Hostname: page-component-594f858ff7-hd6rl Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-06-07T07:41:59.971Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": false, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "corePageComponentUseShareaholicInsteadOfAddThis": true, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Examining the potential for climate change mitigation from zero tillage

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 March 2015

School of Biosciences, Sutton Bonington Campus, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK
School of Biosciences, Sutton Bonington Campus, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK
School of Biosciences, Sutton Bonington Campus, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK
School of Biosciences, Sutton Bonington Campus, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Email:


The benefits of reduced and zero-tillage systems have been presented as reducing runoff, enhancing water retention and preventing soil erosion. There is also general agreement that the practice can conserve and enhance soil organic carbon (C) levels to some extent. However, their applicability in mitigating climate change has been debated extensively, especially when the whole profile of C in the soil is considered, along with a reported risk of enhanced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The current paper presents a meta-analysis of existing literature to ascertain the climate change mitigation opportunities offered by minimizing tillage operations. Research suggests zero tillage is effective in sequestering C in both soil surface and sub-soil layers in tropical and temperate conditions. The C sequestration rate in tropical soils can be about five times higher than in temperate soils. In tropical soils, C accumulation is generally correlated with the duration of tillage. Reduced N2O emissions under long-term zero tillage have been reported in the literature but significant variability exists in the N2O flux information. Long-term, location-specific studies are needed urgently to determine the precise role of zero tillage in driving N2O fluxes. Considering the wide variety of crops utilized in zero-tillage studies, for example maize, barley, soybean and winter wheat, only soybean has been reported to show an increase in yield with zero tillage (7·7% over 10 years). In several cases yield reductions have been recorded e.g. c. 1–8% over 10 years under winter wheat and barley, respectively, suggesting zero tillage does not bring appreciable changes in yield but that the difference between the two approaches may be small. A key question that remains to be answered is: are any potential reductions in yield acceptable in the quest to mitigate climate change, given the importance of global food security?

Crops and Soils Review
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Abreu, S. L., Godsey, C. B., Edwards, J. T. & Warren, J. G. (2011). Assessing carbon and nitrogen stocks of no-till systems in Oklahoma. Soil and Tillage Research 117, 2833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al-Kaisi, M. M., Yin, X. & Licht, M. A. (2005). Soil carbon and nitrogen changes as affected by tillage system and crop biomass in a corn–soybean rotation. Applied Soil Ecology 30, 174191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alvaro-Fuentes, J. & Paustian, K. (2011). Potential soil carbon sequestration in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem under climate change: quantifying management and climate effects. Plant and Soil 338, 261272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Álvaro-Fuentes, J., Cantero-Martínez, C., López, M. V. & Arrúe, J. L. (2007). Soil carbon dioxide fluxes following tillage in semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystems. Soil and Tillage Research 96, 331341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Álvaro-Fuentes, J., López, M. V., Arrúe, J. L., Moret, D. & Paustian, K. (2009). Tillage and cropping effects on soil organic carbon in Mediterranean semiarid agroecosystems: testing the century model. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 134, 211217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andruschkewitsch, R., Koch, H.-J. & Ludwig, B. (2014). Effect of long-term tillage treatments on the temporal dynamics of water-stable aggregates and on macro-aggregate turnover at three German sites. Geoderma 217–218, 5764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Angers, D. A. & Eriksen-Hamel, N. S. (2008). Full-inversion tillage and organic carbon distribution in soil profiles: a meta-analysis. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72, 13701374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Angers, D. A., Recous, S. & Aita, C. (1997). Fate of carbon and nitrogen in water-stable aggregates during decomposition of 13C15N-labelled wheat straw in situ . European Journal of Soil Science 48, 295300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anken, T., Weisskopf, P., Zihlmann, U., Forrer, H., Jansa, J. & Perhacova, K. (2004). Long-term tillage system effects under moist cool conditions in Switzerland. Soil and Tillage Research 78, 171183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arshad, M. A., Gill, K. S. & Coy, G. R. (1994). Wheat yield and weed population as influenced by three tillage systems on a clay soil in temperate continental climate. Soil and Tillage Research 28, 227238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arshad, M. A., Franzluebbers, A. J. & Azooz, R. H. (1999). Components of surface soil structure under conventional and no-tillage in northwestern Canada. Soil and Tillage Research 53, 4147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aulakh, M. S., Manchanda, J. S., Garg, A. K., Kumar, S., Dercon, G. & Nguyen, M.-L. (2012). Crop production and nutrient use efficiency of conservation agriculture for soybean–wheat rotation in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Northwestern India. Soil and Tillage Research 120, 5060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bachmann, J., Guggenberger, G., Baumgartl, T., Ellerbrock, R. H., Urbanek, E., Goebel, M.-O., Kaiser, K., Horn, R. & Fischer, W. R. (2008). Physical carbon-sequestration mechanisms under special consideration of soil wettability. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 171, 1426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, J. M., Ochsner, T. E., Venterea, R. T. & Griffis, T. J. (2007). Tillage and soil carbon sequestration – what do we really know? