Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-sjtt6 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-23T07:42:35.208Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Greenhouse gas emissions from rice farming inputs: a cross-country assessment

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2009

T. N. MARASENI*
Affiliation:
Australian Centre for Sustainable Catchments, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
S. MUSHTAQ
Affiliation:
Australian Centre for Sustainable Catchments, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
J. MAROULIS
Affiliation:
Australian Centre for Sustainable Catchments, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
*
*To whom all correspondence should be addressed. Email: maraseni@usq.edu.au

Summary

Regardless of the irrigation system deployed, rice production requires a variety of farm energy inputs. The present study estimated and compared greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from rice farming practices, resulting from various farm inputs and irrigation systems in Pakistan, the Philippines, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Australia and the USA. Results indicate that, on aggregate, emissions related to farm machinery, fuels, agrochemicals and animal labour accounted for 0·018, 0·307, 0·666 and 0·008, respectively. Emissions from tubewell irrigation systems were the highest, followed by canal and rainfed irrigation systems. Average emissions from all selected countries with tubewell irrigation systems were 1·64 times greater than canal irrigation systems and 2·64 times greater than rainfed irrigation systems. When considering GHG emission efficiencies (emissions/kg of rice yield), developing countries were found to be less efficient than developed countries in both canal and tubewell irrigation systems. The relationship between GHG emissions and rice yield was statistically significant (P<0·01), with results indicating that a yield increase of 100 kg would increase GHG emissions by 16·51 kg CO2e (kg carbon dioxide equivalent).

