Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Predictors of antidepressant use in the English population: analysis of the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

  • S. Boyle (a1), J. Murphy (a1), M. Rosato (a2), D. Boduszek (a3) and M. Shevlin (a1)...
Abstract
Objectives

The rate of antidepressant use in the United Kingdom has outpaced diagnostic increases in the prevalence of depression. Research has suggested that personal and socioeconomic risk factors may be contributing to antidepressant use. To date, few studies have addressed these possible contributions. Thus, this study aimed to assess the relative strength of personal, socioeconomic and trauma-related risk factors in predicting antidepressant use.

Methods

Data were derived from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n=7403), a nationally representative household sample of adults residing in England in 2007. A multivariate binary logistic regression model was developed to assess the associations between personal, socioeconomic and trauma-related risk factors and current antidepressant use.

Results

The strongest predictor of current antidepressant use was meeting the criteria for an ICD-10 depressive episode [odds ratio (OR)=9.04]. Other significant predictors of antidepressant use in this analysis included English as first language (OR=3.45), female gender (OR=1.98), unemployment (OR=1.82) and childhood sexual abuse (OR=1.53).

Conclusions

Several personal, socioeconomic and trauma-related factors significantly contributed to antidepressant use in the multivariate model specified. These findings aid our understanding of the broader context of antidepressant use in the United Kingdom.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Address for correspondence: S. Boyle, School of Psychology and Psychology Research Institute, Ulster University, Magee Campus, Northland Road, Londonderry BT48 7JL, Northern Ireland, UK.(Email: s.boyle@ulster.ac.uk)
References
Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Publishing: Washington, DC.
Anda, RF, Brown, DW, Felitti, VJ, Bremner, JD, Dube, SR, Giles, WH (2007). Adverse childhood experiences and prescribed psychotropic medications in adults. American Journal of Preventative Medicine 32, 389394.
Angermeyer, MC, van der Auwera, S, Carta, MG, Schomerus, G (2017). Public attitudes towards psychiatry and psychiatric treatment at the beginning of the 21st century: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of population surveys. World Psychiatry 16, 5061.
Baxter, AJ, Scott, KM, Ferrari, AJ, Norman, RE, Vos, T, Whiteford, HA (2014). Challenging the myth of an “epidemic” of common mental disorders: trends in the global prevalence of anxiety and depression between 1990 and 2010. Depression and Anxiety 31, 506516.
Benson, T, O’Neill, S, Murphy, S, Ferry, F, Bunting, B (2015). Prevalence and predictors of psychotropic medication use: results from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 24, 542552.
Boehlen, F, Herzog, W, Quinzler, R, Haefeli, WE, Maatouk, I, Niehoff, D, Saum, KU, Brenner, H, Wild, B (2015). Loneliness in the elderly is associated with the use of psychotropic drugs. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 30, 957964.
Brugha, T, Bebbington, P, Tennant, C, Hurry, J (1985). The list of threatening experiences: a subset of 12 life event categories with considerable long-term contextual threat. Psychological Medicine 15, 189194.
Butterworth, P, Olesen, SC, Leach, LS (2013). Socioeconomic differences in antidepressant use in the PATH Through Life Study: evidence of health inequalities, prescribing bias, or an effective social safety net? Journal of Affective Disorders 149, 7583.
Campbell, R, Sullivan, CM, Davidson, WS (1995). Women who use domestic violence shelters changes in depression over time. Psychology of Women Quarterly 19, 237255.
DeForge, BR, Belcher, JR, O’Rourke, M, Lindsey, MA (2008). Personal resources and homelessness in early life: predictors of depression in consumers of homeless multiservice centers. Journal of Loss and Trauma 13, 222242.
Demyttenaere, K, Bonnewyn, A, Bruffaerts, R, De Girolamo, G, Gasquet, I, Kovess, V, Haro, JM, Alonso, J (2008). Clinical factors influencing the prescription of antidepressants and benzodiazepines: results from the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders (ESEMeD). Journal of Affective Disorders 110, 8493.
Fisher, HL, Craig, TK, Fearon, P, Morgan, K, Dazzan, P, Lappin, J, Hutchinson, G, Doody, GA, Jones, PB, McGuffin, P, Murray, RM, Leff, J, Morgan, C (2011). Reliability and comparability of psychosis patients’ retrospective reports of childhood abuse. Schizophrenia Bull 37, 546553.
Furnham, A, Malik, R (1994). Cross-cultural beliefs about “depression”. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 40, 106123.
Goodman, LA, Corcoran, C, Turner, K, Yuan, N, Green, BL (1998). Assessing traumatic event exposure: general issues and preliminary findings for the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire. Journal of Traumatic Stress 11, 521542.
Hasin, DS, Goodwin, RD, Stinson, FS, Grant, BF (2005). Epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcoholism and Related Conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry 62, 10971106.
Jordanova, V, Wickramesinghe, C, Gerada, C, Prince, M (2004). Validation of two survey diagnostic interviews among primary care attendees: a comparison of CIS-R and CIDI with SCAN ICD-10 diagnostic categories. Psychological Medicine 34, 10131024.
Joutsenniemi, K, Martelin, T, Martikainen, P, Pirkola, S, Koskinen, S (2006). Living arrangements and mental health in Finland. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 60, 468475.
Kessler, RC, Berglund, P, Demler, O, Jin, R, Koretz, D, Merikangas, KR, Rush, AJ, Walters, EE, Wang, PS (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA 289, 30953105.
Kish, L (1965). Survey Sampling. Wiley: New York.
Lewer, D, O’Reilly, C, Mojtabai, R, Evans-Lacko, S (2015). Antidepressant use in 27 European countries: associations with sociodemographic, cultural and economic factors. British Journal of Psychiatry 207, 221226.
Lewinsohn, PM, Hoberman, H, Teri, L, Hautzinger, M (1985). An integrative theory of depression. In Theoretical Issues in Behavior Therapy (ed. R. Reiss and R. Bootzin), pp. 331359. Academic Press: New York.
Lewis, G, Pelosi, AJ (1990). Manual of the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). Institute of Psychiatry: London.
Lorant, V, Deliège, D, Eaton, W, Robert, A, Philippot, P, Ansseau, M (2003). Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology 157, 98112.
Maguire, A, Moriarty, J, O’Reilly, D, McCann, M (2017). Education as a predictor of antidepressant and anxiolytic medication use after bereavement: a population based record linkage study. Quality of Life Research 26, 12511262.
McManus, S, Bebbington, P, Jenkins, R, Brugha, T (2016). Mental Health and Wellbeing in England: Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2014. NHS Digital: Leeds.
McManus, S, Meltzer, H, Brugha, TS, Bebbington, PE, Jenkins, R (2009). Adult Psychiatric Morbidity in England, 2007: Results of a Household Survey. The NHS Information Centre for Health and Social Care: UK.
Mental Health Foundation (2005). Up and Running? Exercise Therapy and the Treatment of Mild or Moderate Depression in Primary Care. Mental Health Foundation: London.
Mercier, A, Auger-Aubin, I, Lebeau, JP, Schuers, M, Boulet, P, Hermil, JL, Van Royen, P, Peremans, L (2013). Evidence of prescription of antidepressants for non-psychiatric conditions in primary care: an analysis of guidelines and systematic reviews. BMC Family Practice 14, 55. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2296-14-55.
Mojtabai, R, Olfson, M (2011). Proportion of antidepressants prescribed without a psychiatric diagnosis is growing. Health Affairs 30, 14341442.
Molnar, BE, Buka, SL, Kessler, RC (2001). Child sexual abuse and subsequent psychopathology: results from the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Public Health 91, 753760.
Monden, CW, Metsä-Simola, N, Saarioja, S, Martikainen, P (2015). Divorce and subsequent increase in uptake of antidepressant medication: a Finnish registry based study on couple versus individual effects. BMC Public Health 15, 158.
Munoz-Arroyo, R, Sutton, M, Morrison, J (2006). Exploring potential explanations for the increase in antidepressant prescribing in Scotland using secondary analyses of routine data. British Journal of General Practice 56, 423428.
Office for National Statistics (2016). Population of the United Kingdom by country of birth and nationality 2015 [dataset] (https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/internationalmigration/datasets/populationoftheunitedkingdombycountryofbirthandnationality). Accessed 5 December 2017.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2017). Health at a Glance: 2017. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Publishing: Paris.
Pulkki-Råback, L, Kivimäki, M, Ahola, K, Joutsenniemi, K, Elovainio, M, Rossi, H, Puttonen, S, Koskinen, S, Isometsä, E, Lönnqvist, J, Virtanen, M (2012). Living alone and antidepressant medication use: a prospective study in a working-age population. BMC Public Health 12, 236. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-236.
Read, J, Gibson, KL, Cartwright, C (2016). Are older people prescribed antidepressants on the basis of fewer symptoms of depression, and for longer periods of time? A survey of 1825 New Zealanders. Australasian Journal of Ageing 35, 193197.
Russell, D, Peplau, LA, Ferguson, ML (1978). Developing a measure of loneliness. Journal of Personality Assessment 42, 290294.
Seedat, S, Scott, KM, Angermeyer, MC, Berglund, P, Bromet, EJ, Brugha, TS, Demyttenaere, K, De Girolamo, G, Haro, JM, Jin, R, Karam, EG (2009). Cross-national associations between gender and mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Archives of General Psychiatry 66, 785795.
Stagg, HR, Jones, J, Bickler, G, Abubakar, I (2012). Poor uptake of primary healthcare registration among recent entrants to the UK: a retrospective cohort study. BMJ Open 2, e001453. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001453.
Ware, JE, Kosinski, M, Keller, SD (1996). A 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey: construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity. Medical Care 34, 220233.
Wig, N, Suckman, M, Routledge, R, Srinvasa Murthy, R, Ladrido-Ignacio, L, Ibrahim, H, Harding, T (1980). Community reaction to mental disorders: a key informant study in three developing countries. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia 61, 111126.
Williams, LM, Debattista, C, Duchemin, AM, Schatzberg, AF, Nemeroff, CB (2016). Childhood trauma predicts antidepressant response in adults with major depression: data from the randomized international study to predict optimized treatment for depression. Translational Psychiatry 6, 799.
World Health Organization (1993). The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria for Research. World Health Organisation: Geneva.
Zeiss, AM, Lewinsohn, PM, Rohde, P, Seeley, JR (1996). Relationship of physical disease and functional impairment to depression in older people. Psychology and Ageing 11, 572581.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
  • ISSN: 0790-9667
  • EISSN: 2051-6967
  • URL: /core/journals/irish-journal-of-psychological-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 87
Total number of PDF views: 16 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 104 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 24th May 2018 - 18th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.