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 118, 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ball, B. C. (2013). Soil structure and greenhouse gas emissions: a synthesis of 20 years of experimentation. European Journal of Soil Science 64, 357373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ball, B. C., Scott, A. & Parker, J. P. (1999). Field N2O, CO2 and CH4 fluxes in relation to tillage, compaction and soil quality in Scotland. Soil and Tillage Research 53, 2939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bauer, P. J., Frederick, J. R. & Busscher, W. J. (2002). Tillage effect on nutrient stratification in narrow- and wide-row cropping systems. Soil and Tillage Research 66, 175182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bauer, P. J., Frederick, J. R., Novak, J. M. & Hunt, P. G. (2006). Soil CO2 flux from a norfolk loamy sand after 25 years of conventional and conservation tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 90, 205211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bayer, C., Mielniczuk, J., Amado, T. J. C., Martin-Neto, L. & Fernandes, S. V. (2000). Organic matter storage in a sandy clay loam Acrisol affected by tillage and cropping systems in southern Brazil. Soil and Tillage Research 54, 101109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beare, M. H., Gregorich, E. G. & St-Georges, P. (2009). Compaction effects on CO2 and N2O production during drying and rewetting of soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41, 611621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blanco-Canqui, H., Schlegel, A. J. & Heer, W. F. (2011). Soil-profile distribution of carbon and associated properties in no-till along a precipitation gradient in the central Great Plains. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 144, 107116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blevins, R. L., Cook, D., Phillips, S. H. & Phillips, R. E. (1971). Influence of no-tillage on soil moisture. Agronomy Journal 63, 593596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bronick, C. J. & Lal, R. (2005). Soil structure and management: a review. Geoderma 124, 322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buschiazzo, D. E., Panigatti, J. L. & Unger, P. W. (1998). Tillage effects on soil properties and crop production in the subhumid and semiarid Argentinean Pampas. Soil and Tillage Research 49, 105116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, C., Zentner, R. P., Selles, F., Biederbeck, V. O., McConkey, B. G., Blomert, B. & Jefferson, P. G. (2000). Quantifying short-term effects of crop rotations on soil organic carbon in southwestern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 80, 193202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cantero-Martínez, C., Angas, P. & Lampurlanés, J. (2003). Growth, yield and water productivity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) affected by tillage and N fertilization in Mediterranean semiarid, rainfed conditions of Spain. Field Crops Research 84, 341357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carter, M. R. (1994). A review of conservation tillage strategies for humid temperate regions. Soil and Tillage Research 31, 289301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carter, M. R. (2005). Long-term tillage effects on cool-season soybean in rotation with barley, soil properties and carbon and nitrogen storage for fine sandy loams in the humid climate of Atlantic Canada. Soil and Tillage Research 81, 109120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Castellanos-Navarrete, A., Rodríguez-Aragonés, C., de Goede, R. G. M., Kooistra, M. J., Sayre, K. D., Brussaard, L. & Pulleman, M. M. (2012). Earthworm activity and soil structural changes under conservation agriculture in central Mexico. Soil and Tillage Research 123, 6170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chatskikh, D. & Olesen, J. E. (2007). Soil tillage enhanced CO2 and N2O emissions from loamy sand soil under spring barley. Soil and Tillage Research 97, 518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chatskikh, D., Olesen, J. E., Hansen, E. M., Elsgaard, L. & Petersen, B. M. (2008). Effects of reduced tillage on net greenhouse gas fluxes from loamy sand soil under winter crops in Denmark. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 128, 117126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chatterjee, A. & Lal, R. (2009). On farm assessment of tillage impact on soil carbon and associated soil quality parameters. Soil and Tillage Research 104, 270277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, Y., Liu, S., Li, H., Li, X. F., Song, C. Y., Cruse, R. M. & Zhang, X. Y. (2011). Effects of conservation tillage on corn and soybean yield in the humid continental climate region of Northeast China. Soil and Tillage Research 115–116, 5661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chivenge, P. P., Murwira, H. K., Giller, K. E., Mapfumo, P. & Six, J. (2007). Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soils. Soil and Tillage Research 94, 328337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clapp, C. E., Allmaras, R. R., Layese, M. F., Linden, D. R. & Dowdy, R. H. (2000). Soil organic carbon and 13C abundance as related to tillage, crop residue, and nitrogen fertilization under continuous corn management in Minnesota. Soil and Tillage Research 55, 127142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conant, R. T., Easter, M., Paustian, K., Swan, A. & Williams, S. (2007). Impacts of periodic tillage on soil C stocks: a synthesis. Soil and Tillage Research 95, 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curtin, D., Wang, H., Selles, F., McConkey, B. G. & Campbell, C. A. (2000). Tillage effects on carbon fluxes in continuous wheat and fallow–wheat rotations. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64, 20802086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalal, R. C., Allen, D. E., Wang, W. J., Reeves, S. & Gibson, I. (2011). Organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks in a Vertisol following 40 years of no-tillage, crop residue retention and nitrogen fertilisation. Soil and Tillage Research 112, 133139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dam, R. F., Mehdi, B. B., Burgess, M. S. E., Madramootoo, C. A., Mehuys, G. R. & Callum, I. R. (2005). Soil bulk density and crop yield under eleven consecutive years of corn with different tillage and residue practices in a sandy loam soil in central Canada. Soil and Tillage Research 84, 4153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deen, W. & Kataki, P. K. (2003). Carbon sequestration in a long-term conventional versus conservation tillage experiment. Soil and Tillage Research 74, 143150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Del Galdo, I., Six, J., Peressotti, A. & Cotrufo, M. F. (2003). Assessing the impact of land-use change on soil C sequestration in agricultural soils by means of organic matter fractionation and stable C isotopes. Global Change Biology 9, 12041213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dendooven, L., Patiño-Zúñiga, L., Verhulst, N., Luna-Guido, M., Marsch, R. & Govaerts, B. (2012). Global warming potential of agricultural systems with contrasting tillage and residue management in the central highlands of Mexico. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 152, 5058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Denef, K., Zotarelli, L., Boddey, R. M. & Six, J. (2007). Microaggregate-associated carbon as a diagnostic fraction for management-induced changes in soil organic carbon in two Oxisols. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39, 11651172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Rouw, A., Huon, S., Soulileuth, B., Jouquet, P., Pierret, A., Ribolzi, O., Valentin, C., Bourdon, E. & Chantharath, B. (2010). Possibilities of carbon and nitrogen sequestration under conventional tillage and no-till cover crop farming (Mekong valley, Laos). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 136, 148161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Derpsch, R. & Friedrich, T. (2009). Global overview of conservation agriculture adoption. In Innovations for Improving Efficiency, Equity and Environment: Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture (Ed. ICAR), pp. 429–438. New Delhi, India: ICAR.Google Scholar
Derpsch, R., Friedrich, T., Kassam, A. & Li, H. (2010). Current status of adoption of no-till farming in the world and some of its main benefits. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 3(1), 126.Google Scholar
Dolan, M. S., Clapp, C. E., Allmaras, R. R., Baker, J. M. & Molina, J. A. E. (2006). Soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a Minnesota soil as related to tillage, residue and nitrogen management. Soil and Tillage Research 89, 221231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duiker, S. W. & Lal, R. (1999). Crop residue and tillage effects on carbon sequestration in a Luvisol in central Ohio. Soil and Tillage Research 52, 7381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekeberg, E. & Riley, H. C. F. (1997). Tillage intensity effects on soil properties and crop yields in a long-term trial on morainic loam soil in southeast Norway. Soil and Tillage Research 42, 277293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellert, B. H. & Bettany, J. R. (1995). Calculation of organic matter and nutrients stored in soils under contrasting management regimes. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 75, 529538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellert, B. H. & Janzen, H. H. (1999). Short-term influence of tillage on CO2 fluxes from a semi-arid soil on the Canadian Prairies. Soil and Tillage Research 50, 2132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
El Titi, A. (2003). Soil Tillage in Agroecosystems. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.Google Scholar
Erenstein, O. & Laxmi, V. (2008). Zero tillage impacts in India's rice–wheat systems: a review. Soil and Tillage Research 100, 114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eriksen-Hamel, N. S., Speratti, A. B., Whalen, J. K., Légère, A. & Madramootoo, C. A. (2009). Earthworm populations and growth rates related to long-term crop residue and tillage management. Soil and Tillage Research 104, 311316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ernst, O. & Siri-Prieto, G. (2009). Impact of perennial pasture and tillage systems on carbon input and soil quality indicators. Soil and Tillage Research 105, 260268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
FAO (2013). AQUASTAT Database. Rome: FAO. Available from: (accessed 25 December 2013).Google Scholar
Farina, R., Seddaiu, G., Orsini, R., Steglich, E., Roggero, P. P. & Francaviglia, R. (2011). Soil carbon dynamics and crop productivity as influenced by climate change in a rainfed cereal system under contrasting tillage using EPIC. Soil and Tillage Research 112, 3646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández, R., Quiroga, A., Zorati, C. & Noellemeyer, E. (2010). Carbon contents and respiration rates of aggregate size fractions under no-till and conventional tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 109, 103109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Filipovic, D., Husnjak, S., Kosutic, S. & Gospodaric, Z. (2006). Effects of tillage systems on compaction and crop yield of Albic Luvisol in Croatia. Journal of Terramechanics 43, 177189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fischer, G., Nachtergaele, F., Prieler, S., Van Velthuizen, H., Verelst, L. & Wiberg, D. (2008). Global Agro-ecological Zones Assessment for Agriculture (GAEZ 2008). Laxenburg, Austria and Rome, Italy: IIASA and FAO.Google Scholar
Follett, R. F. (2001). Soil management concepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils. Soil and Tillage Research 61, 7792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Franchini, J. C., Debiasi, H., Balbinot Junior, A. A., Tonon, B. C., Farias, J. R. B., de Oliveira, M. C. N. & Torres, E. (2012). Evolution of crop yields in different tillage and cropping systems over two decades in southern Brazil. Field Crops Research 137, 178185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Franzluebbers, A. J. & Hons, F. M. (1996). Soil-profile distribution of primary and secondary plant-available nutrients under conventional and no tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 39, 229239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frey, S. D., Elliott, E. T. & Paustian, K. (1999). Bacterial and fungal abundance and biomass in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems along two climatic gradients. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31, 573585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuentes, M., Govaerts, B., Hidalgo, C., Etchevers, J., González-Martín, I., Hernández-Hierro, J. M., Sayre, K. D. & Dendooven, L. (2010). Organic carbon and stable 13C isotope in conservation agriculture and conventional systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42, 551557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaiser, T., Abdel-Razek, M. & Bakara, H. (2009). Modeling carbon sequestration under zero-tillage at the regional scale. II. The influence of crop rotation and soil type. Ecological Modelling 220, 33723379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gebhardt, M. R., Daniel, T. C., Schweizer, E. E. & Allmaras, R. R. (1985). Conservation tillage. Science 230, 625630.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gosai, K., Arunachalam, A. & Dutta, B. K. (2009). Influence of conservation tillage on soil physicochemical properties in a tropical rainfed agricultural system of northeast India. Soil and Tillage Research 105, 6371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grace, P. R., Antle, J., Aggarwal, P. K., Ogle, S., Paustian, K. & Basso, B. (2012). Soil carbon sequestration and associated economic costs for farming systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plain: a meta-analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 146, 137146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gruber, S., Pekrun, C., Möhring, J. & Claupein, W. (2012). Long-term yield and weed response to conservation and stubble tillage in SW Germany. Soil and Tillage Research 121, 4956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guérif, J., Richard, G., Dürr, C., Machet, J. M., Recous, S. & Roger-Estrade, J. (2001). A review of tillage effects on crop residue management, seedbed conditions and seedling establishment. Soil and Tillage Research 61, 1332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Halvorson, A. D., Black, A. L., Krupinsky, J. M., Merrill, S. D., Wienhold, B. J. & Tanaka, D. L. (2000). Spring wheat response to tillage and nitrogen fertilization in rotation with sunflower and winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 92, 136144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Halvorson, A. D., Peterson, G. A. & Reule, C. A. (2002). Tillage system and crop rotation effects on dryland crop yields and soil carbon in the Central Great Plains. Agronomy Journal 94, 14291436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
He, J., Li, H., Rasaily, R. G., Wang, Q., Cai, G., Su, Y., Qiao, X. & Liu, L. (2011). Soil properties and crop yields after 11 years of no tillage farming in wheat–maize cropping system in North China Plain. Soil and Tillage Research 113, 4854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helgason, B. L., Walley, F. L. & Germida, J. J. (2010). No-till soil management increases microbial biomass and alters community profiles in soil aggregates. Applied Soil Ecology 46, 390397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hemmat, A. & Eskandari, I. (2004). Conservation tillage practices for winter wheat–fallow farming in the temperate continental climate of northwestern Iran. Field Crops Research 89, 123133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hemmat, A. & Eskandari, I. (2006). Dryland winter wheat response to conservation tillage in a continuous cropping system in northwestern Iran. Soil and Tillage Research 86, 99109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hermle, S., Anken, T., Leifeld, J. & Weisskopf, P. (2008). The effect of the tillage system on soil organic carbon content under moist, cold-temperate conditions. Soil and Tillage Research 98, 94105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hernanz, J. L., López, R., Navarrete, L. & Sánchez-Girón, V. (2002). Long-term effects of tillage systems and rotations on soil structural stability and organic carbon stratification in semiarid central Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 66, 129141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hernanz, J. L., Sánchez-Girón, V. & Navarrete, L. (2009). Soil carbon sequestration and stratification in a cereal/leguminous crop rotation with three tillage systems in semiarid conditions. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 133, 114122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hill, R. L. (1990). Long-term conventional and no-tillage effects on selected soil physical properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal 54, 161166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hobbs, P. R. (2007). Conservation agriculture: what is it and why is it important for future sustainable food production? Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 145, 127137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, G. B., Zhang, R. Z., Li, G. D., Li, L. L., Chan, K. Y., Heenan, D. P., Chen, W., Unkovich, M. J., Robertson, M. J., Cullis, B. R. & Bellotti, W. D. (2008). Productivity and sustainability of a spring wheat-field pea rotation in a semi-arid environment under conventional and conservation tillage systems. Field Crops Research 107, 4355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hütsch, B. W. (1998). Tillage and land use effects on methane oxidation rates and their vertical profiles in soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 27, 284292.Google Scholar
IPCC (2001). Technical summary. In Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Eds Houghton, J. T., Ding, Y., Griggs, D. J., Noguer, M., van der Linden, P. J., Dai, X., Maskell, K. & Johnson, C. A.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
IPCC (2007 a). Agriculture. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Eds Metz, B., Davidson, O. R., Bosch, P. R., Dave, R. & Meyer, L. A.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