Type
Crops and Soils
Copyright
Copyright © 2009 Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Barber, A. (2004). Seven Case Study Farms: Total Energy & Carbon Indicators for New Zealand Arable & Outdoor Vegetable Production. Auckland, New Zealand: AgriLINK New Zealand Ltd.Google Scholar
Bouwman, A. (2001). Global Estimates of Gaseous Emissions from Agricultural Land. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
Chauhan, N. S., Mohapatra, P. K. J. & Pandey, K. P. (2006). Improving energy productivity in paddy production through benchmarking: an application of data envelopment analysis. Energy Conversion and Management 47, 10631085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole, C. V., Duxbury, J., Freney, J., Heinemeyer, O., Minami, K., Mosier, A., Paustian, K., Rosenberg, N., Sampson, N., Sauerbeck, D. & Zhao, Q. (1997). Global estimates of potential mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 49, 221228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crutzen, P. J., Aselmann, I. & Seiler, W. (1986). Methane production by domestic animals, wild ruminants, other herbivorous fauna, and humans. Tellus 38B, 271284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalal, R. C., Wang, W., Robertson, G. P. & Parton, W. J. (2003). Nitrous oxide emission from Australian agricultural lands and mitigation options: a review. Australian Journal of Soil Research 41, 165195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eckard, R., Dalley, D. & Crawford, M. (2000). Impacts of potential management changes on greenhouse gas emissions and sequestration from dairy production systems in Australia. In Management Options for Carbon Sequestration in Forest, Agricultural and Rangeland Ecosystems (Eds Keenan, R., Bugg, A. L. & Ainslie, H.), pp. 5872. Workshop Proceedings, CRC for Greenhouse Accounting, 25 May 2000, Canberra: ANU.Google Scholar
FAO (2006). FAOSTAT accessed 8 July 2007 available online at http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/default.aspx (verified 13 Dec 2008).Google Scholar
Flessa, H., Ruser, R., Dorsch, P., Kamp, T., Jimenez, M. A., Munch, J. C. & Beese, F. (2002). Integrated evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) from two farming systems in southern Germany. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 91, 175189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Government of State of São Paulo (2004). Assessment of GHGs Gas Emissions in The Production and Use of Fuel Ethanol in Brazil. São Paulo, Brazil: Secretariat of the Environment.Google Scholar
Gower, S. T. (2003). Patterns and mechanisms of the forest carbon cycle. Annual Review of Environmental Resources 28, 169204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, P. & Williams, D. J. (2003). Optimal technological choices in meeting Australian energy policy goals. Energy Economics 25, 691712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, G. (2004). Farm Machinery Cost for Broadacre Cropping. Brisbane, Australia: Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries.Google Scholar
Helsel, Z. (1992). Energy and alternatives for fertiliser and pesticides use. In Energy in World Agriculture. (Ed Fluck, R. C.), pp. 177201. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Hülsbergen, K. J., Feil, B., Biermann, S., Rathke, G.-W., Kalk, W. D. & Diepenbrock, W. (2001). A method of energy balancing in crop production and its application in a long-term fertilizer trial. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 86, 303321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, S. & Dale, B. (2003). Cumulative energy and global warming impact from the production of biomass for Bio-based products. Journal of Industrial Ecology 7, 147162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindau, C. W., Bollich, P. K., Delaune, R. D., Mosier, A. R. & Bronson, K. F. (1993). Methane mitigation in flooded Louisiana rice fields. Biology and Fertility Soils 15, 174178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maharashtra Government (2006). Agriculture: Plough Bullocks. Mumbai, India: Maharashtra Government.Google Scholar
Maraseni, T. N., Cockfield, G. & Apan, A. (2007). A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from inputs into farm enterprises in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A 42, 1119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mudahar, M. S. & Hignett, T. P. (1987). Energy requirements, technology and resources in the fertilizer sector, energy in plant nutrition and pest control. In Energy in Plant Nutrition and Pest Control, Energy in World Agriculture (Ed Helsel, Z. R.), pp. 2561. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Sass, R. L., Fisher, F. M., Wang, Y. B., Turner, F. T. & Jund, M. F. (1992). Methane emission from rice fields: the effect of floodwater management. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 6, 249262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shapouri, H., Duffield, J. A. & Graboski, M. S. (1995). Estimating the Net Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol. Agricultural Economic Report No. 721. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
Smil, V. (1997). Global population and the nutrient cycle. Scientific American 277, 5863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, P., Martino, D., Cai, Z., Gwary, D., Janzen, H., Kumar, P., McCarl, B., Ogle, S., O'Mara, F., Rice, C., Scholes, B., Sirotenko, O., Howden, M., McAllister, T., Pan, G., Romanenkov, V., Schneider, U. & Towprayoon, S. (2007). Policy and technological constraints to implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation options in agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 118, 628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stout, B. A. (1990). Handbook of Energy for World Agriculture. London: Elsevier Science Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tuong, T. P. & Bouman, B. A. M. (2003). Rice production in water scarce environments. In Water Productivity in Agriculture: Limits and Opportunities for Improvement (Eds Kijne, J. W., Barker, R. & Molden, D.), pp. 5367. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
University of Arkansas (2006). Rice Production in Arkansas. Crop Production Budgets for Farm Planning 2006/07. Little Rock, Arkansas, USA: Division of Agriculture, University of Arkansas. Available online at http://www.aragriculture.org/crops/rice/budgets/2008/default.htm (verified 14 Dec 2008).Google Scholar
Us-Epa (2006). Global Anthropogenic Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 1990–2020. EPA 430-R-06-003. Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
Verge, X. P. C., de Kimpe, C. & Desjardins, R. L. (2007). Agricultural production, greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 142, 255269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vlek, P., Rodriguez-Khul, G. & Sommer, R. (2003). Energy use and CO2 production in tropical agriculture and means and strategies for reduction and mitigation. Environment, Development and Sustainability 6, 213233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wassmann, R., Neue, H. U., Ladha, J. K. & Aulakh, M. S. (2004). Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from rice–wheat cropping systems in Asia. Environment, Development and Sustainability 6, 6590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wells, C. (2001). Total Energy Indicators of Agricultural Sustainability: Dairy Farming Case Study. Wellington, USA: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.Google Scholar