Alper, K, Devinsky, O, Perrine, K, Luciano, D, Vasquez, B, Pacia, S, Rhee, E (1997). Dissociation in epilepsy and conversion non-epileptic seizures. Epilepsia 38, 991–997.
American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2014). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edn. APA: Washington, DC.
Ashbaugh, AR, Houle-Johnson, S, Herbert, C, El-Hage, W, Brunet, A (2016). Psychometric validation of the English and French versions of the Posttraumatic stress disorder checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). PLoS One 11, e0161645, (in press).
Bernstein, EM, Putnam, FW (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 174, 727–735.
Brand, BL, Stadnik, R (2013). What contributes to predicting change in the treatment of dissociation: initial levels of dissociation, PTSD, or overall distress? Journal of Trauma and Dissociation 14, 328–341.
Briere, J (2006). Dissociative symptoms and trauma exposure: specificity, affect dysregulation, and posttraumatic stress. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 194, 78–82.
Britvić, D, Antičević, V, Kaliterna, M, Lušić, L, Beg, A, Brajević-Gizdić, I, Kudric, M, Stupalob, Z, Krolob, V, Pivac, N (2015). Comorbidities with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among combat veterans: 15 years postwar analysis. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 15, 81–92.
Cloitre, M, Koenen, KC, Cohen, LR, Han, H (2002). Skills training in affective and interpersonal regulation followed by exposure: a phase-based treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 70, 1067.
Cloitre, M, Stovall-McClough, KC, Miranda, R, Chemtob, CM (2004). Therapeutic alliance, negative mood regulation, and treatment outcome in child abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72, 411–415.
Dalenberg, CJ, Brand, BL, Gleaves, DH, Dorahy, MJ, Loewenstein, RJ, Cardeña, E, Frewen, PA, Carlson, EB, Spiegel, D (2012). Evaluation of the evidence for the trauma and fantasy models of dissociation. Psychological Bulletin 138, 550–588.
Dalenberg, CJ, Paulson, K (2009). The case for the study of “normal” dissociation processes. In Dissociation and the Dissociative Disorders: DSM-V and beyond, (ed. Routledge), pp. 145–154. Routledge: New York, NY.
Gershuny, BS, Thayer, JF (1999). Relations among psychological trauma, dissociative phenomena, and trauma-related distress: a review and integration. Clinical Psychology Review 19, 631–657.
Gray, MJ, Litz, BT, Hsu, JL, Lombardo, TW (2004). Psychometric properties of the life events checklist. Assessment 11, 330–341.
Khalily, MT (2011). Mental health problems in Pakistani society as a consequence of violence and trauma: a case for better integration of care. International Journal of Integrated Care 11, e128.
Khalily, TM, Fooley, S, Hussain, I, Bano, M (2011). Violence, psychological trauma and possible acute post-traumatic interventions in Pakistani society. Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies 1, 1–9.
Khan, AA, Haider, G, Sheikh, MR, Ali, AF, Khalid, Z, Tahir, MM, Malik, TM, Salick, MM, Lakhani, LS, Yousuf, FS, Khan, MB, Saleem, S (2016). Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder due to community violence among university students in the world’s most dangerous megacity: a cross-sectional study from Pakistan. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 31, 2302–2315.
Levy, BS, Sidel, VW (2013). Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War. The Lancet 381, 949–958.
Lewis, CA, Musharraf, S, Dorahy, MJ, Lewis, MJ (2013). The dissociative experiences scale: an Urdu translation. Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society 10, 46–50.
Lovibond, SH, Lovibond, PF (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, 2nd edn. Psychology Foundation: Sydney.
Lynn, SJ, Lilienfeld, SO, Merckelbach, H, Giesbrecht, T, McNally, R, Loftus, EF, Bruck, M, Garry, M, Malaktaris, A (2014). The trauma model of dissociation: inconvenient truths and stubbom fictions. Comment on Dalenberg et al. (2012). Psychological Bulletin 140, 896–910.
Merckelbach, H, Muris, P (2001). The causal link between self-reported trauma and dissociation: a critical review. Behaviour Research and Therapy 39, 245–254.
Norman, SB, Stein, MB, Davidson, JR (2007). Profiling posttraumatic functional impairment. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 195, 48–53.
Olsen, SA, Clapp, JD, Parra, GR, Beck, JG (2013). Factor structure of the Dissociative Experiences Scale: an examination across sexual assault status. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 35, 394–403.
Price, M, Kearns, M, Houry, D, Rothbaum, BO (2014). Emergency department predictors of posttraumatic stress reduction for trauma-exposed individuals with and without an early intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 82, 336.
Razik, S, Ehring, T, Emmelkamp, PM (2013). Psychological consequences of terrorist attacks: prevalence and predictors of mental health problems in Pakistani emergency responders. Psychiatry Research 207, 80–85.
Ruiz, MA, Poythress, NG, Lilienfeld, SO, Douglas, KS (2008). Factor structure and correlates of the Dissociative Experiences Scale in a large offender sample. Assessment 15, 511–521.
Soffer-Dudek, N, Lassri, D, Soffre Dudek, N, Shahar, G (2015). Dissociative absorption: an empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor. Consciousness and Cognition 36, 338–351.
Spitzer, RL, First, MB, Wakefield, JC (2007). Saving PTSD from itself in DSM-V. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 21, 233–241.
Stockdale, GD, Gridley, BE, Balogh, DW, Holtgraves, T (2002). Confirmatory factor analysis of singleand multiple-factor competing models of the dissociative experiences scale in a nonclinical sample. Assessment 9, 94–106.
Weathers, FW, Litz, BT, Palmieri, DG, Schnurr, PP, Marx, BP, Keane, TM (2013a). The life events checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5). Instrument available from the National Center for PTSD (www.ptsd.va.gov). Accessed 25 July 2017.
Weathers, FW, Litz, BT, Palmieri, DG, Schnurr, PP, Marx, BP, Keane, TM (2013b). The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Scale available from the National Center for PTSD (www.ptsd.va.gov). Accessed 25 July 2017.
Waller, G, Hamilton, K, Elliott, P, Lewendon, J, Stopa, L, Waters, A, Kennedy, F, Lee, G, Pearson, D, Kennerley, H, Hargreaves, I, Bashford, V, Chalkey, J (2001). Somatoform dissociation, psychological dissociation, and specific forms of trauma. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation 1, 81–98.
Yazdani, A, Shafi, K (2014). Indirect exposure to violence and prevalence of vicarious trauma in adolescents. Bahria Journal of Professional Psychology 13, 57–71.