IPCC (2007 b). Summary for policy makers. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Eds Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K., Tignor, M. & Miller, H.), pp. 118. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Jantalia, C. P., Resck, D. V. S., Alves, B. J. R., Zotarelli, L., Urquiaga, S. & Boddey, R. M. (2007). Tillage effect on C stocks of a clayey Oxisol under a soybean-based crop rotation in the Brazilian Cerrado region. Soil and Tillage Research 95, 97109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jarecki, M. K., Lal, R. & James, R. (2005). Crop management effects on soil carbon sequestration on selected farmers’ fields in northeastern Ohio. Soil and Tillage Research 81, 265276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jastrow, J. D., Amonette, J. E. & Bailey, V. L. (2007). Mechanisms controlling soil carbon turnover and their potential application for enhancing carbon sequestration. Climatic Change 80, 523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jemai, I., Ben Aissa, N., Ben Guirat, S., Ben-Hammouda, M. & Gallali, T. (2012). On-farm assessment of tillage impact on the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and structural soil properties in a semiarid region in Tunisia. Journal of Environmental Management 113, 488494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kahlon, M. S., Lal, R. & Ann-Varughese, M. (2013). Twenty two years of tillage and mulching impacts on soil physical characteristics and carbon sequestration in Central Ohio. Soil and Tillage Research 126, 151158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Känkänen, H., Alakukku, L., Salo, Y. & Pitkänen, T. (2011). Growth and yield of spring cereals during transition to zero tillage on clay soils. European Journal of Agronomy 34, 3545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karunatilake, U., van Es, H. M. & Schindelbeck, R. R. (2000). Soil and maize response to plow and no-tillage after alfalfa-to-maize conversion on a clay loam soil in New York. Soil and Tillage Research 55, 3142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kasper, M., Buchan, G. D., Mentler, A. & Blum, W. E. H. (2009). Influence of soil tillage systems on aggregate stability and the distribution of C and N in different aggregate fractions. Soil and Tillage Research 105, 192199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kay, B. D. & VandenBygaart, A. J. (2002). Conservation tillage and depth stratification of porosity and soil organic matter. Soil and Tillage Research 66, 107118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kessavalou, A., Doran, J. W., Mosier, A. R. & Drijber, R. A. (1998). Greenhouse gas fluxes following tillage and wetting in a wheat–fallow cropping system. Journal of Environmental Quality 27, 11051116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kettler, T. A., Lyon, D. J., Doran, J. W., Powers, W. L. & Stroup, W. W. (2000). Soil quality assessment after weed-control tillage in a no-till wheat–fallow cropping system. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64, 339346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kimble, J. M., Lal, R. & Follet, R. F. (2001). Methods for assessing soil carbon pools. In Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon (Eds Lal, R., Kimble, J. M., Follet, R. F. & Stewart, B. A.), pp. 312. Boca Raton, FL, USA: Lewis Publishers.Google Scholar
Koga, N. & Tsuji, H. (2009). Effects of reduced tillage, crop residue management and manure application practices on crop yields and soil carbon sequestration on an Andisol in northern Japan. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 55, 546557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kong, A. Y. Y., Fonte, S. J., van Kessel, C. & Six, J. (2009). Transitioning from standard to minimum tillage: trade-offs between soil organic matter stabilization, nitrous oxide emissions, and N availability in irrigated cropping systems. Soil and Tillage Research 104, 256262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumar, V., Saharawat, Y. S., Gathala, M. K., Jat, A. S., Singh, S. K., Chaudhary, N. & Jat, M. L. (2013). Effect of different tillage and seeding methods on energy use efficiency and productivity of wheat in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Field Crops Research 142, 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kushwaha, C. P., Tripathi, S. K. & Singh, K. P. (2001). Soil organic matter and water-stable aggregates under different tillage and residue conditions in a tropical dryland agroecosystem. Applied Soil Ecology 16, 229241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kutcher, H. R. & Malhi, S. S. (2010). Residue burning and tillage effects on diseases and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and canola (Brassica napus). Soil and Tillage Research 109, 153160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lafond, G. P., Loeppky, H. & Derksen, D. A. (1992). The effects of tillage systems and crop rotations on soil water conservation, seedling establishment and crop yield. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 72, 103115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lal, R. (1997). Long-term tillage and maize monoculture effects on a tropical Alfisol in western Nigeria. II. Soil chemical properties. Soil and Tillage Research 42, 161174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lal, R. (2004 a). Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304, 16231627.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lal, R. (2004 b). Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma 123, 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lal, R. & Kimble, J. M. (1997). Conservation tillage for carbon sequestration. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 49, 243253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lal, R., Mahboubi, A. A. & Fausey, N. R. (1994). Long-term tillage and rotation effects on properties of a Central Ohio soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58, 517522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lal, R., Kimble, J. M., Follett, R. F. & Cole, C. V. (1998). The Potential of US Cropland to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.Google Scholar
Lal, R., Reicosky, D. C. & Hanson, J. D. (2007). Evolution of the plow over 10,000 years and the rationale for no-till farming. Soil and Tillage Research 93, 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lampurlanés, J., Angás, P. & Cantero-Martínez, C. (2001). Root growth, soil water content and yield of barley under different tillage systems on two soils in semiarid conditions. Field Crops Research 69, 2740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larney, F. J., Bremer, E., Janzen, H. H., Johnston, A. M. & Lindwall, C. W. (1997). Changes in total, mineralizable and light fraction soil organic matter with cropping and tillage intensities in semiarid southern Alberta, Canada. Soil and Tillage Research 42, 229240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, D., Liu, M., Cheng, Y., Wang, D., Qin, J., Jiao, J., Li, H. & Hu, F. (2011). Methane emissions from double-rice cropping system under conventional and no tillage in southeast China. Soil and Tillage Research 113, 7781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, Y., Gao, M., Wu, W., Tanveer, S. K., Wen, X. & Liao, Y. (2013). The effects of conservation tillage practices on the soil water-holding capacity of a non-irrigated apple orchard in the Loess Plateau, China. Soil and Tillage Research 130, 712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
