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9Yazbak, Mahmoud, ‘The Nakba and the Palestinian Silence’ in Adwan, Sami and others, Zoom In. Palestinian Refugees of 1948, Remembrances (Republic of Letters 2011) 160.
10 Absentee Property Law, 1950 (Israel), ss 1 and 4.
11 UNGA Res 194(III), Palestine – Progress Report of the United Nations Mediator (11 December 1948), UN Doc A/RES/194(III), para 11.
12 Mahmoud Yazbak and Menachem Klein, ‘Aylut and Ma'lul: A Tale of Two Palestinian Villages Before and After the 1948 Nakba and the Birth of Israel’ in Adwan and others (n 9) 138–52.
13 UNGA Res 181(II), Future Government of Palestine (29 November 1947), UN Doc A/RES/181(II).
14 The Palestinian Liberation Organization, ‘The Palestinian National Charter’, Resolutions of the Palestinian National Council, 1–17 July 1948, art 1.
15 Charter of the International Military Tribunal for Germany – Annex to the Agreement for the Prosecution and Punishment of the Major War Criminals of the European Axis (entered into force 8 August 1945) Nuremberg Trial Proceedings 1, art 6.
16 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UNGA Res 217A(III), 10 December 1948, UN Doc A/810 (1948), art 13(2).
17 Geneva Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (entered into force 21 October 1950) 75 UNTS 287 (GC IV), art 49.
19 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (entered into force 22 April 1954) 189 UNTS 150 (Refugee Convention).
20 See generally Goodwin-Gill, Guy S and McAdam, Jane, The Refugee in International Law (3rd edn, Oxford University Press2007) 149–61, 436–38, 458–61; Takkenberg, Lex, The Status of Palestinian Refugees in International Law (Clarendon Press1998).
23 UNGA Res 2252 (ES-V), Humanitarian Assistance (4 July 1967), UN Doc A/RES/2252 (ES-V).
24 Their descendants through the male line are uniquely regarded as ‘refugees’ despite not having fled from a conflict, and thus not meeting the general definition of refugee.
25 The Comprehensive Settlement of the Cyprus Problem, United Nations Proposal, 31 March 2004 (Annan Plan).
26Kent, Andrew, ‘Evaluating the Palestinians' Claimed Right of Return’ (2012) 34University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law 149, 231.
27 GC IV (n 17) art 49(6).
28Amer, Ramses, ‘The Ethnic Vietnamese in Cambodia: A Minority at Risk’ (1994) 16Contemporary Southeast Asia 210, 216–18.
29 M Giovani Merli, ‘Estimation of International Migration for Vietnam, 1979–1989’, Seattle Population Research Center, Working Paper No 97-04 (1997) 6–9.
30Erlanger, Steven, ‘In Fear, Settlers from Vietnam Leave Cambodia’, The New York Times, 23 September 1989; Haas, Michael, Genocide By Proxy: Cambodian Pawn on a Superpower Chessboard (Praeger1991) 200, 222 (noting that other countries involved in the peace process rejected Cambodian demands that it should include ‘just solution’ to the issue of ‘foreign settlers’).
31Ratner, Steven R, ‘The Cambodia Settlement Agreements’ (1993) 87American Journal of International Law 1, 20 n 119 (‘The applicability of art. 49(6) to ethnic Vietnamese who had lived for many years in Cambodia is not clear from either the text or authoritative commentary’); GC IV (n 17).
36 Ellen Berry, ‘Abkhazia Lures Its Expatriates, Welcoming Them One by One’, The New York Times, 7 May 2009.
37 ‘Living in Limbo: Rights of Ethnic Georgian Returnees to the Gali District of Abkhazia’, Human Rights Watch, 15 July 2011, https://www.hrw.org/report/2011/07/15/living-limbo/rights-ethnic-georgians-returnees-gali-district-abkhazia (noting that the occupation policies ‘could force large numbers of Abkhazia's ethnic Georgians to leave their homes forever’). The extent to which such policies have succeeded is unclear because of the lack of reliable population figures for Abkhazia as a whole, and the Georgian minority in particular: ibid 22. See also ‘Human Rights in the Occupied Territories of Georgia’, Delegation of Georgia to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, RC.DEL/186/10, 18 October 2010, 3–4.
38 As part of the government budget, the settlement programme is financed primarily by Russia: ‘The State Repatriation Committee Holds a Meeting on the Issue of Repatriation from Syria’, 4 May 2013, http://old.mfaapsny.org/en/information/?ID=1021.
47 UNSC Res 237 (14 June 1967), UN Doc S/RES/237; UNSC Res 242 (22 November 1967), UN Doc S/RES/242.
48 UNSC Res 338 (22 October 1973), UN Doc S/RES/338.
49 Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Agreements, 13 October 1993, 32 ILM 1525 (1993) (Oslo Accord I); Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, 28 September 1995, 36 ILM 551 (1995) (Oslo Accord II).
50 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (entered into force 23 March 1976) 999 UNTS 171 (ICCPR).
51 Refugee Convention (n 19).
52 UNGA Res 428(V) (14 December 1950), UN Doc S/RES/428.
53 Convention between Greece and Bulgaria respecting Reciprocal Emigration (27 November 1919) 1 LNTS 67; Convention concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations (1 May 1923).
54 Peel Commission (n 3) 390.
55 General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (14 December 1995) Annex 7 (Dayton Agreement), art 1.
56 Annan Plan (n 25).
57 ECtHR, Demopoulos v Turkey, App no 46113/99, 1 March 2010, paras 84–85.
59 Abby Stoddard, Adele Harmer and Katherine Haver, ‘Safety and Security for National Humanitarian Workers – Annex 1: To Stay and Deliver’, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Policy Development and Studies Branch, 2011.
60 UNGA Res 302(IV), Assistance to Palestine Refugees (8 December 1949), UN Doc A/RES/302(IV).
61 UNRWA, ‘The United Nations and Palestinians Refugees’, 1 January 2007, 5.
62 Proposals for the Continuation of United Nations Assistance to Palestine Refugees (15 June 1959), UN Doc A/4121, Pt II, para 4.
63 Charter of the United Nations (entered into force 24 October 1945) 1 UNTS XVI; Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations (entered into force 13 February 1946) 1 UNTS 15.
64 n 60.
65 Exchange of Letters constituting a Provisional Agreement between the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East and Israel concerning Assistance to Palestine Refugees (entered into force 14 June 1967) 620 UNTS 183.
66 See also Schwartz, Adi, ‘A Tragedy Shrouded in Silence: The Destruction of the Arab World's Jewry’ (2011) 45Azure 47, 48–49.
67 UN General Assembly, Ad Hoc Committee on the Palestinian Question, Summary Records of Meeting, 11 November 1947, UN Doc A/AC.14/32, 185, quoted in Ya'akov Meron, ‘The Expulsion of the Jews from the Arab Countries: The Palestinians’ Attitude Towards It and their Claims’ in Malka Hillel Shulewitz (ed), The Forgotten Millions: The Modern Jewish Exodus from Arab Lands (Continuum 1999) 83, 84.
68 UN General Assembly, Second Session, Official Records, Verbatim Record of the Plenary Meeting, Vol. II, 110th–128th meetings, 16 September–29 November 1947, 1391, quoted in Meron, Ya'akov, ‘Why Jews Fled the Arab Countries?’ (1995) 2Middle East Quarterly 47.
69Meir-Glitzenstein, Esther, ‘The Riddle of the Mass Emigration from Iraq: Causes, Circumstances, and Consequences’ (1997) 71Pe'amim 25, 26–28 (in Hebrew).
72 UNGA Res 67/19, Status of Palestine in the United Nations (4 December 2012), UN Doc A/RES/67/19.
73Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov, ‘Justice and Fairness as Barriers to the Resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict’ in Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov, Barriers to Peace in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies2010) 178.