Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-cjp7w Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-24T16:54:22.288Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Characterization of tetraploid wheat landraces for cold tolerance and agronomic traits under rainfed conditions of Iran

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 July 2014

Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), P O Box 67145-1164, Kermanshah, Iran
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Rabat, Morocco
Center of Agricultural Research and Natural Resources, Kurdistan, Iran
Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), Maragheh, Iran
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Email:


Abiotic stresses such as cold and drought are major limiting factors of durum wheat production in the highlands of Iran. A total of 641 tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) accessions, selected from wheat collections conserved at ICARDA gene-bank, were evaluated under rainfed conditions at three highland research stations in cold and moderately cold areas of Iran. The main objectives were to (i) compare the different tetraploid wheats for cold tolerance and agronomic performance in relation to their growth habit (spring, facultative and winter) and (ii) examine the potential of accessions to combine cold and drought tolerance with high yield and good agronomic traits, for their further use in durum wheat breeding. Plant height, thousand-kernel weight and grain yield were the traits that best differentiated the accessions. The winter types had better agronomic performance, higher chlorophyll content (SPAD) and cold tolerance, compared to facultative and spring types. Most of the cold-tolerant accessions belonged to T. turgidum subsp. durum and T. turgidum subsp. carthalicum. Some of the accessions combined high yield with the level of cold and drought tolerance that is needed for the development of cultivars adapted to the highlands of Iran. The results indicated that related species could be used to improve winter hardness and cold tolerance in durum wheat and selection for earliness, high chlorophyll content and grain yield may lead to better cold tolerance and adaptation to the highland areas of Iran.