López-Fando, C. & Pardo, M. T. (2011). Soil carbon storage and stratification under different tillage systems in a semi-arid region. Soil and Tillage Research 111, 224230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lou, Y., Xu, M., Chen, X., He, X. & Zhao, K. (2012). Stratification of soil organic C, N and C : N ratio as affected by conservation tillage in two maize fields of China. CATENA 95, 124130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luo, Z., Wang, E. & Sun, O. J. (2010). Can no-tillage stimulate carbon sequestration in agricultural soils? A meta-analysis of paired experiments. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 139, 224231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyon, D. J., Stroup, W. W. & Brown, R. E. (1998). Crop production and soil water storage in long-term winter wheat–fallow tillage experiments. Soil and Tillage Research 49, 1927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Machado, S., Petrie, S., Rhinhart, K. & Qu, A. (2007). Long-term continuous cropping in the Pacific Northwest: tillage and fertilizer effects on winter wheat, spring wheat, and spring barley production. Soil and Tillage Research 94, 473481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madari, B., Machado, P. L. O. A., Torres, E., de Andrade, A. G. & Valencia, L. I. O. (2005). No tillage and crop rotation effects on soil aggregation and organic carbon in a Rhodic Ferralsol from southern Brazil. Soil and Tillage Research 80, 185200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mangalassery, S., Sjögersten, S., Sparkes, D. L., Sturrock, C. J., Craigon, J. & Mooney, S. J. (2014). To what extent can zero tillage lead to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from temperate soils? Scientific Reports 4, 4586. doi:10.1038/srep0458.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manns, H. R., Maxwell, C. D. & Emery, R. J. N. (2007). The effect of ground cover or initial organic carbon on soil fungi, aggregation, moisture and organic carbon in one season with oat (Avena sativa) plots. Soil and Tillage Research 96, 8394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marland, G., GartenJr, C. T., Post, W. M. & West, T. O. (2004). Studies on enhancing carbon sequestration in soils. Energy 29, 16431650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McConkey, B. G., Liang, B. C., Campbell, C. A., Curtin, D., Moulin, A., Brandt, S. A. & Lafond, G. P. (2003). Crop rotation and tillage impact on carbon sequestration in Canadian prairie soils. Soil and Tillage Research 74, 8190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metay, A., Moreira, J. A. A., Bernoux, M., Boyer, T., Douzet, J.-M., Feigl, B., Feller, C., Maraux, F., Oliver, R. & Scopel, E. (2007). Storage and forms of organic carbon in a no-tillage under cover crops system on clayey Oxisol in dryland rice production (Cerrados, Brazil). Soil and Tillage Research 94, 122132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morell, F. J., Lampurlanés, J., Álvaro-Fuentes, J. & Cantero-Martínez, C. (2011). Yield and water use efficiency of barley in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem: long-term effects of tillage and N fertilization. Soil and Tillage Research 117, 7684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mrabet, R. (2000). Differential response of wheat to tillage management systems in a semiarid area of Morocco. Field Crops Research 66, 165174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mrabet, R., Ibno-Namr, K., Bessam, F. & Saber, N. (2001 a). Soil chemical quality changes and implications for fertilizer management after 11 years of no-tillage wheat production systems in semiarid Morocco. Land Degradation and Development 12, 505517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mrabet, R., Saber, N., El-Brahli, A., Lahlou, S. & Bessam, F. (2001 b). Total, particulate organic matter and structural stability of a Calcixeroll soil under different wheat rotations and tillage systems in a semiarid area of Morocco. Soil and Tillage Research 57, 225235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noguez, A. M., Escalante, A. E., Forney, L. J., Nava-Mendoza, M., Rosas, I., Souza, V. & García-Oliva, F. (2008). Soil aggregates in a tropical deciduous forest: effects on C and N dynamics, and microbial communities as determined by t-RFLPs. Biogeochemistry 89, 209220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nyborg, M., Solberg, E. D., Izaurralde, R. C., Malhi, S. S. & Molina-Ayala, M. (1995). Influence of long-term tillage, straw and N fertilizer on barley yield, plant-N uptake and soil-N balance. Soil and Tillage Research 36, 165174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oorts, K., Merckx, R., Gréhan, E., Labreuche, J. & Nicolardot, B. (2007). Determinants of annual fluxes of CO2 and N2O in long-term no-tillage and conventional tillage systems in northern France. Soil and Tillage Research 95, 133148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peigne, J., Ball, B. C., Roger-Estrade, J. & David, C. (2007). Is conservation tillage suitable for organic farming? A review. Soil Use and Management 23, 129144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petersen, S. O., Schjønning, P., Thomsen, I. K. & Christensen, B. T. (2008). Nitrous oxide evolution from structurally intact soil as influenced by tillage and soil water content. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40, 967977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petersen, S. O., Mutegi, J. K., Hansen, E. M. & Munkholm, L. J. (2011). Tillage effects on N2O emissions as influenced by a winter cover crop. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43, 15091517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pierce, F. J., Fortin, M.-C. & Staton, M. J. (1994). Periodic plowing effects on soil properties in a no-till farming system. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58, 17821787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powlson, D. S. & Jenkinson, D. S. (1981). A comparison of the organic matter, biomass, adenosine triphosphate and mineralizable nitrogen contents of ploughed and direct-drilled soils. The Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 97, 713721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Puget, P. & Lal, R. (2005). Soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a Mollisol in central Ohio as affected by tillage and land use. Soil and Tillage Research 80, 201213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Regina, K. & Alakukku, L. (2010). Greenhouse gas fluxes in varying soils types under conventional and no-tillage practices. Soil and Tillage Research 109, 144152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rillig, M. C., Wright, S. F., Nichols, K. A., Schmidt, W. F. & Torn, M. S. (2001). Large contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to soil carbon pools in tropical forest soils. Plant and Soil 233, 167177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robertson, G. P., Paul, E. A. & Harwood, R. R. (2000). Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Science 289, 19221925.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roger-Estrade, J., Anger, C., Bertrand, M. & Richard, G. (2010). Tillage and soil ecology: partners for sustainable agriculture. Soil and Tillage Research 111, 3340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sainju, U. M., Singh, B. P. & Whitehead, W. F. (2002). Long-term effects of tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization on organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in sandy loam soils in Georgia, USA. Soil and Tillage Research 63, 167179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sainju, U. M., Senwo, Z. N., Nyakatawa, E. Z., Tazisong, I. A. & Reddy, K. C. (2008). Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration as affected by long-term tillage, cropping systems, and nitrogen fertilizer sources. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 127, 234240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sánchez-Girón, V., Serrano, A., Hernanz, J. L. & Navarrete, L. (2004). Economic assessment of three long-term tillage systems for rainfed cereal and legume production in semiarid central Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 78, 3544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schjønning, P. & Rasmussen, K. J. (2000). Soil strength and soil pore characteristics for direct drilled and ploughed soils. Soil and Tillage Research 57, 6982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmons, B. L. & Coleman, D. C. (2008). Microbial community response to transition from conventional to conservation tillage in cotton fields. Applied Soil Ecology 40, 518528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sisti, C. P. J., dos Santos, H. P., Kohhann, R., Alves, B. J. R., Urquiaga, S. & Boddey, R. M. (2004). Change in carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil under 13 years of conventional or zero tillage in southern Brazil. Soil and Tillage Research 76, 3958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Six, J., Elliott, E. T. & Paustian, K. (1999). Aggregate and soil organic matter dynamics under conventional and no-tillage systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63, 13501358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Six, J., Conant, R. T., Paul, E. A. & Paustian, K. (2002 a). Stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter: implications for C-saturation of soils. Plant and Soil 241, 155176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Six, J., Elliott, E. T. & Paustian, K. (2000 b). Soil macroaggregate turnover and microaggregate formation: a mechanism for C sequestration under no-tillage agriculture. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32, 20992103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Six, J., Feller, C., Denef, K., Ogle, S. M., de Moraes Sa, J. C. & Albrecht, A. (2002 c). Soil organic matter, biota and aggregation in temperate and tropical soils – effects of no-tillage. Agronomie 22, 755775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Six, J., Paustian, K., Elliott, E. T. & Combrink, C. (2000 d). Soil structure and organic matter. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64, 681689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Six, J., Ogle, S. M., Breidt, F. J., Conant, R. T., Mosier, A. R. & Paustian, K. (2004). The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practised in the long term. Global Change Biology 10, 155160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, P. (2004). Soils as carbon sinks: the global context. Soil Use and Management 20, 212218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sombrero, A. & de Benito, A. (2010). Carbon accumulation in soil. Ten-year study of conservation tillage and crop rotation in a semi-arid area of Castile-Leon, Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 107, 6470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stevenson, F. J. (1994). Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reactions, 2nd edn. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Stewart, C. E., Paustian, K., Conant, R. T., Plante, A. F. & Six, J. (2007). Soil carbon saturation: concept, evidence and evaluation. Biogeochemistry 86, 1931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strong, D. T., De Wever, H., Merckx, R. & Recous, S. (2004). Spatial location of carbon decomposition in the soil pore system. European Journal of Soil Science 55, 739750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Su, Z., Zhang, J., Wu, W., Cai, D., Lv, J., Jiang, G., Huang, J., Gao, J., Hartmann, R. & Gabriels, D. (2007). Effects of conservation tillage practices on winter wheat water-use efficiency and crop yield on the Loess Plateau, China. Agricultural Water Management 87, 307314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tisdall, J. M. & Oades, J. M. (1980). The effect of crop rotation on aggregation in a red-brown earth. Australian Journal of Soil Research 18, 423433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ugalde, D., Brungs, A., Kaebernick, M., McGregor, A. & Slattery, B. (2007). Implications of climate change for tillage practice in Australia. Soil and Tillage Research 97, 318330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ussiri, D. A. N. & Lal, R. (2009). Long-term tillage effects on soil carbon storage and carbon dioxide emissions in continuous corn cropping system from an alfisol in Ohio. Soil and Tillage Research 104, 3947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ussiri, D. A. N., Lal, R. & Jarecki, M. K. (2009). Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from long-term tillage under a continuous corn cropping system in Ohio. Soil and Tillage Research 104, 247255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Utomo, W. H. & Dexter, A. R. (1982). Changes in soil aggregate water stability induced by wetting and drying cycles in non-saturated soil. Journal of Soil Science 33, 623637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vakali, C., Zaller, J. G. & Köpke, U. (2011). Reduced tillage effects on soil properties and growth of cereals and associated weeds under organic farming. Soil and Tillage Research 111, 133141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van den Putte, A., Govers, G., Diels, J., Gillijns, K. & Demuzere, M. (2010). Assessing the effect of soil tillage on crop growth: a meta-regression analysis on European crop yields under conservation agriculture. European Journal of Agronomy 33, 231241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Varvel, G. E. & Wilhelm, W. W. (2011). No-tillage increases soil profile carbon and nitrogen under long-term rainfed cropping systems. Soil and Tillage Research 114, 2836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Venterea, R. T., Burger, M. & Spokas, K. A. (2005). Nitrogen oxide and methane emissions under varying tillage and fertilizer management. Journal of Environmental Quality 34, 14671477.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verhulst, N., Nelissen, V., Jespers, N., Haven, H., Sayre, K. D., Raes, D., Deckers, J. & Govaerts, B. (2011). Soil water content, maize yield and its stability as affected by tillage and crop residue management in rainfed semi-arid highlands. Plant and Soil 344, 7385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vogeler, I., Rogasik, J., Funder, U., Panten, K. & Schnug, E. (2009). Effect of tillage systems and P-fertilization on soil physical and chemical properties, crop yield and nutrient uptake. Soil and Tillage Research 103, 137143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, X.-B., Cai, D.-X., Hoogmoed, W. B., Oenema, O. & Perdok, U. D. (2006). Potential effect of conservation tillage on sustainable land use: a review of global long-term studies. Pedosphere 16, 587595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, X., Dai, K., Zhang, D., Zhang, X., Wang, Y., Zhao, Q., Cai, D., Hoogmoed, W. B. & Oenema, O. (2011). Dryland maize yields and water use efficiency in response to tillage/crop stubble and nutrient management practices in China. Field Crops Research 120, 4757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, X., Wu, H., Dai, K., Zhang, D., Feng, Z., Zhao, Q., Wu, X., Jin, K., Cai, D., Oenema, O. & Hoogmoed, W. B. (2012). Tillage and crop residue effects on rainfed wheat and maize production in northern China. Field Crops Research 132, 106116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
West, T. O. & Marland, G. (2002 a). Net carbon flux from agricultural ecosystems: methodology for full carbon cycle analyses. Environmental Pollution 116, 439444.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
West, T. O. & Marland, G. (2002 b). A synthesis of carbon sequestration, carbon emissions, and net carbon flux in agriculture: comparing tillage practices in the United States. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 91, 217232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
West, T. O. & Post, W. M. (2002). Soil organic carbon sequestration rates by tillage and crop rotation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 19301946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilhelm, W. W. & Wortmann, C. S. (2004). Tillage and rotation interactions for corn and soybean grain yield as affected by precipitation and air temperature. Agronomy Journal 96, 425432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, A. L. & Hons, F. M. (2005). Tillage impacts on soil aggregation and carbon and nitrogen sequestration under wheat cropping sequences. Soil and Tillage Research 84, 6775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, A. L., Hons, F. M., Lemon, R. G., McFarland, M. L. & Nichols, R. L. (2007). Stratification of nutrients in soil for different tillage regimes and cotton rotations. Soil and Tillage Research 96, 1927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wuest, S. B., Albrecht, S. L. & Skirvin, K. W. (2000). Crop residue position and interference with wheat seedling development. Soil and Tillage Research 55, 175182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, X.-M. & Wander, M. M. (1999). Tillage effects on soil organic carbon distribution and storage in a silt loam soil in Illinois. Soil and Tillage Research 52, 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, X. M., Drury, C. F., Reynolds, W. D. & Tan, C. S. (2008). Impacts of long-term and recently imposed tillage practices on the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon. Soil and Tillage Research 100, 120124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zanatta, J. A., Bayer, C., Dieckow, J., Vieira, F. C. B. & Mielniczuk, J. (2007). Soil organic carbon accumulation and carbon costs related to tillage, cropping systems and nitrogen fertilization in a subtropical Acrisol. Soil and Tillage Research 94, 510519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, G. S., Chan, K. Y., Oates, A., Heenan, D. P. & Huang, G. B. (2007). Relationship between soil structure and runoff/soil loss after 24 years of conservation tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 92, 122128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, S., Li, Q., Zhang, X., Wei, K., Chen, L. & Liang, W. (2012). Effects of conservation tillage on soil aggregation and aggregate binding agents in black soil of Northeast China. Soil and Tillage Research 124, 196202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu, Y.-G. & Miller, R. M. (2003). Carbon cycling by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil–plant systems. Trends in Plant Science 8, 407409.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zotarelli, L., Alves, B. J. R., Urquiaga, S., Boddey, R. M. & Six, J. (2007). Impact of tillage and crop rotation on light fraction and intra-aggregate soil organic matter in two Oxisols. Soil and Tillage Research 95, 196206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar