco, L., Castellanos, E. M., Luque, C. J., Figueroa, M. E., and Davy, A. J.
2000. Lower limits of Spartina densiflora and S. maritima in Mediterranean salt marsh determined by different ecophysiological tolerances. J. Ecol.
Castillo, J. M., Rubio-Casal, A. E., Redondo, S., Álvarez-López, A. A., Luque, T., Luque, C., Nieva, F. J., Castellanos, E. M., and Figueroa, M. F.
2005. Short-term responses to salinity of an invasive cordgrass. Biol. Invasions
Chambers, M. D., Hurn, H., Friendman, C. S., and Van Blaricom, G. R.
2003. Drift card simulations of larval dispersal from San Nicolas Island, California, during black abalone spawning season. Pages 421–433 in Proceedings of the Sixth California Islands Symposium. Ventura, CA
Institute for Wildlife Studies and National Park Service.
Chen, H., Li, B., Hu, J., Chen, J., and Wu, J.
2007. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on benthic nematode communities in the Yangtze Estuary. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
Chew, F., Drennan, K. L., and Demoran, W. J.
1962. Some results of drift bottle studies off the Mississippi Delta. Limnol. Oceanogr.
Civille, J. C., Sayce, K., Smith, S. D., and Strong, D. R.
2005. Reconstructing a century of Spartina alterniflora invasion with historical records and contemporary remote sensing. Ecoscience
Cohen, A. N. and Carlton, J. T.
1998. Accelerating invasion rate in a highly invaded estuary. Science
2008. Plants at the Margin: Ecological Limits and Climate Change. New York
Cambridge University Press. 478 p.
Crone, T. J., Ebbesmeyer, C. C., and Ingraham, W. J.
1998. Dispersion of 1,000 drift cards over Victoria's sewage outfalls. Pages 259–266 in Puget Sound Research '98 Proceedings. Olympia, WA
Puget Sound Water Quality Action Team.
Crooks, J. A.
2002. Characterizing Ecosystem-level consequences of biological invasions: the role of ecosystem engineers. Oikos
Daehler, C. C. and Strong, D. R.
1996. Status, prediction and prevention of introduced cordgrass Spartina spp. invasions in Pacific estuaries, USA. Biol. Conserv.
Dewees, C. M. and Strange, E. M.
1984. Drift bottle observations of the nearshore surface circulation off California, 1977–1983. Calif. Coop. Ocean Fish.
Ebbesmeyer, C. C. and Coomes, C. A.
1993. Historical shoreline recoveries of drifting objects: an aid for future shoreline utilization. Pages III-159–III-164 in Proceedings of Oceans '93 Engineering in Harmony with Ocean. Seattle, WA
Frenkel, R. E. and Boss, T. R., 1988. Introduction, establishment and spread of Spartina patens on Cox Island, Siuslaw Estuary, Oregon. Wetlands 8:33–49.
Goss-Custard, J. D. and Moser, M. E.
1988. Rates of change in the numbers of dunlin, Calidris alpina, wintering in British estuaries in relation to the spread of Spartina anglica
. J. Appl. Ecol.
Grazul, Z. I. and Rowland, P. D.
2011. The Distribution of Spartina densiflora in the Humboldt Bay Region: Baseline Mapping. Arcata, CA
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge. 13 p.
Grosholz, E. D. and Ruiz, G. M.
1995. Spread and potential impact of the recently introduced European green crab, Carcinus maenas, in central California. Mar. Biol.
Hart, K. M., Mooreside, P., and Crowder, L. B.
2006. Interpreting the spatio-temporal patterns of sea turtle strandings: going with the flow. Biol. Conserv.
Hickey, B. M.
1989. Patterns and processes of circulation over the shelf and slope. Pages 41–115 in Hickey, B. M. and Landry, M. R., eds. Coastal Oceanography of Washington and Oregon. Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Hickey, B. M. and Banas, N. S.
2003. Oceanography of the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast and estuaries with application to coastal ecology. Estuaries
Higgins, S. I. and Richardson, D. M.
1999. Predicting plant migration rates in a changing world: the role of long-distance dispersal. Am. Nat.
Holbrook, J. R. and Halpern, D.
1982. Winter-time near-surface currents in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Atmos.-Ocean
Howard, V., Pfauth, M., Sytsma, M., and Isaacson, D.
2007. Oregon Spartina Response Plan. Portland, OR
Center for Lakes and Reservoirs, Portland State University. 80 p.
1970. Effects of cutting and seed production in Spartina anglica
. J. Ecol.
Huiskies, A.H.L., Koutstaal, B. P., Herman, P.M.J., Beeftink, W. G., Markusse, M. M., and de Munck, W.
1995. Seed dispersal of halophytes in tidal salt marshes. J. Ecol.
Jennings, F. D. and Schwartzlose, R. A.
1960. Measurements of the California Current in March 1958. Deep-Sea Res.
Kittelson, P. M. and Boyd, M. J.
1997. Mechanisms of expansion for an introduced species of cordgrass, Spartina densiflora, in Humboldt Bay, California. Estuaries
Klinger, T. and Ebbesmeyer, C.
2001. Using oceanographic linkages to guide marine protected area network design. Pages 1–24 in Proceedings of the 2001 Puget Sound Research Conference. Olympia, WA
Puget Sound Action Team.
Lee, T. and McPhaden, M. J.
