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1948 Refugees: Proceedings of an international workshop, Hebrew University of Jerusalem Faculty of Law, 14–15 December 2016

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1 Morris, Benny, One State, Two States: Resolving the Israel/Palestine Conflict (Yale University Press 2010) 35.

2 Morris, Benny, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugees Problem 1947–1949 (Am Oved 1991) 47 (in Hebrew).

3 League of Nations, Report of the Palestine Royal Commission 1937 (Peel Commission) 389.

4 Morris (n 2) 328.

5 Morris (n 1) 34.

6 Morris (n 2) 195.

7 ibid 392.

8 ibid 105–07.

9 Yazbak, Mahmoud, ‘The Nakba and the Palestinian Silence’ in Adwan, Sami and others, Zoom In. Palestinian Refugees of 1948, Remembrances (Republic of Letters 2011) 160.

10 Absentee Property Law, 1950 (Israel), ss 1 and 4.

11 UNGA Res 194(III), Palestine – Progress Report of the United Nations Mediator (11 December 1948), UN Doc A/RES/194(III), para 11.

12 Mahmoud Yazbak and Menachem Klein, ‘Aylut and Ma'lul: A Tale of Two Palestinian Villages Before and After the 1948 Nakba and the Birth of Israel’ in Adwan and others (n 9) 138–52.

13 UNGA Res 181(II), Future Government of Palestine (29 November 1947), UN Doc A/RES/181(II).

14 The Palestinian Liberation Organization, ‘The Palestinian National Charter’, Resolutions of the Palestinian National Council, 1–17 July 1948, art 1.

15 Charter of the International Military Tribunal for Germany – Annex to the Agreement for the Prosecution and Punishment of the Major War Criminals of the European Axis (entered into force 8 August 1945) Nuremberg Trial Proceedings 1, art 6.

16 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UNGA Res 217A(III), 10 December 1948, UN Doc A/810 (1948), art 13(2).

17 Geneva Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (entered into force 21 October 1950) 75 UNTS 287 (GC IV), art 49.

18 Statement of Apology to Former Students of Indian Residential Schools, Document on behalf of the Government of Canada, 11 June 2008,

19 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (entered into force 22 April 1954) 189 UNTS 150 (Refugee Convention).

20 See generally Goodwin-Gill, Guy S and McAdam, Jane, The Refugee in International Law (3rd edn, Oxford University Press 2007) 149–61, 436–38, 458–61; Takkenberg, Lex, The Status of Palestinian Refugees in International Law (Clarendon Press 1998).

21 Case C-31/09 Bolbol v Bevandorlasi es Allampolgarsagi Hivatal [2010] ECR I-5572; Case C-364/11 El Kott v Bevandorlasi es Allampolgarsagi Hivatal, Judgment, 19 December 2012; Said (Article 1D: Interpretation) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2012] UKUT 413 (Immigration and Asylum Chamber); AD (Palestine) [2015] NZIPT 800693–695; Office of the UNHCR, Note on the Applicability of Article 1D of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees to Palestinian Refugees, 2 October 2002,; Office of the UNHCR, Note on the Interpretation of Article 1E of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, 1 March 2009,; Office of the UNHCR, Note on the UNHCR's Interpretation of Article 1D of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and Article 12(1)(a) of the EU Qualification Directive in the Context of Palestinian Refugees Seeking International Protection, 1 May 2013,; Office of the UNHCR, Call for Comments on: Applicability of Article 1D of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees to Palestinian Refugees,

22 Res 194 (n 11).

23 UNGA Res 2252 (ES-V), Humanitarian Assistance (4 July 1967), UN Doc A/RES/2252 (ES-V).

24 Their descendants through the male line are uniquely regarded as ‘refugees’ despite not having fled from a conflict, and thus not meeting the general definition of refugee.

25 The Comprehensive Settlement of the Cyprus Problem, United Nations Proposal, 31 March 2004 (Annan Plan).

26 Kent, Andrew, ‘Evaluating the Palestinians' Claimed Right of Return’ (2012) 34 University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law 149, 231.

27 GC IV (n 17) art 49(6).

28 Amer, Ramses, ‘The Ethnic Vietnamese in Cambodia: A Minority at Risk’ (1994) 16 Contemporary Southeast Asia 210, 216–18.

29 M Giovani Merli, ‘Estimation of International Migration for Vietnam, 1979–1989’, Seattle Population Research Center, Working Paper No 97-04 (1997) 6–9.

30 Erlanger, Steven, ‘In Fear, Settlers from Vietnam Leave Cambodia’, The New York Times, 23 September 1989 ; Haas, Michael, Genocide By Proxy: Cambodian Pawn on a Superpower Chessboard (Praeger 1991) 200, 222 (noting that other countries involved in the peace process rejected Cambodian demands that it should include ‘just solution’ to the issue of ‘foreign settlers’).

31 Ratner, Steven R, ‘The Cambodia Settlement Agreements’ (1993) 87 American Journal of International Law 1, 20 n 119 (‘The applicability of art. 49(6) to ethnic Vietnamese who had lived for many years in Cambodia is not clear from either the text or authoritative commentary’); GC IV (n 17).

32 Adil Baguirov, ‘Outside Witness Testimony for FY2014: Written Statement for the Record’, US House of Representatives Committee of Appropriation, 1 March 2013,

33 ‘Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) in Nagorno Karabakh’, Office of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic, May 2006,

34 ‘Syria Armenians Move to Nagorno-Karabakh: Azerbaijan’, Hurriyet Daily News, 2 October 2013,

35 See, eg, ‘EU Local Statement on the Secretary General's 15th Consolidated Report on the Conflict in Georgia’, 19 April 2017,

36 Ellen Berry, ‘Abkhazia Lures Its Expatriates, Welcoming Them One by One’, The New York Times, 7 May 2009.

37 ‘Living in Limbo: Rights of Ethnic Georgian Returnees to the Gali District of Abkhazia’, Human Rights Watch, 15 July 2011, (noting that the occupation policies ‘could force large numbers of Abkhazia's ethnic Georgians to leave their homes forever’). The extent to which such policies have succeeded is unclear because of the lack of reliable population figures for Abkhazia as a whole, and the Georgian minority in particular: ibid 22. See also ‘Human Rights in the Occupied Territories of Georgia’, Delegation of Georgia to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, RC.DEL/186/10, 18 October 2010, 3–4.

38 As part of the government budget, the settlement programme is financed primarily by Russia: ‘The State Repatriation Committee Holds a Meeting on the Issue of Repatriation from Syria’, 4 May 2013,

39 Anaid Gogoryan, ‘Abkhazia Looks to Turkey for Fresh Blood’, Institute of War and Peace Reporting, 12 November 2010,

40 During recent policy discussions regarding preference between construction and buying out of existing realty for the repatriating ethnic Abkhaz, the head of the Abkhaz State Committee for Repatriation stated that the planned 2018 budget of his organisation stands at 158 million rubles: Badrak Avidzba, ‘Kvarchia about Buying Accommodations for the Repatriates “Real Property Will Not Become More Expensive”', 18 December 2017, Sputnik Kavkaza,

41 ‘Between 1993 and 2013 Republic of Abkhazia State Committee for Repatriation Registered 7,365 People', Apsnypress Abkhaz Republik State Press Agency, 6 August 2013,

42 ‘145 Repatriants from the Syrian Arab Republic are Settled into the Hotel “Aytar” in Sukhum’, Abkhaz World, 20 April 2013,

43 Paul Rimple, ‘Syrian Refugees Grapple with Adapting to Life in Abkhazia’,, 26 March 2014,; The Voice of Russia, ‘Abkhazia: Welcoming Refugees from Syria, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, 1 May 2013,

44 Res 181(II) (n 13).

45 Refugee Convention (n 19).

46 Res 194(III) (n 11).

47 UNSC Res 237 (14 June 1967), UN Doc S/RES/237; UNSC Res 242 (22 November 1967), UN Doc S/RES/242.

48 UNSC Res 338 (22 October 1973), UN Doc S/RES/338.

49 Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Agreements, 13 October 1993, 32 ILM 1525 (1993) (Oslo Accord I); Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, 28 September 1995, 36 ILM 551 (1995) (Oslo Accord II).