Crops and Soils Research Papers
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Barashkova, E. A. (1981). Role of the D genome in increasing the frost resistance of winter wheat. Referativnyi Zhurnal 2, 65124.Google Scholar
Barashkova, E. A. & Vavilov, N. (1991). Physiological-genetic aspects of frost resistance in winter wheat. Relationship of frost hardiness with genome composition in wheat. In Proceedings of the International Symposium: Wheat Breeding - Prospects and Future Approaches (Eds Panayotov, I. & Pavlova, S.), pp. 379384. Albena, Bulgaria: Institute for Wheat and Sunflower.Google Scholar
Barashkova, E. A., Filatenko, A. A. & Buren, I. V. (1990). Frost resistance of new forms of wheat species differing in genome composition [Russian]. Nauchno-tekhnicheskii Byulleten'Vsesoyuznogo Ordena Lenina i Ordena Druzhby Narodov Nauchno-issledovatel'skogo Instituta Rastenievodstva Imeni N.I. Vavilova 200, 36.Google Scholar
Bari, A., Street, K., Mackay, M., Endresen, D. T. F., De Pauw, E. & Amri, A. (2012). Focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) detects wheat stem rust resistance linked to environmental variables. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59, 14651481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
da Cruz, R. P., Sperotto, R. A., Cargnelutti, D., Adamski, J. M., de Freitas Terra, T. & Fett, J. P. (2013). Avoiding damage and achieving cold tolerance in rice plants. Food and Energy Security 2, 96119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dodig, D., Zorić, M., Kandić, V., Perović, D. & Šurlan-Momirović, G. (2012). Comparison of responses to drought stress of 100 wheat accessions and landraces to identify opportunities for improving wheat drought resistance. Plant Breeding 131, 369379.Google Scholar
Ellis, R. P., Forster, B. P., Robinson, D., Handley, L. L., Gordon, D. C., Russell, J. R. & Powell, W. (2000) Wild barley: a source of genes for crop improvement in the 21st century? Journal of Experimental Botany 51, 917.Google Scholar
Fracheboud, Y., Haldimann, P., Leipner, J. & Stamp, P. (1999). Chlorophyll fluorescence as a selection tool for cold tolerance of photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 50, 15331540.Google Scholar
Jaradat, A. A. (1991). Levels of phenotypic variation for developmental traits in landrace genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. turgidum L. conv. durum (Desf.) MK.) from Jordan. Euphytica 51, 265271.Google Scholar
Kolar, S. C., Hayes, P. M., Chen, T. H. H. & Linderman, R. G. (1991). Genotypic variation for cold tolerance in winter and facultative barley. Crop Science 31, 11491152.Google Scholar
Kosner, J. & Pankova, K. (2002). The effect of chromosome 3B genes of Ceska Presivka on vernalization response, photoperiod sensitivity and earliness of wheat. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 38, 4149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, G. Q., Xie, Z. J., Yao, X. Q. & Chen, X. H. (2010). Studies on the relationship between chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and cold tolerance of cauliflower. Acta Horticulturae Sinica 37, 20012006.Google Scholar
Limin, A. E. & Fowler, D. B. (1981). Cold hardiness of some wild relatives of hexaploid wheat. Canadian Journal of Botany 59, 572573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Limin, A. E. & Fowler, D. B. (1985). Cold hardiness in Triticum and Aegilops species. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 65, 7177.Google Scholar
Longin, C. F. H., Sieber, A. N. & Reif, J. C. (2013). Combining frost tolerance, high grain yield and good pasta quality in durum wheat. Plant Breeding 132, 353358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loss, S. P. & Siddique, K. H. M. (1994). Morphological and physiological traits associated with wheat yield increases in Mediterranean environments. Advances in Agronomy 52, 229276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marengo, J. A. & Camargo, C. C. (2008). Surface air temperature trends in Southern Brazil for 1960–2002. International Journal of Climatology 28, 893904.Google Scholar
Moragues, M., Garcıa del Moral, L. F., Moralejo, M. & Royo, C. (2006). Yield formation strategies of durum wheat landraces with distinct pattern of dispersal within the Mediterranean basin I: yield components. Field Crops Research 95, 194205.Google Scholar
Nezami, A., Soleimani, M. R., Ziaee, M., Ghodsi, M. & Bannayan Aval, M. (2010). Evaluation of freezing tolerance of hexaploid triticale genotypes under controlled conditions. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 2, 114120.Google Scholar
Olien, C. R. (1964). Freezing process in the crown of ‘Hudson’ barley, Hordeum vulgare (L., emend. Lam.) Hudson. Crop Science 4, 9195.Google Scholar
Rapacz, M. & Woźniczka, A. (2009). A selection tool for freezing tolerance in common wheat using the fast chlorophyll a fluorescence transient. Plant Breeding 128, 227234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, M. P., Ortiz-Monasterio, J. I. & McNab, A. (2001). Application of Physiology in Wheat Breeding. Mexico, D.F.: CIMMYT.Google Scholar
Rizza, F., Pagani, D., Stanca, A. M. & Cattivelli, L. (2001). Use of chlorophyll fluorescence to evaluate the cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of winter and spring oats. Plant Breeding 120, 389396.Google Scholar
Roberts, D. W. A. (1990). Identification of loci on chromosome 5A of wheat involved in control of cold hardiness, vernalization, leaf length, rosette growth habit, and height of hardened plants. Genome 33, 247259.Google Scholar
Rodríguez, V. M., Velasco, P., Garrido, J. L., Revilla, P., Ordás, A. & Butrón, A. (2013). Genetic regulation of cold-induced albinism in the maize inbred line A661. Journal of Experimental Botany 64, 36573667.Google Scholar
Rusmini, B. (1959). The breeding of Triticum durum by means of interspecies crosses. Wheat Information Service 9–10, 5.Google Scholar
Sanghera, G. S., Wani, S. H., Hussain, W. & Singh, N. B. (2011). Engineering cold stress tolerance in crop plants. Current Genomics 12, 3043.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sãulescu, N. N. & Braun, H. J. (2001). Cold tolerance. In Application of Physiology in Wheat Breeding (Eds Reynolds, M. P., Ortiz-Monasterio, J. I. & McNab, A.), pp. 111123. Mexico, DF: CIMMYT.Google Scholar
Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication. The Bell System Technology Journal 27, 379423.Google Scholar
Tewari, A. K. & Tripathy, B. C. (1998). Temperature-stress-induced impairment of chlorophyll biosynthetic reactions in cucumber and wheat. Plant Physiology 117, 851858.Google Scholar
van Slageren, M. W. (1994) Wild Wheats: A Monograph of Aegilops L. and Amblyopyrum (Jaub. & Spach) Eig (Poaceae). Wageningen, the Netherlands: Wageningen Agricultural University Papers 94–7.Google Scholar
Yan, W. (2001). GGEbiplot: a Windows application for graphical analysis of multienvironment trial data and other types of two-way data. Agronomy Journal 93, 11111118.Google Scholar
Yan, W. & Rajcan, I. (2002). Biplot analysis of test sites and trait relations of soybean in Ontario. Crop Science 42, 1120.Google Scholar
Xin, Z. & Browse, J. (2000). Cold comfort farm: the acclimation of plants to freezing temperatures. Plant, Cell and Environment 23, 893902.Google Scholar
Zadoks, J. C., Chang, T. T. & Onzak, C. F. (1974). A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research 14, 415421.Google Scholar
Zencirci, N. & Karagoz, A. (2005). Effect of developmental stages length on yield and some quality traits of Turkish durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. convar. durum (Desf.) Mackey) landraces: influence of developmental stages length on yield and quality of durum wheat. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52, 765774.Google Scholar