2010. Increasing intensity of El Niño in the central–equatorial Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett.
Levin, L. A., Neira, C., and Grosholz, E. D.
2006. Invasive cordgrass modifies wetland trophic function. Ecology
Lynn, R. J. and Simpson, J. J.
1987. The California Current system: the seasonal variability of its physical characteristics. J. Geophys. Res.
Mack, R. N. and Lonsdale, W. M.
2001. Humans as global plant dispersers: getting more than we bargained for. BioScience
Minchinton, T. E.
2006. Rafting on wrack as a mode of dispersal for plants in coastal marshes. Aquat. Bot.
Mobberley, D. G.
1956. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Spartina
. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci.
Moody, M. E. and Mack, N.
1988. Controlling the spread of plant invasions: the importance of nascent foci. J. Appl. Ecol.
Neira, C., Grosholz, E. D., Levin, L. A., and Blake, R.
2006. Mechanisms generating modification of benthos following tidal flat invasion by a Spartina hybrid. Ecol. Appl.
Odum, H. T. and Odum, B.
2003. Concepts and methods of ecological engineering. Ecol. Eng.
Olofson Environmental, Inc. 2012. San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project—California Clapper Rail Habitat Enhancement Program Progress Report. Berkeley, CA
prepared by Olofson Environmental, Inc. for the State Coastal Conservancy. 84 p.
Patten, K. and O'Casey, C.
2007. Use of Willapa Bay, Washington, by shorebirds and waterfowl after Spartina control efforts. J. Field Ornithol.
2006. Range expansion in the northeast Pacific by an estuary mud crab—a molecular study. Biol. Invasions
Plyler, D. B. and Carrick, K. M.
1993. Site-specific seed dormancy in Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae). Am. J. Bot.
Plyler, D. B. and Proseus, T. E.
1996. A comparison of the seed dormancy characteristics of Spartina patens and Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae). Am. J. Bot.
Poulain, P. and Niiler, P. P.
1989. Statistical analysis of the surface circulation in the California Current system using satellite-tracked drifters. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
Ranwell, D. S.
Spartina salt marshes in southern England. II. Rate and seasonal patterns of accretion. J. Ecol.
Reid, J. L. and Schwartzlose, R. A.
1962. Direct measurements of the Davidson Current off central California. J. Geophys. Res.
Ridley, H. N.
1930. The Dispersal of Plants throughout the World. Ashford, Kent
L. Reeve & Co. 744 p.
Ruiz, G. M., Fofonoff, P. W., Carlton, J. T., Wonham, M. J., and Hines, A. H.
2000. Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst.
Sauers, K. A., Klinger, T., Coomes, C., and Ebbesmeyer, C. C.
2003. Synthesis of 41,300 drift cards released in Juan de Fuca Strait (1975–2002). Pages 1–12 in Proceedings of the 2003 Georgia Basin/Puget Sound Research Conference. Olympia, WA
Puget Sound Action Team.
1988. Introduced Cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora Loisel, in Salt Marshes and Tidelands of Willapa Bay. Ilwaco, WA
Willapa National Wildlife Refuge. USFWS–87058 (TS). 70 p.
Sayce, K., Dumbauld, B., and Hidy, J.
1997. Seed dispersal in drift of Spartina alterniflora
. Pages 27–31 in Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference. Olympia, WA
Washington State University-Cooperative Extension.
Schwartzlose, R. A.
1962. Nearshore currents of the western United States and Baja California as measured by drift bottles. Cal. Coop. Ocean. Fish.
Schwartzlose, R. A. and Reid, J. L.
1972. Near-shore circulation in the California current. Cal. Coop. Ocean. Fish.
Stralberg, D., Toniolo, V., Page, G. W., and Stenzel, L. E.
2004. Potential Impacts of Non-Native Spartina Spread on Shorebird Populations in South San Francisco Bay. Stinson Beach, CA
PBRO Conservation Science. 61 p.
Strong, D. R. and Ayres, D. A.
Spartina introductions and consequences in salt marshes: arrive, survive, thrive, and sometimes hybridize. Pages 3–22 in Silliman, B. R., Grosholz, T., and Berness, M. D., eds. Human Impacts on Salt Marshes—A Global Perspective. Berkeley, CA
University of California Press.
Suarez, A. V., Holway, D. A., and Case, T. J.
2001. Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: insights from Argentine ants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.
Tegner, M. J. and Butler, R. A.
1985. Drift-tube study of the dispersal potential of green abalone (Haliotis fulgens) larvae in the southern California Bight: implications for the recovery of depleted populations. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
Thompson, J. D.
1991. The biology of an invasive plant. BioScience
Wasson, K., Zabin, C. J., Bediger, L., Diaz, C. M., and Pearse, J. S.
2001. Biological invasions of estuaries without international shipping: the importance of intraregional transport. Biol. Conserv.
West Coast Governors' Alliance on Ocean Health. 2008. West Coast Governors' Agreement on Ocean Health Action Plan. Pages 116 p. http://www.westcoastoceans.org. Accessed February 11, 2012.
Wonham, M. J. and Carlton, J. T.
2005. Trends in marine biological invasions at local and regional scales: the northeast Pacific Ocean as a model system. Biol. Invasions.
[WSDA] Washington State Department of Agriculture. 2009. Progress of the 2008 Spartina eradication program. Olympia, Washington
Washington State Department of Agriculture. 39 p.