50 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (entered into force 23 March 1976) 999 UNTS 171 (ICCPR).

51 Refugee Convention (n 19).

52 UNGA Res 428(V) (14 December 1950), UN Doc S/RES/428.

53 Convention between Greece and Bulgaria respecting Reciprocal Emigration (27 November 1919) 1 LNTS 67; Convention concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations (1 May 1923).

54 Peel Commission (n 3) 390.

55 General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (14 December 1995) Annex 7 (Dayton Agreement), art 1.

56 Annan Plan (n 25).

57 ECtHR, Demopoulos v Turkey, App no 46113/99, 1 March 2010, paras 84–85.

58 ibid para 116.

59 Abby Stoddard, Adele Harmer and Katherine Haver, ‘Safety and Security for National Humanitarian Workers – Annex 1: To Stay and Deliver’, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Policy Development and Studies Branch, 2011.

60 UNGA Res 302(IV), Assistance to Palestine Refugees (8 December 1949), UN Doc A/RES/302(IV).

61 UNRWA, ‘The United Nations and Palestinians Refugees’, 1 January 2007, 5.

62 Proposals for the Continuation of United Nations Assistance to Palestine Refugees (15 June 1959), UN Doc A/4121, Pt II, para 4.

63 Charter of the United Nations (entered into force 24 October 1945) 1 UNTS XVI; Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations (entered into force 13 February 1946) 1 UNTS 15.

64 n 60.

65 Exchange of Letters constituting a Provisional Agreement between the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East and Israel concerning Assistance to Palestine Refugees (entered into force 14 June 1967) 620 UNTS 183.

66 See also Schwartz, Adi, ‘A Tragedy Shrouded in Silence: The Destruction of the Arab World's Jewry’ (2011) 45 Azure 47, 4849 .

67 UN General Assembly, Ad Hoc Committee on the Palestinian Question, Summary Records of Meeting, 11 November 1947, UN Doc A/AC.14/32, 185, quoted in Ya'akov Meron, ‘The Expulsion of the Jews from the Arab Countries: The Palestinians’ Attitude Towards It and their Claims’ in Malka Hillel Shulewitz (ed), The Forgotten Millions: The Modern Jewish Exodus from Arab Lands (Continuum 1999) 83, 84.

68 UN General Assembly, Second Session, Official Records, Verbatim Record of the Plenary Meeting, Vol. II, 110th–128th meetings, 16 September–29 November 1947, 1391, quoted in Meron, Ya'akov, ‘Why Jews Fled the Arab Countries?’ (1995) 2 Middle East Quarterly 47.

69 Meir-Glitzenstein, Esther, ‘The Riddle of the Mass Emigration from Iraq: Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences’ (1997) 71 Pe'amim 25, 2628 (in Hebrew).

70 Geneva Accord: A Model Israeli-Palestinian Peace Agreement, Draft Permanent Status Agreement, 12 October 2003,

71 The National Committee for the Heads of the Arab Local Authorities in Israel, ‘The Future Vision of the Palestinian Arabs in Israel’, 2006,

72 UNGA Res 67/19, Status of Palestine in the United Nations (4 December 2012), UN Doc A/RES/67/19.

73 Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov, ‘Justice and Fairness as Barriers to the Resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict’ in Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov, Barriers to Peace in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies 2010) 178.

74 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Rule-of-Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: National Consultations on Transitional Justice by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2009,

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